Lewin’s Force Field Analysis Model Restraining Desired ForcesConditions Restraining Forces Driving Restraining Forces Forces Driving Forces Current DrivingConditions Forces Before During After Change Change Change
DRIVING FORCES: Forces affecting a situation that are pushing in a Restrainingparticular direction. ForcesExamples: improving productivity in a work group,competition and pressure from supervisor.RESTRAINING FORCES: Driving Forces Forces acting to restrain or decrease the drivingforces Examples: poor maintenance of equipment. Lack oftraining. EQUILIBRIUM DRIVING FORCES = RESTRAINING FORCES
LEWIN’S 3 STAGES MODEL: 1. UNFREEZING 2. CHANGING- Recognize the need for - Identify new behaviors & normschange -Communicate- Identifying driving & - Adopt new attitudes & cultureresisting forces 3. REFREEZING - Reinforce new behavior through reward system, communication, structures
Are you a resistor?• Resistance is where you try to maintain the status quo and do not accept change!• The refusal to accept or comply with something; the attempt to prevent something by action or argument.
1. Resistance incidents are causes of deeper problem in the change process.- Change agent do not provided fully information- Employees worried about consequences of change- Concern about process of change itself
2. Resistance should be recognized as a form of constructive conflict.- Employees developed better decision- Accompany by Dysfunctional relationship conflict - Change agent see resistance to change as impediment rather than a sources. - Should focus on understanding why those people resist.
3. Resistance view as justice and motivation context.Justice- A form of voice : improve procedural justice- Change agent : increase employee perception +fairnessMotivation- Engage people to think about the change strategy and process.
Direct cost• Higher expenses and lower benefit or wages. Saving face• Taking preventive actions so that you, yourself will not be humiliated.
Fear of unknown afraid of entering and exploring the new ground, because they think they might fail to adopt new change Breaking routine• People do not want to give up their comfort zone and daily routine that provide predictability. E.g. Government worker who go to work 8.00am till 5.00p.m.
Incongruent team dynamics• Team norm may conflict with the desired change & consequently reinforced to maintaining status quo. Incongruent organizational systems• Control system for rewards, training, etc are harder to change and might not adapt quickly to the new system so may discouraging employee to adapt the change.
Creating an Urgency for Change• Customer-driven change. Adverse consequences for firm Human element energizes employees• Creating an urgency for change without external forces. Requires persuasive influence Use positive vision rather than threats
Minimizing Resistance to Change Communication Learning Employee Involvement• Highest priority and • Where there is a lack of • Employees participate first strategy for information. in change process. change. • Provides new • Involve as many• Undoubtedly have knowledge/skills. employees as possible . reporting staff about • Includes coaching and • Explain why a change is the changes. other forms of learning. necessary.• Spend time discussing • Helps break old • Helps saving face and how to implement the routines and adopt new reducing fear of change. roles. unknown.• Improves urgency to • Problems- potentially • Includes task change. time consuming and forces, future search• Reduces uncertainty. costly. events.• Problems- time • Problems- time consuming and costly. consuming, potential conflict.
Stress management Negotiation Coercion• How to cope with • Influence by • When all else fails. change depends on exchange- reduces • Assertive influence. how we control the direct costs. • Radical form of feel. • May be necessary “unlearning”.• When communication, when people clearly • Problems- reduces learning and lose something and trust, may create involvement are not won’t otherwise more subtle enough to minimize support change. resistance, encourage stress. • Problems- expensive politics to protect job• Potential benefits; - and gains compliance more motivation to and also not change, -less fear of commitment. unknown, -fewer direct costs• Problems- time consuming, doesn’t help everyone.
Change Agents anyone who possess enough knowledge and power to guide and facilitate the change effortEngaged in transformational leader:- Develop vision- Communicate vision- Act consistently with the vision- Build commitment to the vision
Strategic Vision- Provides direction- Establish critical success factors againstwhich the real changes are evaluate.- Provides emotional foundation tochange- Minimizes fear of unknown- Clarifies role perceptions
Diffusion of Change-Transformation process begin withPilot Project.- Approach: • Flexible • Less Risky • High probability of success- Effective diffusion considers MarsModel
-Motivation: • Successful, recognition, rewards • Require supervisor support and reinforcement of desire behaviors • minimizes the resistance-Ability: • Skills and knowledge to adapt-Role Perception: • Understand practices apply-Situational Factors: • Resources, time
Action ResearchAppreciative 4 Approaches Parallel Inquiry to Learning (Four-D Organizational Changes Structure Model) Large Group Intervention
Action Research Approach Action Orientation Action Research Approach Research Orientation
Action Research ProcessForm client- Diagnose Evaluate Disengage Introduceconsultant the need for and stabilize consultant’s interventionrelationship change change services
Appreciative Inquiry Approach• An organizational change strategy that :directs the group’s attention away from it’s own problemsfocuses participants on the group’s potential and positive elements. (Textbook, page: 458)
The Four-D Model of Appreciative Inquiry1. Discovery 2. Dreaming 3. Designing 4. Delivering • Identifying • Envisioning • Engaging • Developing the best of “what in dialogue objectives “what is” might be” about about “what “what will should be” be”
Large-Group Interventions• Future search, open space, and other interventions that involve “the whole system”• There are some limitations of large group interventions
PARALLEL LEARNING STRUCTURE APPROACHES• Known as “communities of practice”• Advantages:1. It brings underutilized but talented employees to the forefront.• Roundtable session are a knowledge- sharing tool at the heart of parallel learning structure.