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Lecture about Agranulocytosis... (Serdest Tasdelen)

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  1. 1. Agranulocytosis Serdest TASDELEN Researcher - Student in NMU 2016 Kiev/Ukraine
  2. 2. Definitions • Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.It is a severe lack of one major class of infection-fighting white blood cells. People with this condition are at very high risk of serious infections due to their suppressed immune system.In agranulocytosis, the concentration of granulocytes (a major class of white blood cells that includes neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) drops below 500 cells/mm³ of blood.
  3. 3. Agranulocytosis is an uncommon condition in which bone marrow doesn’t make enough neutrophils. Neutrophils are white blood cells your body needs to fight infections. They make up the largest portion of white blood cells in your body.
  4. 4. SECONDARY DISEASE sometimes can be observed like
  5. 5. Classification Agranulocytosis can be congenital, meaning you’re born with the condition. You can also acquire it from certain drugs or medical procedures. Congenital Acquired
  6. 6. What causes agranulocytosis? Agranulocytosis can be congenital, meaning you’re born with the condition. Common causes of acquired agranulocytosis or neutropenia include: • chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant (or preparation for a bone marrow transplant) • certain medications – including some anti-psychotics and some medications for an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) • an autoimmune disorder (where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues) – such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis • a bone marrow disease – such as myelodysplasia (where blood cells do not develop properly) or leukaemia • certain infections – including HIV and hepatitis
  7. 7. What Are the Symptoms of Agranulocytosis? The early symptoms of agranulocytosis may include: • sudden fever • chills • sore throat • weakness in your limbs • HIGH FEVER • mouth ulcers • bleeding gums Other signs and symptoms of agranulocytosis can include: • fast heart rate • rapid breathing • low blood pressure • skin abscesses
  8. 8. Candidiasis AIDS, Diabetes, Immunosuppression disorders (Neutropenia, Agranulocytosis, Leukemia and leukocyte dysfunction), and use of antibiotics.
  9. 9. Diagnosis • The Cheapest Investigation ! • BLOOD ANALYSIS
  10. 10. Diagnosis The diagnosis is made after a complete blood count, a routine blood test. The absolute neutrophil count in this test will be below 500, and can reach 0 cells/ mm³. Other kinds of blood cells are typically present in normal numbers. To formally diagnose agranulocytosis, other pathologies with a similar presentation must be excluded, such as aplastic anemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, myelodysplasia and leukemias.
  11. 11. To be precise, neutropenia is the term normally used to describe absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) of less than 500 cells per microlitre, whereas agranulocytosis is reserved for cases with ANCs of less than 100 cells per microlitre. The following terms can be used to specify the type of granulocyte referenced: • Inadequate numbers of neutrophils: neutropenia (most common) • Inadequate numbers of eosinophils: eosinopenia (uncommon) • Inadequate numbers of basophils: basopenia (very rare)
  12. 12. Treatment If agranulocytosis has arisen from an underlying illness, that condition will be treated first. If a drug needed for another condition causes agranulocytosis, your doctor may prescribe a substitute treatment. If you’re taking several different drugs, you may need to stop taking them. This could be the only way to find what medication is causing the problem. Your doctor may advise you to take antibiotics or antifungal drugs to treat infection. A treatment called a colony-stimulating factor can be used for some people, such as those who have acquired agranulocytosis from chemotherapy. This treatment encourages the bone marrow to produce more neutrophils. It can be used along with your chemotherapy cycles. Although not widely used, a transfusion of neutrophils may be the best treatment for some.
  13. 13. Antibiotics—These drugs often are used to prevent bacterial infections. Stopping medication thought to cause the disease—The doctor may tell you to stop taking the drug for a while to see if you improve. Recovery usually occurs within 10 to 14 days. A different medication may be substituted for the original. If there is no substitute, and your condition is not severe, you might be told to take the drug again while you are monitored closely by your doctor. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor—If other methods do not work, you might need to take shots of a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more granulocytes. This hormone is known as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and is made by the body. There is also a synthetic version. Studies show that G-CSF can reduce the seriousness of neutropenia (low number of neutrophils) in patients with some cancers. Three forms of G-CSF are available: Neupogen® (filgrastim), Neulasta® (pegfilgrastim, a long acting form of filgrastim), and Granocyte® (lenograstim). Immune suppression----When an autoimmune cause is suspected, immune suppressing medications such as prednisone may be used. Bone marrow transplants—For cases that do not respond to other types of treatment, a bone marrow transplant may be needed if a donor can be found. Bone marrow transplants generally yield the best outcomes for patients who are under 40 years old and are in good health. General measures----Avoid contact with people who have infections and stay away from crowds. Avoid fruits and vegetable which cannot be peeled. Avoid cut flowers or working in the soil.
  14. 14. –Anonim “Laughing is the best medicine.But if you’re laughing for no reason, you need medicine…”
  15. 15. References ( 1 Jump up 
 ^ eMedicine/Stedman Medical Dictionary [permanent dead link] 2 Jump up 
 ^ Neutropenia at eMedicine 3 Jump up 
 ^ Kumar, Vinay (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8 ed.). 441: Elsevier. 4 Jump up 
 ^ Andersohn F, Konzen C, Garbe E (May 2007). "Systematic review: agranulocytosis induced by nonchemotherapy drugs". Ann. Intern. Med. 146 (9): 657–65. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-146-9-200705010-00009. PMID 17470834. 5 Jump up 
 ^ Elisa Mari; Franco Ricci; Davide Imberti; Massimo Gallerani (June 2011). "Agranulocytosis: an adverse effect of allopurinol treatment". Italian Journal of Medicine. 5 (2): 120–3. doi:10.1016/j.itjm.2011.02.006. 6 Jump up 
 ^ Diaz, Jaime (1996). How Drugs Influence Behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0132815605. 7 Jump up 
 ^ U.S. Department of Justice; National Drug Intelligence Center (February 2010). "Colombian Cocaine Producers Increase Use of a Harmful Cutting Agent". National Drug Threat Assessment 2010. 8 Jump up 
 ^ "Agranulocytosis associated with cocaine use — four States, March 2008–November 2009". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58 (49): 1381–5. December 2009. PMID 20019655. Cited in Hsu, Jeremy (18 December 2009). "Majority of U.S. Cocaine Supply Cut with Veterinary Deworming Drug". Popular Science. ( ) • National Organization for Rare Disorders. Acquired Agranulocytosis. Accessed 10/11/2013. • Khalil Al-Jauni, S. Egypt. J. Med. Hum. Genet. Vol. 11, No. 1, May, 2010 Retrieved via Severe congenital neutropenia (Kostmann Syndrome). Accessed 10/11/2013. • Young NS. Chapter 107. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. Aplastic Anemia, Myelodysplasia, and Related Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes. Accessed March 12, 2013. • Ibáñez L, Vidal X, Ballarín E, Laporte J. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(8):869-874. doi:10.1001/archinte.165.8.869 Retrieved via Population-Based Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis. Accessed 10/11/2013. © Copyright 1995-2013 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. –Serdest Tasdelen “Science should be shared with person who has interested in it…” That’s WHY You can download that slide ,from :