The Nanoscale Impulse Radar from Novelda is a full radar transceiver integrated on a single piece of silicon. When connected the suitable antennas, the chip is capable of simultaneously transmitting ultra short electromagnetic pulses, sample the reflected signal and store it as a sequence of discrete samples. By parallelizing the sampling structure, the receiver is able to capture up to 512 points in one go. The resulting output is a digital reconstruction of the analog signal present at the input of the receiver, sampled at over 30 GS/s..8 watts peak to peak.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mqq9HrLqYJY&feature=player_embedded
Currently, commercial electronics use a top-down approach, with the milling or etching away of inorganic material, such as silicon, to make a device smaller.the efficiency of coupling electronic components to incoming or outgoing light (either in the generation of electricity from sunlight, or in the generation of light from electricity in flat-screen displays and lighting) is also fundamentally limited by the development of fabrication techniques at the nanometre scale (a nanometre being one billionth of a metre).The field of nanotechnology is taking a bottom-up approach of creating electronics using naturally self-assembling organic components, such as polymers, which will be capable of spontaneously forming devices with the desired electronic or optical characteristics.The latest findings are from scientists at the University of Cambridge and Rutgers University who are working on the development of new classes of organic thin films on surfaces. By studying the fundamental forces at play in self-assembling thin films,they are developing the knowledge that will allow them to tailor these films into molecular-scale organic-electronic devices, creating smaller components than would ever be possible with conventional fabrication techniques.http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/05/pentagonal-tiles-pave-way-towards.html
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v2/n3/abs/ncomms1256.htmlUsing ferromagnetic metal / silicon dioxide contacts on silicon, NRL scientists Connie Li, Olaf van 'tErve and Jonker electrically generate and detect spin accumulation and precession in the silicon transport channel at temperatures up to 225°C, and conclude that the spin information can be transported in the silicon over distances readily compatible with existing fabrication technology. They thus overcome a major obstacle in achieving control of the spin variable at temperatures required for practical applications in the most widely utilized semiconductor.
“Exploiting the full potential of graphene will have huge impacts on society at large. We are thrilled that the EU Commission shares our view and believes in our focused and open approach to moving forward, at a time when the international community, from United States to Korea, is moving significant resources to strengthen their know-how and facilitate the roadmap to applications.”
Cost per transistor are well below 1 cent US. We are currently at 22 nm standard chip fabrication.
What this means to end users (apart from more cores due to a smaller transistor size):- 37% faster CPU speeds when running at low power/low voltage (tablets, smart phones, netbooks)- 18% faster CPU speeds when running at high power/low voltage (desktop, server)- 1-2% more expensive compared to a normal process
More than a third of the solar energy on Earth arrives in the form of infrared light. But silicon -- the material that's used to convert sunlight into electricity in the vast majority of today's solar panels -- cannot capture infrared light's energy. Every semiconductor, including silicon, has a "bandgap" where light below a certain frequency passes directly through the material and is unable to generate an electrical current. By attaching a metal nanoantenna to the silicon, where the tiny antenna is specially tuned to interact with infrared light, the Rice team showed they could extend the frequency range for electricity generation into the infrared.When infrared light hits the antenna, it creates a "plasmon," a wave of energy that sloshes through the antenna's ocean of free electrons.http://www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6030/702.abstract?sid=65927ee1-2252-483a-8823-b82bab6b17f0http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/05/photodetection-with-active-optical.htmlAn optical antenna-diode for photodetection. (A) Band diagram for plasmonically driven internal photoemission over a nanoantenna-semiconductor Schottky barrier (ϕB). (B) Representation of a single Au resonant antenna on an n-type silicon substrate. (C) Scanning electron micrograph of a representative device array prior to ITO coating, imaged at a 65° tilt angleNanoantennas are key optical components for light harvesting; photodiodes convert light into a current of electrons for photodetection.We show that these two distinct, independent functions can be combined into the same structure. Photons coupled into a metallic nanoantenna excite resonant plasmons, which decay into energetic, “hot” electrons injected over a potential barrier at the nanoantenna-semiconductor interface, resulting in a photocurrent.This dual-function structure is a highly compact, wavelength-resonant, and polarization-specific light detector, with a spectral response extending to energies well below the semiconductor band edge. "There's no practical way to directly detect infrared light with silicon, but we've shown that it is possible if you marry the semiconductor to a nanoantenna. We expect this technique will be used in new scientific instruments for infrared-light detection and for higher-efficiency solar cells."
DuPont stated in a press release in May 2010 that they can produce a 50-inch OLED TV in two minutes with a new printing technology. If this can be scaled up in terms of manufacturing, then the total cost of OLED TVs would be greatly reduced. Dupont also states that OLED TVs made with this less expensive technology can last up to 15 years if left on for a normal eight hour day.OLED Association forecast on TVs* 2012 1 to 2 million 30-40 inch Television* 2013-2014 5 to 6 million 30-50 inch Television* 2015 10 to 15 million cost competitive Organic light emitting PanelsOLED technology supplies up to 270+ ppi resolution over larger screens.Samsung expects to sell 1 Billion OLED TV and mobile device displays in 5 Years. Samsung invest $2.2 billion to the 5.5 Gen OLED factory which starts production in 2012. Samsung Sang-Soo Kim also said that TV challenges will be met, and AMOLED will become the mainstream display technology for TVs by 2015.
An atomic-scale depiction of the SketchSET shows three wires (green bars) converging on the central island (center green area), which can house up to two electrons. Electrons tunnel from one wire to another through the island. Conditions on the third wire can result in distinct conductive properties. A University of Pittsburgh-led team has created a single-electron transistor that provides a building block for new, more powerful computer memories, advanced electronic materials, and the basic components of quantum computers.In addition, the tiny central island could be used as an artificial atom for developing new classes of artificial electronic materials, such as exotic superconductors with properties not found in natural materials, explained lead researcher Jeremy Levy, a professor of physics and astronomy in Pitt’s School of Arts and Sciences.Levy and his colleagues named their device SketchSET, or sketch-based single-electron transistor, after a technique developed in Levy’s lab in 2008 that works like a microscopic Etch A SketchTM, the drawing toy that inspired the idea.http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/04/pitt-led-researchers-create-super-small.html
http://newscenter.lbl.gov/news-releases/2011/04/18/plasmonic-resonances-in-semiconductor-nanocrystals/With its promise of superfast computers and ultrapowerful optical microscopes among the many possibilities, plasmonics has become one of the hottest fields in high-technology.The key to plasmonic properties is when the oscillation frequency between the plasmons and the incident photons matches, a phenomenon known as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Conventional scientific wisdom has held that LSPRs require a metal nanostructure , where the conduction electrons are not strongly attached to individual atoms or molecules. This has proved not to be the case .“We have demonstrated well-defined localized surface plasmon resonances arising from p-type carriers in vacancy-doped semiconductor quantum dots that should allow for plasmonic sensing and manipulation of solid-state processes in single nanocrystals,” says Berkeley Lab director Paul Alivisatos, a nanochemistry authority who led this research. “Our doped semiconductor quantum dots also open up the possibility of strongly coupling photonic and electronic properties, with implications for light harvesting, nonlinear optics, and quantum information processing.”“The use of single photons, in the form of quantized plasmons, would allow quantum systems to send information at nearly the speed of light, compared with the electron speed and resistance in classical systems,”
This is 20 times faster than before. These magnetic spikes are useful for storing data bits very densely.It is expected that the eventual speed can be improved by a factor of ten giving 50 Ghz static storage. http://www.mpg.de/1363412/vortex_cores_for_data_storage?filter_order=L
A newly discovered magnetic phenomenon could accelerate data storage by several orders of magnitude. The researchers have not only proven that magnetic reversal can take place in femtosecond timeframes, they have also derived a concrete technical application from it: “Translated to magnetic data storage, this would signify a read/write rate in the terahertz range. That would be around 1000 times faster than present-day commercial computers,” says Radu.The researchers needed an ultra-short laser pulse to heat the material and thus induce magnetic reversal. They also needed an equally short X-ray pulse to observe how the magnetization changed. This unique combination of a femtosecond laser and circular polarized, femtosecond X-ray light is available in one place in the world: at the synchrotron radiation source BESSY II in Berlin, Germany.In their experiment, the scientists studied an alloy of gadolinium, iron and cobalt (GdFeCo), in which the magnetic moments naturally align antiparallel. They fired a laser pulse lasting 60 femtoseconds at the GdFeCo and observed the reversal using the circular-polarized X-ray light, which also allowed them to distinguish the individual elements.What they observed came as a complete surprise: The Fe atoms already reversed their magnetization after 300 femtoseconds while the Gd atoms required five times as long to do so. That means the atoms were all briefly in parallel alignment, making the material strongly magnetized. “This is as strange as finding the north pole of a magnet reversing slower than the south pole,” says IlieRadu.http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature09901.htmlhttp://nextbigfuture.com/2011/04/new-magnetic-phenomena-could-eventually.html
Computer Tech Update
Gigahertz radar on chip• 5 x 5 mm radar transceiver chip for distance sensing – Nanosecond short pulses – Has 64 radar shells, can track up to 64 things at once. – It can also see through same materials at this frenquency range. – Can detect down to mm range
Organic Eletronics• Pentagonal tiles self assembly of organic building blocks – Ring like molecules with five fold symmetry • Copper substrate strong bonding • Weaker interaction with neighbors – Perfect for creating self assembling high-density thin films – Applications in computing, solar power, display technologies.
High Temperature SpintronicsCommercial (85 C), industrial (100 C), and military application (125 C)temperature viability achieved. Stable up to 235 C.Key step for general devices relying on electron spin rather than electroncharge.
$1.5 billion graphene R&D• Target at applications and manufacturability (European project)• Graphene advantages – High strength and flexibility • Twist and flex without breaking – High conductivity and optical transparency • Touchscreens, LCDs, OLEDs. Alternative to indium tin oxide