DESIGN AND REDESIGN OF WORK SYSTEMTHREE PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGNING JOBS: 1. WHAT Workers DO Allocating specific tasks and job responsibilities to employees a. Job specialization : Can be viable strategy for the design of work systems in organization that require high levels of efficiency and cost minimized in order to compete effectively. b. Job enlargement : Provides some variety by increasing the number of tasks, activity or jobs to help alleviate the boredom of highly specialized work. c. Job rotation Workers rotate across different specialized positions within the organization. Employees are exposure to different roles and functions within an organization. d. Job enrichment Initiates involve going beyond merely adding tasks to employee’s jobs. Job enrichment involves increasing the amount of responsibility employee has. e. vertical loading Initiates involve the task before this formally done by supervisor as reassigned to the employees.
CORE JOB CHARACTERISTICS: impact certain work-related outcomes and employeepsychological states.1. Skill variety The work allows the employees use a variety of skills in the jobs.2. Task identity The work allows an employee to complete the whole or identifiable piece of work.3. Task significance : The extent to which the employees perceive that her work is important and meaningful to those in the organization or those outside of the organization.4. Autonomy The extent to which the employee is able to work on her own free of supervision5. Feedback : The extent to which the work allows the employee to gain a sense of how well the job responsibilities are being met.
2. WHAT WORKERS NEED : A number of important universal considerations in designing work systems to ensure that workers are motivated, productive and happy. 1. Changing demographics and lifestyles of the labor market Employee expects their employer to understand their needs and respect them as individuals. Worker needs will vary among and between those of different age groups, genders, races, religions, physical abilities, sexual orientations, and marital and family status. 2. Work/life balance Younger employees are far less loyal to their employers. Organization must provide their employees with balance work. For example stress management programs, physical health, wellness program, flexible working hour. 3. Ensuring the employees has some form of representative, or VOICE. Highly skilled and trained workers want to make contribution to the organization, and they expect the organization to listen to their concerns. Work system need to be designed so employees have sufficient voice to allow them to contribute their perspective and expertise.
4. Workplace safety Dealing with hazardous product and unsafe physical may dangerous to the employees. Organization should aware about the safety of the employees. The employees who spend significant amount of time at their desks with computer may also be affected in long terms. Ergonomic design of worksites needs to be implementing in design of job. Work system and jobs need to be designed to be consistent with employee’s physical abilities and allow them to perform their jobs without any undue risks.3. HOW JOBS INTERFACE WITH OTHER JOB 1. POOLED INTERDEPENDENCE 2. SEQUENTIAL INTERDEPENDENCE 3. RECIPROCAL INTERDEPENDENCE KEY STRATEGIC CHALLENGE IN DESIGNING AND STAFFING JOBS: Ensuring an OPTIMAL FIT between the needs of employees and the needs of the organization.