SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 17
Download to read offline
Perfume
Presented By:
Seraj Alam Siddique
M. Pharm (2nd Semester)
Pharmaceutics
Introduction
 Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oil
and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents
used to give the human body, objects, and
l i v i n g s p a c e s a p l e a s a n t s m e l l .
 Perfume is associated in many cultures with
the sensual and romantic side of life.
Background
 Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or
enhance their own body odour by using perfume, which emulates nature's
pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to
make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and
cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry,
temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on
a n y t w o p e o p l e .
 Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fumum," or
"smoke." Many ancient perfumes were made by extracting natural oils from
plants through pressing and steaming. The oil was then burned to scent the
air. Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are
even perfumed with industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to
a p p e a r " u n s c e n t e d . "
 While fragrant liquids used for the body are often considered perfume, true
perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of
oil distilled in alcohol. Water is also used. The United States is the world's
largest perfume market with annual sales totaling several billions of
d o l l a r s .
CLASSIFICATION OF PERFUMES
• Perfumes are classified into five major groups on the
basis of concentration of fragrance and duration of
lasting.
class % of aromatic
compound
Duration in
hours
Parfume(perfume
)
20-30 6-8
Eau de parfume 15-20 4-5
Eau de toilette 5-15 2-3
Eau de cologne 2-4 2
Eau fraiche 1-3 2
AROMATIC SOURCES
 Fragrances used in perfume can be found from
following sources:
a) Plant Source:
Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin, roots,
seeds, woods etc.
b) Animal Source:
Musk, civet, honeycomb etc.
c) Synthetic Source:
Calone, synthetic terpenes etc.
COMPOSITION OF PERFUME
 Perfumes are mainly composed of –
1.Essential oils:
Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts and/or synthetic
aromatic chemicals. E.g. limonene, linalool, geraniol, citral etc.
2. Fixatives:
Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the
evaporation rate. E.g. benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol etc.
3. Solvents:
The liquid in which the perfume oil is dissolved in is
usually 98% ethanol and 2% water.
Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not
permit microbial growth in the perfume.
INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC
REACTION
Ingredients Use Side effects
Sandalwood Fragrance Hypersensitivity
limonene Slightly astringent
smell
Irritates the skin
Benzyl alcohol Fixative Skin irritant causing
redness and pain
Benzyl benzoate Fixative; sweet
balsamic odour
Skin irritation like
blister,
itching, scaling,
redness.
acetone Solvent Inhalation cause
dryness
of mouth & throat
Ethyl acetate solvent Defatting effect on
skin
& may cause drying &
cracking
The Manufacturing Process
 Collection
 1 Before the manufacturing process begins, the initial ingredients must be
brought to the manufacturing center. Plant substances are harvested from
around the world, often hand-picked for their fragrance. Animal products are
obtained by extracting the fatty substances directly from the animal.
Aromatic chemicals used in synthetic perfumes are created in the laboratory
b y p e r f u m e c h e m i s t s .
 Extraction
 Oils are extracted from plant substances by several methods: steam
distillation, solvent extraction, enfleurage, maceration, and expression.
 2 In steam distillation, steam is passed through plant material held in a still,
whereby the essential oil turns to gas. This gas is then passed through tubes,
cooled, and liquefied. Oils can also be extracted by boiling plant substances
l i k e f l o w e r p e t a l s i n w a t e r i n s t e a d o f s t e a m i n g t h e m .
The Manufacturing Process
 3. Under solvent extraction, flowers are put into large rotating tanks or
drums and benzene or a petroleum ether is poured over the flowers,
extracting the essential oils. The flower parts dissolve in the solvents
and leave a waxy material that contains the oil, which is then placed in
ethyl alcohol. The oil dissolves in the alcohol and rises. Heat is used to
evaporate the alcohol, which once fully burned off, leaves a higher
concentration of the perfume oil on the bottom.
The Manufacturing Process
 4 During Enfleurage, flowers are spread on glass sheets coated with
grease. The glass sheets are placed between wooden frames in tiers.
Then the flowers are removed by hand and changed until the grease has
a b s o r b e d t h e i r f r a g r a n c e .
 5 Maceration is similar to enfleurage except that warmed fats are used
to soak up the flower smell. As in solvent extraction, the grease and fats
a r e d i s s o l v e d i n a l c o h o l t o o b t a i n t h e e s s e n t i a l o i l s
 6. Expression is the oldest and least complex method of
extraction. By this process, now used in obtaining citrus oils from
the rind, the fruit or plant is manually or mechanically pressed
until all the oil is squeezed out.
ATTAR
 Attar is a perfume or essential oil obtained from flowers or
petals (often from bark or leaves). It is mainly used in religious
purpose.
 The word "attar" comes from the word `atir, which in the
Persian language means "sweet or fragrant.“
 Attars are alcohol-free and are used by many Muslim men and
women.
 Attars are also used among Hindu, Buddhist meditation
practices.
PSYCHOLOGY OF USING PERFUME
 When we inhale the odorant molecules of a perfume, it not
only creates the sensation of odour but also creates emotions
and experiences associated with it. For instance, we focus
on the pleasant childhood memories associated with the
smell of vanilla.
 Stimulation of hippocampus causes secretion of growth
hormone, sex hormone and neurotransmitters.
 Another reason behind perfume use is to increase ones
attractiveness in the eyes of other people.
 We wear a perfume which best expresses our individuality,
our tastes and our character.
 Perfume using may become a habit and without it a person
may feel incomplete.
OTHER REASONS OF USING PERFUME
 To mask body odour
 To complement one’s mood and please one’s senses
 Helps to get rid of anxiety and depression
 To deepen spirituality
 To soothe someone
 For religious purpose
 To be fresh and chilled all day long
BRANDS AVAILABLE IN INDIA
Brand product
Calvin Klein a. Be
b. Obsession
c. Eternity
d. One
Gucci a. Gucci Envy
b. Made to
Measure
c. Gucci by Gucci
Mont Blac a. Presence
b. Farrari
Brand product
Paris Hilton a. Heiress
b. Dazzle
c. Just Me
Blue lady Blue lady
Calvin Klein a. Beauty
b. Eternity
c. Euphoria
Brands Available For Men Brands Available For woMen
The Future
 Perfumes today are being made and used in different ways than in previous
centuries. Perfumes are being manufactured more and more frequently with
synthetic chemicals rather than natural oils. Less concentrated forms of perfume
are also becoming increasingly popular. Combined, these factors decrease the
cost of the scents, encouraging more widespread and frequent, often daily, use.
 Using perfume to heal, make people feel good, and improve relationships
between the sexes are the new frontiers being explored by the industry. The
sense of smell is considered a right brain activity, which rules emotions,
memory, and creativity. Aromatherapy—smelling oils and fragrances to cure
physical and emotional problems—is being revived to help balance hormonal and
body energy. The theory behind aromatherapy states that using essential oils
helps bolster the immune system when inhaled or applied topically. Smelling
sweet smells also affects one's mood and can be used as a form of
p s y c h o t h e r a p y .
s .
Perfume

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Perfume m pharmacy notes scop satara
Perfume m pharmacy notes scop sataraPerfume m pharmacy notes scop satara
Perfume m pharmacy notes scop satara
 
PERFUMES & PERFUME INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC REACTION
PERFUMES   &  PERFUME   INGREDIENTS  CAUSING   ALLERGIC   REACTIONPERFUMES   &  PERFUME   INGREDIENTS  CAUSING   ALLERGIC   REACTION
PERFUMES & PERFUME INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC REACTION
 
Fragrances Chemistry
Fragrances ChemistryFragrances Chemistry
Fragrances Chemistry
 
perfumes
perfumesperfumes
perfumes
 
Perfume new
Perfume newPerfume new
Perfume new
 
Perfumery presentation
Perfumery presentationPerfumery presentation
Perfumery presentation
 
Analysis of perfumes and deodorants
Analysis of perfumes and deodorantsAnalysis of perfumes and deodorants
Analysis of perfumes and deodorants
 
Perfume
PerfumePerfume
Perfume
 
Perfume
PerfumePerfume
Perfume
 
Lipstick
LipstickLipstick
Lipstick
 
Perfumes
PerfumesPerfumes
Perfumes
 
PERFUMES AND EU REGULATION CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATION
PERFUMES AND EU REGULATION CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATIONPERFUMES AND EU REGULATION CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATION
PERFUMES AND EU REGULATION CLASSIFICATION AND APPLICATION
 
Aftershave lotion preparation
Aftershave lotion preparationAftershave lotion preparation
Aftershave lotion preparation
 
Perfumes
PerfumesPerfumes
Perfumes
 
Shampoo
ShampooShampoo
Shampoo
 
Fragrance
FragranceFragrance
Fragrance
 
Eye liner and eye shadow
Eye liner and eye shadowEye liner and eye shadow
Eye liner and eye shadow
 
Fragrances
FragrancesFragrances
Fragrances
 
Mascara
MascaraMascara
Mascara
 
Current trends in herbal cosmetics
Current trends in herbal cosmeticsCurrent trends in herbal cosmetics
Current trends in herbal cosmetics
 

Similar to Perfume

seminar report1.pptx
seminar report1.pptxseminar report1.pptx
seminar report1.pptxOdebodeJoseph
 
Perfumes, Classification, Perfume Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regul...
Perfumes, Classification, Perfume Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regul...Perfumes, Classification, Perfume Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regul...
Perfumes, Classification, Perfume Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regul...SimranDhiman12
 
Essential oils chemistry
Essential oils chemistryEssential oils chemistry
Essential oils chemistrySarachii
 
Fragrances – Mystic of Perfumes I Fragrances Insight
Fragrances – Mystic of Perfumes I Fragrances InsightFragrances – Mystic of Perfumes I Fragrances Insight
Fragrances – Mystic of Perfumes I Fragrances Insightselfcareveda
 
HERBS USED IN AROMATHERAPY
HERBS USED IN AROMATHERAPYHERBS USED IN AROMATHERAPY
HERBS USED IN AROMATHERAPYHimanshu Makwana
 
Perfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.pptx
Perfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.pptxPerfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.pptx
Perfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.pptxPrasanthiBoddu1
 
Introduction To Aromatherapy.ppt
Introduction To Aromatherapy.pptIntroduction To Aromatherapy.ppt
Introduction To Aromatherapy.pptSendyAndrela
 
Aromatherapy- Durgashree Diwakar
Aromatherapy- Durgashree DiwakarAromatherapy- Durgashree Diwakar
Aromatherapy- Durgashree DiwakarDurgashree Diwakar
 
Unani Aromatherapy concepts and tradition .ppt
Unani Aromatherapy concepts and tradition .pptUnani Aromatherapy concepts and tradition .ppt
Unani Aromatherapy concepts and tradition .pptDrMudasir2
 
Essential oils u nmedicating woman's emotions
Essential oils u nmedicating woman's emotionsEssential oils u nmedicating woman's emotions
Essential oils u nmedicating woman's emotionsTina Criscione
 
Aromatherapy Benefits King of Prussia, PA
Aromatherapy Benefits King of Prussia, PAAromatherapy Benefits King of Prussia, PA
Aromatherapy Benefits King of Prussia, PAleonsmclean
 

Similar to Perfume (20)

seminar report1.pptx
seminar report1.pptxseminar report1.pptx
seminar report1.pptx
 
Perfume
PerfumePerfume
Perfume
 
Perfumes, Classification, Perfume Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regul...
Perfumes, Classification, Perfume Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regul...Perfumes, Classification, Perfume Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regul...
Perfumes, Classification, Perfume Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regul...
 
Essential oils chemistry
Essential oils chemistryEssential oils chemistry
Essential oils chemistry
 
Information about Essential Oils
Information about Essential OilsInformation about Essential Oils
Information about Essential Oils
 
Fragrances – Mystic of Perfumes I Fragrances Insight
Fragrances – Mystic of Perfumes I Fragrances InsightFragrances – Mystic of Perfumes I Fragrances Insight
Fragrances – Mystic of Perfumes I Fragrances Insight
 
HERBS USED IN AROMATHERAPY
HERBS USED IN AROMATHERAPYHERBS USED IN AROMATHERAPY
HERBS USED IN AROMATHERAPY
 
Perfumes
PerfumesPerfumes
Perfumes
 
Perfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.pptx
Perfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.pptxPerfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.pptx
Perfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.pptx
 
Medicinal herbs (Erasmus project)
Medicinal herbs (Erasmus project)Medicinal herbs (Erasmus project)
Medicinal herbs (Erasmus project)
 
Introduction To Aromatherapy.ppt
Introduction To Aromatherapy.pptIntroduction To Aromatherapy.ppt
Introduction To Aromatherapy.ppt
 
Introduction To Aromatherapy.ppt
Introduction To Aromatherapy.pptIntroduction To Aromatherapy.ppt
Introduction To Aromatherapy.ppt
 
Aceites esenciales
Aceites esencialesAceites esenciales
Aceites esenciales
 
Aromatherapy- Durgashree Diwakar
Aromatherapy- Durgashree DiwakarAromatherapy- Durgashree Diwakar
Aromatherapy- Durgashree Diwakar
 
VOLATILE OILS.pptx
VOLATILE OILS.pptxVOLATILE OILS.pptx
VOLATILE OILS.pptx
 
Perfume
PerfumePerfume
Perfume
 
Unani Aromatherapy concepts and tradition .ppt
Unani Aromatherapy concepts and tradition .pptUnani Aromatherapy concepts and tradition .ppt
Unani Aromatherapy concepts and tradition .ppt
 
Essential oils u nmedicating woman's emotions
Essential oils u nmedicating woman's emotionsEssential oils u nmedicating woman's emotions
Essential oils u nmedicating woman's emotions
 
Aromatherapy Benefits King of Prussia, PA
Aromatherapy Benefits King of Prussia, PAAromatherapy Benefits King of Prussia, PA
Aromatherapy Benefits King of Prussia, PA
 
Herbs and spices
Herbs and spicesHerbs and spices
Herbs and spices
 

Recently uploaded

BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEMISSRITIMABIOLOGYEXP
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceDr Vijay Vishwakarma
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6Vanessa Camilleri
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 

Perfume

  • 1. Perfume Presented By: Seraj Alam Siddique M. Pharm (2nd Semester) Pharmaceutics
  • 2. Introduction  Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oil and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and l i v i n g s p a c e s a p l e a s a n t s m e l l .  Perfume is associated in many cultures with the sensual and romantic side of life.
  • 3. Background  Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own body odour by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on a n y t w o p e o p l e .  Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fumum," or "smoke." Many ancient perfumes were made by extracting natural oils from plants through pressing and steaming. The oil was then burned to scent the air. Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are even perfumed with industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to a p p e a r " u n s c e n t e d . "  While fragrant liquids used for the body are often considered perfume, true perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of oil distilled in alcohol. Water is also used. The United States is the world's largest perfume market with annual sales totaling several billions of d o l l a r s .
  • 4. CLASSIFICATION OF PERFUMES • Perfumes are classified into five major groups on the basis of concentration of fragrance and duration of lasting. class % of aromatic compound Duration in hours Parfume(perfume ) 20-30 6-8 Eau de parfume 15-20 4-5 Eau de toilette 5-15 2-3 Eau de cologne 2-4 2 Eau fraiche 1-3 2
  • 5. AROMATIC SOURCES  Fragrances used in perfume can be found from following sources: a) Plant Source: Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin, roots, seeds, woods etc. b) Animal Source: Musk, civet, honeycomb etc. c) Synthetic Source: Calone, synthetic terpenes etc.
  • 6. COMPOSITION OF PERFUME  Perfumes are mainly composed of – 1.Essential oils: Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts and/or synthetic aromatic chemicals. E.g. limonene, linalool, geraniol, citral etc. 2. Fixatives: Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the evaporation rate. E.g. benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol etc. 3. Solvents: The liquid in which the perfume oil is dissolved in is usually 98% ethanol and 2% water. Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not permit microbial growth in the perfume.
  • 7. INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC REACTION Ingredients Use Side effects Sandalwood Fragrance Hypersensitivity limonene Slightly astringent smell Irritates the skin Benzyl alcohol Fixative Skin irritant causing redness and pain Benzyl benzoate Fixative; sweet balsamic odour Skin irritation like blister, itching, scaling, redness. acetone Solvent Inhalation cause dryness of mouth & throat Ethyl acetate solvent Defatting effect on skin & may cause drying & cracking
  • 8. The Manufacturing Process  Collection  1 Before the manufacturing process begins, the initial ingredients must be brought to the manufacturing center. Plant substances are harvested from around the world, often hand-picked for their fragrance. Animal products are obtained by extracting the fatty substances directly from the animal. Aromatic chemicals used in synthetic perfumes are created in the laboratory b y p e r f u m e c h e m i s t s .  Extraction  Oils are extracted from plant substances by several methods: steam distillation, solvent extraction, enfleurage, maceration, and expression.  2 In steam distillation, steam is passed through plant material held in a still, whereby the essential oil turns to gas. This gas is then passed through tubes, cooled, and liquefied. Oils can also be extracted by boiling plant substances l i k e f l o w e r p e t a l s i n w a t e r i n s t e a d o f s t e a m i n g t h e m .
  • 9. The Manufacturing Process  3. Under solvent extraction, flowers are put into large rotating tanks or drums and benzene or a petroleum ether is poured over the flowers, extracting the essential oils. The flower parts dissolve in the solvents and leave a waxy material that contains the oil, which is then placed in ethyl alcohol. The oil dissolves in the alcohol and rises. Heat is used to evaporate the alcohol, which once fully burned off, leaves a higher concentration of the perfume oil on the bottom.
  • 10. The Manufacturing Process  4 During Enfleurage, flowers are spread on glass sheets coated with grease. The glass sheets are placed between wooden frames in tiers. Then the flowers are removed by hand and changed until the grease has a b s o r b e d t h e i r f r a g r a n c e .  5 Maceration is similar to enfleurage except that warmed fats are used to soak up the flower smell. As in solvent extraction, the grease and fats a r e d i s s o l v e d i n a l c o h o l t o o b t a i n t h e e s s e n t i a l o i l s
  • 11.  6. Expression is the oldest and least complex method of extraction. By this process, now used in obtaining citrus oils from the rind, the fruit or plant is manually or mechanically pressed until all the oil is squeezed out.
  • 12. ATTAR  Attar is a perfume or essential oil obtained from flowers or petals (often from bark or leaves). It is mainly used in religious purpose.  The word "attar" comes from the word `atir, which in the Persian language means "sweet or fragrant.“  Attars are alcohol-free and are used by many Muslim men and women.  Attars are also used among Hindu, Buddhist meditation practices.
  • 13. PSYCHOLOGY OF USING PERFUME  When we inhale the odorant molecules of a perfume, it not only creates the sensation of odour but also creates emotions and experiences associated with it. For instance, we focus on the pleasant childhood memories associated with the smell of vanilla.  Stimulation of hippocampus causes secretion of growth hormone, sex hormone and neurotransmitters.  Another reason behind perfume use is to increase ones attractiveness in the eyes of other people.  We wear a perfume which best expresses our individuality, our tastes and our character.  Perfume using may become a habit and without it a person may feel incomplete.
  • 14. OTHER REASONS OF USING PERFUME  To mask body odour  To complement one’s mood and please one’s senses  Helps to get rid of anxiety and depression  To deepen spirituality  To soothe someone  For religious purpose  To be fresh and chilled all day long
  • 15. BRANDS AVAILABLE IN INDIA Brand product Calvin Klein a. Be b. Obsession c. Eternity d. One Gucci a. Gucci Envy b. Made to Measure c. Gucci by Gucci Mont Blac a. Presence b. Farrari Brand product Paris Hilton a. Heiress b. Dazzle c. Just Me Blue lady Blue lady Calvin Klein a. Beauty b. Eternity c. Euphoria Brands Available For Men Brands Available For woMen
  • 16. The Future  Perfumes today are being made and used in different ways than in previous centuries. Perfumes are being manufactured more and more frequently with synthetic chemicals rather than natural oils. Less concentrated forms of perfume are also becoming increasingly popular. Combined, these factors decrease the cost of the scents, encouraging more widespread and frequent, often daily, use.  Using perfume to heal, make people feel good, and improve relationships between the sexes are the new frontiers being explored by the industry. The sense of smell is considered a right brain activity, which rules emotions, memory, and creativity. Aromatherapy—smelling oils and fragrances to cure physical and emotional problems—is being revived to help balance hormonal and body energy. The theory behind aromatherapy states that using essential oils helps bolster the immune system when inhaled or applied topically. Smelling sweet smells also affects one's mood and can be used as a form of p s y c h o t h e r a p y . s .