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Learning The Spoken Language
By: Bishara Adam
1
Speaking
Speaking is the process of
building and sharing
meaning through the use of
verbal and non-verbal
symbols, in a variety of
contexts.
Speaking is a crucial part of
second language learning
and teaching.
2
Importance of Speaking
Despite its importance, for many years,
teaching speaking has been undervalued and
English language teachers have continued to
teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or
memorization of dialogues.
However, today's world requires that the
goal of teaching speaking should improve
students' communicative skills, because,
only in that way, students can express
themselves and learn how to follow the
social and cultural rules appropriate in each
communicative circumstance.
3
Learning The Spoken Language
 Teaching speaking is a very important part of
second language learning.
 The ability to communicate in a second
language clearly and efficiently contributes to
the success of the learner in school and success
later in every phase of life.
 Therefore, it is essential that language teachers
pay great attention to teaching speaking. Rather
than leading students to pure memorization,
providing a rich environment where meaningful
communication takes place is desired.
4
What is meant by "teaching speaking" is
to teach ESL learners to:
Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns.
Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm
of the second language.
Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper
social setting, audience, situation and subject matter.
Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural
pauses, which is called as fluency (Nunan, 2003).
5
How To Teach Speaking
Now many linguistics and ESL teachers agree on that
students learn to speak in the second language by
"interacting".
Communicative language teaching and collaborative
learning serve best for this aim.
Communicative language teaching is based on real-life
situations that require communication. By using this method
in ESL classes, students will have the opportunity of
communicating with each other in the target language.
6
How To Teach Speaking
In brief, ESL teachers should create a classroom
environment where students have real-life communication,
authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral
language. This can occur when students collaborate in
groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task.
7
Guiding Principles In The
Spoken Language
1. Be aware of the differences between second language
and foreign language learning contexts.
2. Give students practice with both fluency and accuracy.
3. Provide opportunities for students to talk by using
group work or pair work and limited teacher talk.
4. Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for
meaning.
5. Design classroom activities that involve guidance and
practice in both transactional and interactional
speaking.
8
Guiding Principles For Teaching The
Spoken Language
1. Meaning must come first: if children
do not understand the spoken
language, they cannot learn it.
2. To learn discourse skills, children
need both to participate in discourse
and to build up knowledge and skills
for participation.
9
Discourse & Discourse Events
 Discourse refers to conversation or longer
units to talk, such as stories or songs.
 The target for teaching discourse should be as a
real language use: we want children to be able
to use the foreign language with real people for
real purposes in a proper context.
 Discourse events refers to naturally bounded
use of language at any length.
 When teachers and learners interact on tasks
and activities, they are involved in a discourse
event (discourse event occurred in a classroom).
10
Discourse In
Foreign Language Learning
 Discourse in Foreign language learning needs two senses:
1. To find social purpose that can be used as a key of understanding.
2. To understand the foreign language as a means of communication
 Children in a situation where they want to share understanding with
other people through the foreign language search their previous
language-using experience for ways to act in the foreign language.
If their language resources are not sufficient, then the social
motivation to construct shared understanding is likely to lead to use
of the first language or mixtures of the first language and the foreign
language.
11
Discourse In The Literature
The term ‘discourse’ is used in two ways in the
literature.
1. Firstly, discourse contrasted with text to
emphasis that it concerns use of the language. A
text could be considered as “discourse” if
context of use and users of text are included.
(Example: Shopping List)
2. Secondly, the use of discourse is in contrast to
sentence, when it refers to a piece of language
longer than the sentence. (Example: paragraphs
or to books, articles or other large units of text)
12
Meaning First
 Piaget’s & Vygotsky’s theory of development see children as actively
constructing meaning from their experience in the world.
 Scaffolding as for social interaction.
 For infants: language often seems to play a secondary role to the
social development.
 Imagine a child, who we have described as actively trying to make
sense of new situations and events, sitting in a foreign language
classroom.
 Can the child find or construct meaning in this language or activity?
 Why do teachers need to check that meaning is accessible?
13
Meaning In Speaking & Listening
 Speaking and listening are both active uses of
language, but differ in the mental activity involved
and demands.
Listening: active use of language to access other
people’s meaning.
 Speaking: active use of language to express
meanings so that other people can make sense of
them.
 Speaking is much more demanding than
listening, so speaking activities require supports
for understanding and for production.
14
Analysis Of A Task In Action
 A - The setting and the task.
 B - Task- as- plan.
 C - The task – in –action.
 D - Language used in the task.
 E - Use of formulaic language.
 F - Selecting and adapting language on-line.
15
Discourse Skills Development In
Childhood
16
Discourse Skills Development In
Childhood
 The foreign language discourse development of children is
constrained by their cognitive and social development.
 For children there is more to becoming a good speaker than
simply acquiring the syntax (grammar), phonology and vocabulary
of their native language.
 They need to acquire a variety of discourse and conversational
skills.
 Conversation & Extended Talk
 Development of Conversational Skills in Childhood.
 Developing Children’s Discourse Repertoires
17
Conversation & Extended Talk
Extended talk requires heavier cognitive and linguistic
demands because ideas have to be held in mind and
organized so that the links between them will make sense to
listeners.
In young learner’s classrooms, we cannot expect pupils to
produce extended talk of these forms beyond what they can
do in their first language.
18
Development of Conversational
Skills in Childhood
An aspect of discourse that develops with age = how other people
understand what you say and make sure that you understand them.
Young speakers between five and ten years old are not aware of
how to guide other participants in discourse, and are not skilful in
planning their talk.
As listeners, they understand other people’s talk relative to their
current level of social and cognitive resources.
Children up to age seven seem to blame themselves if they do not
understand something said to them, rather than judging what was
said to them might have been inadequate.
19
Development of Conversational
Skills in Childhood
Researches have proved that training is only effective for older
children, above about eight years of age.
Growing up children become aware of how they and other people
think, act and communicate.
Children seem to begin to really develop their understanding of other
people’s actions and minds around four years of age.
It takes much of childhood to gather enough experience and use of it to
construct a full awareness of how people operate socially and mentally.
Familiarity of content and context in foreign language use will help
children as speakers and as listeners.
20
Developing Children’s Discourse
Repertoires
Learners of a foreign language increase their range of repertoire of
discourse skills and types
How?
Through interaction with an increasing range of people.
In different situations.
With different goals, and on different topics.
Moving from the familiar settings of home, family and classroom to wider
situations.
Types of talk includes: Narratives, Descriptions, Instructions, Arguments,
Opinions, etc.
21
Effective Support For Children’s
Foreign Language Discourse Skills
 Support through motivational topics.
Establish a topic of conversation that is
motivational. Children must have something
they want to say. Teachers must adjust tasks
and topics to relate to pupil’s interests.
 Support through Task Structure. Tasks
should have a clear goal or purpose.
 Support through Language Practice.
Foreign language teaching needs to include
exposure to the language by providing other
learning opportunities.
22
Short Activities For
Learning The Spoken Language
Discussions
Role play
Simulations
Information gap
Brainstorming
Story telling
Interviews
Story completion
Reporting
Playing cards
Picture narration
Picture describing
Find the difference
23
Discussions
After a content-based lesson, a discussion can be held for
various reasons.
The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas
about an event, or find solutions in their discussion groups.
Before the discussion, it is essential that the purpose of the
discussion activity is set by the teacher.
In this way, the discussion points are relevant to this
purpose, so that students do not spend their time chatting
with each other about irrelevant things.
24
Discussions
For example, students can become involved in agree/disagree
discussions.
In this type of discussions, the teacher can form groups of students,
preferably 4 or 5 in each group, and provide controversial sentences like
“people learn best when they read vs. people learn best when they travel”.
Then each group works on their topic for a given time period, and
presents their opinions to the class.
It is essential that the speaking should be equally divided among group
members.
At the end, the class decides on the winning group who defended the idea
in the best way.
25
Discussions
This activity fosters critical thinking and quick decision making, and
students learn how to express and justify themselves in polite ways while
disagreeing with the others.
For efficient group discussions, it is always better not to form large groups,
because quiet students may avoid contributing in large groups.
The group members can be either assigned by the teacher or the students
may determine it by themselves, but groups should be rearranged in every
discussion activity so that students can work with various people and learn
to be open to different ideas.
Lastly, in class or group discussions, whatever the aim is, the students
should always be encouraged to ask questions, paraphrase ideas, express
support, check for clarification, and so on.
26
Role Play
One other way of getting students to speak is role-playing.
Students pretend they are in various social contexts and have
a variety of social roles.
In role-play activities, the teacher gives information to the
learners such as who they are and what they think or feel.
Thus, the teacher can tell the student that "You are David,
you go to the doctor and tell him what happened last night,
and…" (Harmer, 1984)
27
Interviews
Students can conduct interviews on selected topics with various
people.
It is a good idea that the teacher provides a rubric to students so that
they know what type of questions they can ask or what path to follow,
but students should prepare their own interview questions.
Conducting interviews with people gives students a chance to
practice their speaking ability not only in class but also outside and
helps them becoming socialized.
After interviews, each student can present his or her study to the
class. Moreover, students can interview each other and "introduce"
his or her partner to the class.
28
Simulations
Simulations are very similar to role-plays but what makes simulations different
than role plays is that they are more elaborate.
In simulations, students can bring items to the class to create a realistic
environment.
For instance, if a student is acting as a singer, she brings a microphone to sing and
so on.
Role plays and simulations have many advantages.
First, since they are entertaining, they motivate the students.
Second, as Harmer (1984) suggests, they increase the self-confidence of hesitant
students, because in role play and simulation activities, they will have a different
role and do not have to speak for themselves, which means they do not have to
take the same responsibility.
29
Playing Cards
In this game, students should form groups of four.
Each suit will represent a topic.
For instance:
Diamonds: Earning money
Hearts: Love and relationships
Spades: An unforgettable memory
Clubs: Best teacher
30
Playing Cards
Each student in a group will choose a card.
Then, each student will write 4-5 questions about that topic to
ask the other people in the group.
For example:
If the topic "Diamonds: Earning Money" is selected, here are
some possible questions:
Is money important in your life? Why?
What is the easiest way of earning money?
What do you think about lottery? Etc.
31
Playing Cards
However, the teacher should state at the very beginning of
the activity that students are not allowed to prepare yes-no
questions, because by saying yes or no students get little
practice in spoken language production.
Rather, students ask open-ended questions to each other so
that they reply in complete sentences.
32
Information Gap
In this activity, students are supposed to be working in pairs.
One student will have the information that other partner does not
have and the partners will share their information.
Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a
problem or collecting information.
Also, each partner plays an important role because the task cannot
be completed if the partners do not provide the information the
others need.
These activities are effective because everybody has the opportunity
to talk extensively in the target language.
33
Brainstorming
On a given topic, students can produce ideas in a limited time.
Depending on the context, either individual or group
brainstorming is effective and learners generate ideas quickly
and freely.
The good characteristics of brainstorming is that the students
are not criticized for their ideas so students will be open to
sharing new ideas.
34
Storytelling
Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from
somebody beforehand, or they may create their own stories to tell
their classmates.
Story telling fosters creative thinking.
It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning,
development, and ending, including the characters and setting a
story has to have. Students also can tell riddles or jokes.
For instance, at the very beginning of each class session, the teacher
may call a few students to tell short riddles or jokes as an opening.
In this way, not only will the teacher address students’ speaking
ability, but also get the attention of the class.
35
Story Completion
This is a very enjoyable, whole-class, free-speaking activity for
which students sit in a circle.
For this activity, a teacher starts to tell a story, but after a few
sentences he or she stops narrating.
Then, each student starts to narrate from the point where the
previous one stopped.
Each student is supposed to add from four to ten sentences.
Students can add new characters, events, descriptions and so on.
36
Reporting
Before coming to class, students are asked to read a newspaper
or magazine and, in class, they report to their friends what they
find as the most interesting news.
Students can also talk about whether they have experienced
anything worth telling their friends in their daily lives before
class.
37
Picture Narrating
This activity is based on several sequential pictures.
Students are asked to tell the story taking place in the sequential
pictures by paying attention to the criteria provided by the
teacher as a rubric.
 Rubrics can include the vocabulary or structures they need to
use while narrating.
38
Picture Describing
Another way to make use of pictures in a speaking activity is to
give students just one picture and having them describe what it
is in the picture.
For this activity students can form groups and each group is
given a different picture.
Students discuss the picture with their groups, then a
spokesperson for each group describes the picture to the whole
class.
This activity fosters the creativity and imagination of the
learners as well as their public speaking skills.
39
Find the Difference
For this activity students can work in pairs and each couple is
given two different pictures, for example, picture of boys
playing football and another picture of girls playing tennis.
Students in pairs discuss the similarities and/or differences in
the pictures.
40
Supporting The Spoken Language With
Written Language Using Dialogues
 Using dialogues and discourse.
 Stories offer readymade dialogues.
Class Discussion
 How is dialogue helpful in students spoken and written
language?
 What are the advantages of using dialogues in order to
support the spoken language?
41
Suggestions for Teachers in
Teaching Speaking
Here are some suggestions for English language teachers while
teaching oral language:
Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target
language by providing a rich environment that contains
collaborative work, authentic materials and tasks, and shared
knowledge.
Try to involve each student in every speaking activity; for this
aim, practice different ways of student participation.
Reduce teacher speaking time in class while increasing student
speaking time. Step back and observe students.
42
Suggestions for Teachers in
Teaching Speaking
Indicate positive signs when commenting on a student's response.
Ask eliciting questions such as "What do you mean? How did you
reach that conclusion?" in order to prompt students to speak more.
Provide written feedback like "Your presentation was really great.
It was a good job. I really appreciated your efforts in preparing the
materials and efficient use of your voice…“
Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often while
they are speaking. Correction should not distract student from his
or her speech.
43
Suggestions for Teachers in
Teaching Speaking
Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of class;
contact parents and other people who can help.
Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right
track and see whether they need your help while they work in
groups or pairs.
Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking
activities.
Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in
expressing themselves in the target language and provide more
opportunities to practice the spoken language.
44

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Learning The Spoken Language

  • 1. Learning The Spoken Language By: Bishara Adam 1
  • 2. Speaking Speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts. Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. 2
  • 3. Importance of Speaking Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance. 3
  • 4. Learning The Spoken Language  Teaching speaking is a very important part of second language learning.  The ability to communicate in a second language clearly and efficiently contributes to the success of the learner in school and success later in every phase of life.  Therefore, it is essential that language teachers pay great attention to teaching speaking. Rather than leading students to pure memorization, providing a rich environment where meaningful communication takes place is desired. 4
  • 5. What is meant by "teaching speaking" is to teach ESL learners to: Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns. Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language. Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter. Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence. Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments. Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency (Nunan, 2003). 5
  • 6. How To Teach Speaking Now many linguistics and ESL teachers agree on that students learn to speak in the second language by "interacting". Communicative language teaching and collaborative learning serve best for this aim. Communicative language teaching is based on real-life situations that require communication. By using this method in ESL classes, students will have the opportunity of communicating with each other in the target language. 6
  • 7. How To Teach Speaking In brief, ESL teachers should create a classroom environment where students have real-life communication, authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral language. This can occur when students collaborate in groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task. 7
  • 8. Guiding Principles In The Spoken Language 1. Be aware of the differences between second language and foreign language learning contexts. 2. Give students practice with both fluency and accuracy. 3. Provide opportunities for students to talk by using group work or pair work and limited teacher talk. 4. Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning. 5. Design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interactional speaking. 8
  • 9. Guiding Principles For Teaching The Spoken Language 1. Meaning must come first: if children do not understand the spoken language, they cannot learn it. 2. To learn discourse skills, children need both to participate in discourse and to build up knowledge and skills for participation. 9
  • 10. Discourse & Discourse Events  Discourse refers to conversation or longer units to talk, such as stories or songs.  The target for teaching discourse should be as a real language use: we want children to be able to use the foreign language with real people for real purposes in a proper context.  Discourse events refers to naturally bounded use of language at any length.  When teachers and learners interact on tasks and activities, they are involved in a discourse event (discourse event occurred in a classroom). 10
  • 11. Discourse In Foreign Language Learning  Discourse in Foreign language learning needs two senses: 1. To find social purpose that can be used as a key of understanding. 2. To understand the foreign language as a means of communication  Children in a situation where they want to share understanding with other people through the foreign language search their previous language-using experience for ways to act in the foreign language. If their language resources are not sufficient, then the social motivation to construct shared understanding is likely to lead to use of the first language or mixtures of the first language and the foreign language. 11
  • 12. Discourse In The Literature The term ‘discourse’ is used in two ways in the literature. 1. Firstly, discourse contrasted with text to emphasis that it concerns use of the language. A text could be considered as “discourse” if context of use and users of text are included. (Example: Shopping List) 2. Secondly, the use of discourse is in contrast to sentence, when it refers to a piece of language longer than the sentence. (Example: paragraphs or to books, articles or other large units of text) 12
  • 13. Meaning First  Piaget’s & Vygotsky’s theory of development see children as actively constructing meaning from their experience in the world.  Scaffolding as for social interaction.  For infants: language often seems to play a secondary role to the social development.  Imagine a child, who we have described as actively trying to make sense of new situations and events, sitting in a foreign language classroom.  Can the child find or construct meaning in this language or activity?  Why do teachers need to check that meaning is accessible? 13
  • 14. Meaning In Speaking & Listening  Speaking and listening are both active uses of language, but differ in the mental activity involved and demands. Listening: active use of language to access other people’s meaning.  Speaking: active use of language to express meanings so that other people can make sense of them.  Speaking is much more demanding than listening, so speaking activities require supports for understanding and for production. 14
  • 15. Analysis Of A Task In Action  A - The setting and the task.  B - Task- as- plan.  C - The task – in –action.  D - Language used in the task.  E - Use of formulaic language.  F - Selecting and adapting language on-line. 15
  • 16. Discourse Skills Development In Childhood 16
  • 17. Discourse Skills Development In Childhood  The foreign language discourse development of children is constrained by their cognitive and social development.  For children there is more to becoming a good speaker than simply acquiring the syntax (grammar), phonology and vocabulary of their native language.  They need to acquire a variety of discourse and conversational skills.  Conversation & Extended Talk  Development of Conversational Skills in Childhood.  Developing Children’s Discourse Repertoires 17
  • 18. Conversation & Extended Talk Extended talk requires heavier cognitive and linguistic demands because ideas have to be held in mind and organized so that the links between them will make sense to listeners. In young learner’s classrooms, we cannot expect pupils to produce extended talk of these forms beyond what they can do in their first language. 18
  • 19. Development of Conversational Skills in Childhood An aspect of discourse that develops with age = how other people understand what you say and make sure that you understand them. Young speakers between five and ten years old are not aware of how to guide other participants in discourse, and are not skilful in planning their talk. As listeners, they understand other people’s talk relative to their current level of social and cognitive resources. Children up to age seven seem to blame themselves if they do not understand something said to them, rather than judging what was said to them might have been inadequate. 19
  • 20. Development of Conversational Skills in Childhood Researches have proved that training is only effective for older children, above about eight years of age. Growing up children become aware of how they and other people think, act and communicate. Children seem to begin to really develop their understanding of other people’s actions and minds around four years of age. It takes much of childhood to gather enough experience and use of it to construct a full awareness of how people operate socially and mentally. Familiarity of content and context in foreign language use will help children as speakers and as listeners. 20
  • 21. Developing Children’s Discourse Repertoires Learners of a foreign language increase their range of repertoire of discourse skills and types How? Through interaction with an increasing range of people. In different situations. With different goals, and on different topics. Moving from the familiar settings of home, family and classroom to wider situations. Types of talk includes: Narratives, Descriptions, Instructions, Arguments, Opinions, etc. 21
  • 22. Effective Support For Children’s Foreign Language Discourse Skills  Support through motivational topics. Establish a topic of conversation that is motivational. Children must have something they want to say. Teachers must adjust tasks and topics to relate to pupil’s interests.  Support through Task Structure. Tasks should have a clear goal or purpose.  Support through Language Practice. Foreign language teaching needs to include exposure to the language by providing other learning opportunities. 22
  • 23. Short Activities For Learning The Spoken Language Discussions Role play Simulations Information gap Brainstorming Story telling Interviews Story completion Reporting Playing cards Picture narration Picture describing Find the difference 23
  • 24. Discussions After a content-based lesson, a discussion can be held for various reasons. The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas about an event, or find solutions in their discussion groups. Before the discussion, it is essential that the purpose of the discussion activity is set by the teacher. In this way, the discussion points are relevant to this purpose, so that students do not spend their time chatting with each other about irrelevant things. 24
  • 25. Discussions For example, students can become involved in agree/disagree discussions. In this type of discussions, the teacher can form groups of students, preferably 4 or 5 in each group, and provide controversial sentences like “people learn best when they read vs. people learn best when they travel”. Then each group works on their topic for a given time period, and presents their opinions to the class. It is essential that the speaking should be equally divided among group members. At the end, the class decides on the winning group who defended the idea in the best way. 25
  • 26. Discussions This activity fosters critical thinking and quick decision making, and students learn how to express and justify themselves in polite ways while disagreeing with the others. For efficient group discussions, it is always better not to form large groups, because quiet students may avoid contributing in large groups. The group members can be either assigned by the teacher or the students may determine it by themselves, but groups should be rearranged in every discussion activity so that students can work with various people and learn to be open to different ideas. Lastly, in class or group discussions, whatever the aim is, the students should always be encouraged to ask questions, paraphrase ideas, express support, check for clarification, and so on. 26
  • 27. Role Play One other way of getting students to speak is role-playing. Students pretend they are in various social contexts and have a variety of social roles. In role-play activities, the teacher gives information to the learners such as who they are and what they think or feel. Thus, the teacher can tell the student that "You are David, you go to the doctor and tell him what happened last night, and…" (Harmer, 1984) 27
  • 28. Interviews Students can conduct interviews on selected topics with various people. It is a good idea that the teacher provides a rubric to students so that they know what type of questions they can ask or what path to follow, but students should prepare their own interview questions. Conducting interviews with people gives students a chance to practice their speaking ability not only in class but also outside and helps them becoming socialized. After interviews, each student can present his or her study to the class. Moreover, students can interview each other and "introduce" his or her partner to the class. 28
  • 29. Simulations Simulations are very similar to role-plays but what makes simulations different than role plays is that they are more elaborate. In simulations, students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For instance, if a student is acting as a singer, she brings a microphone to sing and so on. Role plays and simulations have many advantages. First, since they are entertaining, they motivate the students. Second, as Harmer (1984) suggests, they increase the self-confidence of hesitant students, because in role play and simulation activities, they will have a different role and do not have to speak for themselves, which means they do not have to take the same responsibility. 29
  • 30. Playing Cards In this game, students should form groups of four. Each suit will represent a topic. For instance: Diamonds: Earning money Hearts: Love and relationships Spades: An unforgettable memory Clubs: Best teacher 30
  • 31. Playing Cards Each student in a group will choose a card. Then, each student will write 4-5 questions about that topic to ask the other people in the group. For example: If the topic "Diamonds: Earning Money" is selected, here are some possible questions: Is money important in your life? Why? What is the easiest way of earning money? What do you think about lottery? Etc. 31
  • 32. Playing Cards However, the teacher should state at the very beginning of the activity that students are not allowed to prepare yes-no questions, because by saying yes or no students get little practice in spoken language production. Rather, students ask open-ended questions to each other so that they reply in complete sentences. 32
  • 33. Information Gap In this activity, students are supposed to be working in pairs. One student will have the information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information. Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information. Also, each partner plays an important role because the task cannot be completed if the partners do not provide the information the others need. These activities are effective because everybody has the opportunity to talk extensively in the target language. 33
  • 34. Brainstorming On a given topic, students can produce ideas in a limited time. Depending on the context, either individual or group brainstorming is effective and learners generate ideas quickly and freely. The good characteristics of brainstorming is that the students are not criticized for their ideas so students will be open to sharing new ideas. 34
  • 35. Storytelling Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand, or they may create their own stories to tell their classmates. Story telling fosters creative thinking. It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning, development, and ending, including the characters and setting a story has to have. Students also can tell riddles or jokes. For instance, at the very beginning of each class session, the teacher may call a few students to tell short riddles or jokes as an opening. In this way, not only will the teacher address students’ speaking ability, but also get the attention of the class. 35
  • 36. Story Completion This is a very enjoyable, whole-class, free-speaking activity for which students sit in a circle. For this activity, a teacher starts to tell a story, but after a few sentences he or she stops narrating. Then, each student starts to narrate from the point where the previous one stopped. Each student is supposed to add from four to ten sentences. Students can add new characters, events, descriptions and so on. 36
  • 37. Reporting Before coming to class, students are asked to read a newspaper or magazine and, in class, they report to their friends what they find as the most interesting news. Students can also talk about whether they have experienced anything worth telling their friends in their daily lives before class. 37
  • 38. Picture Narrating This activity is based on several sequential pictures. Students are asked to tell the story taking place in the sequential pictures by paying attention to the criteria provided by the teacher as a rubric.  Rubrics can include the vocabulary or structures they need to use while narrating. 38
  • 39. Picture Describing Another way to make use of pictures in a speaking activity is to give students just one picture and having them describe what it is in the picture. For this activity students can form groups and each group is given a different picture. Students discuss the picture with their groups, then a spokesperson for each group describes the picture to the whole class. This activity fosters the creativity and imagination of the learners as well as their public speaking skills. 39
  • 40. Find the Difference For this activity students can work in pairs and each couple is given two different pictures, for example, picture of boys playing football and another picture of girls playing tennis. Students in pairs discuss the similarities and/or differences in the pictures. 40
  • 41. Supporting The Spoken Language With Written Language Using Dialogues  Using dialogues and discourse.  Stories offer readymade dialogues. Class Discussion  How is dialogue helpful in students spoken and written language?  What are the advantages of using dialogues in order to support the spoken language? 41
  • 42. Suggestions for Teachers in Teaching Speaking Here are some suggestions for English language teachers while teaching oral language: Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by providing a rich environment that contains collaborative work, authentic materials and tasks, and shared knowledge. Try to involve each student in every speaking activity; for this aim, practice different ways of student participation. Reduce teacher speaking time in class while increasing student speaking time. Step back and observe students. 42
  • 43. Suggestions for Teachers in Teaching Speaking Indicate positive signs when commenting on a student's response. Ask eliciting questions such as "What do you mean? How did you reach that conclusion?" in order to prompt students to speak more. Provide written feedback like "Your presentation was really great. It was a good job. I really appreciated your efforts in preparing the materials and efficient use of your voice…“ Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often while they are speaking. Correction should not distract student from his or her speech. 43
  • 44. Suggestions for Teachers in Teaching Speaking Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of class; contact parents and other people who can help. Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track and see whether they need your help while they work in groups or pairs. Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking activities. Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in expressing themselves in the target language and provide more opportunities to practice the spoken language. 44