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The MAKING of the NATION 
The Origins
The Celts 
700 BC : arrived from north-west Germany 
 Fair or red–haired and blue-eyed 
 Tribal society 
 Skilled at w...
THE ROMANS 
• 55 BC Julius Caesar invaded Britain 
• 43-47 AD Emperor Claudius: actual 
conquest of the country 
• 409 AD ...
The Romans introduced: 
 Their culture, lifestyle and language : all absorbed by 
the Celts 
 Towns (e.g. “-chester” = c...
The ANGLO 
SAXONS 
A mixture of 
Germanic tribes 
made up of the 
ANGLES, the 
SAXONS and the 
JUTES 
(AD 449) 
coming fro...
Where did the Anglo Saxons settle? 
• The Saxons in the south & west 
• The Angles in the north and east 
• The Jutes Isle...
Who were the Anglo Saxons ? 
• Farmers looking for richer lands or deep sea 
fishermen 
• Lived mainly in small villages 
...
Old English 
Introduced by the Anglo Saxons 
The primitive stage of English language: 
Germanic language characterized by:...
Beowulf : an epic poem 
• Belongs to ORAL tradition 
• Written in OLD ENGLISH 
• UNKNOWN author 
• Saga set during the 6° ...
THE VIKINGS 
 btw VIII and IX century 
 came from DANEMARK, SWEDEN & NORWAY 
 were PIRATE RAIDERS 
 progressively conq...
The making of the nation 1
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The making of the nation 1

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The origin of English literature

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The making of the nation 1

  1. 1. The MAKING of the NATION The Origins
  2. 2. The Celts 700 BC : arrived from north-west Germany  Fair or red–haired and blue-eyed  Tribal society  Skilled at working iron  Lived on fishing , hunting and agriculture Druids Religion: worshipped natural elements Runes: inscriptions with magical function or meaning Best known monument: Stonehenge No literary works survived
  3. 3. THE ROMANS • 55 BC Julius Caesar invaded Britain • 43-47 AD Emperor Claudius: actual conquest of the country • 409 AD Roman soldiers left Britain to defend Rome against the Barbarian attack
  4. 4. The Romans introduced:  Their culture, lifestyle and language : all absorbed by the Celts  Towns (e.g. “-chester” = castra) connected by roads  Diffusion of Christianity HADRIAN’S WALL built in 121 AD to protect England against invasions from the Scots Romans took possession of much of England but never managed to conquer Ireland & Scotland.
  5. 5. The ANGLO SAXONS A mixture of Germanic tribes made up of the ANGLES, the SAXONS and the JUTES (AD 449) coming from Germany and the Jutland. Britons retreated to inner parts of Wales legend of KING ARTHUR : legendary hero fighting against invaders
  6. 6. Where did the Anglo Saxons settle? • The Saxons in the south & west • The Angles in the north and east • The Jutes Isle of Wight & nearby mainland dividing the country into SEVEN KINGDOMS
  7. 7. Who were the Anglo Saxons ? • Farmers looking for richer lands or deep sea fishermen • Lived mainly in small villages • Organized into family groups (CLAN) • Loyalty to the members and the lord • Exalted courage and freedom • Warlike race http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory /anglo_saxons/anglo-saxon_beliefs/
  8. 8. Old English Introduced by the Anglo Saxons The primitive stage of English language: Germanic language characterized by: German vocabulary (with some Latinate words) inflection some sounds which (had cases both for nouns and adjectives no longer exist ; e.g. Saxon genitive)
  9. 9. Beowulf : an epic poem • Belongs to ORAL tradition • Written in OLD ENGLISH • UNKNOWN author • Saga set during the 6° century • Myths and heroes dear to Anglo Saxons • Pagan world: ideals of HEROISM, LOYALTY, GENEROSITY • Sprinkled with some Christian elements e.g. STRUGGLE vs EVIL (Anglo Saxon convereted to Christianity)
  10. 10. THE VIKINGS  btw VIII and IX century  came from DANEMARK, SWEDEN & NORWAY  were PIRATE RAIDERS  progressively conquered parts of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.  King Alfred the Great (Anglo Saxon) fought against them divided England North-east +Midlands= Danelaw South: Anglo Saxon rulership

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