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About search engines

  1. 1. About Search Engines  Birth  History http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/  Services  Statistics By1 G.Chandrashekar Reddy Sr. SEO In Truss Techno Softs Seosem.hyderabad@gmail.com
  2. 2. Contents 1. Search Engines 4 http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 2. A Brief Overview of the Early Web 5 3. The Birth of Search Engines as We Know Them 7 4. Google Is Launched by Sergey Brin and Larry Page 8 5. The Missing Link: Making Money from Search 9 6. Search in 2003 and Beyond 10 7. Microsoft Starts Taking Search Seriously 12 8. The Anatomy of a Search Results Page 13 9. How Search Works 18 2
  3. 3. 11. History of Bing Search Engine 2112. Yahoo! Search 50 http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/13. Google Search 7515. Search Engines Market Share 129 3
  4. 4. Search EnginesOn the Internet, a search engine is a coordinated set of programs thatincludes: http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ A spider (also called a "crawler" or a "bot") that goes to every page orrepresentative pages on every Web site that wants to be searchable andreads it, using hypertext links on each page to discover and read asites other pages. A program that creates a huge index (sometimes called a "catalog")from the pages that have been read. A program that receives your search request, compares it to theentries in the index, and returns results to you . An alternative to using a search engine is to explore a structureddirectory of topics. Yahoo, which also lets you use its search engine, isthe most widely-used directory on the Web. A number of Web portalsites offer both the search engine and directory approaches to findinginformation. 4
  5. 5. A Brief Overview of the Early WebSearch engines are such an integral part of everyday life that it’s hard toremember a time before they were so essential. But it hasn’t always been that http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/way: in the past, search engine results were often filled with irrelevant content,spam, and other kinds of malicious material. Results were also influenced heavilyby marketers with big budgets.Before you begin your journey to becoming a search engine optimization expert, it’sa good idea to take a look back at some of the key developments in the industryand understand how they helped shape the wayin which search engines worktoday.After Tim Berners-Lee invented what we know today as the World Wide Webusing hypertext markup language (or HTML) in 1991, the very first online robot—the World Wide Web Wanderer—was launched in June 1993. Its initial task was tomeasure the growth of the Internet, where it actively counted the numberof servers connected to the Web. The role of this first robot was quickly expandedto capture actual URLs, and the database it constructed was known as Wandex. 5
  6. 6. The very first service resembling what would today be called a searchengine—named the Repository-Based Software Engineering (RBSE) spider—was launched in late 1993. This was the first site that allowed users to searchby relevance for content it had indexed while crawling the Internet. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Then, in 1994, a name that’s likely to be more familiar to you entered thelandscape, when David Filo and Jerry Yang created the Yahoo Directory. Inthe beginning, Yahoo was just a collection of Jerry and David’s favorite links;as the list grew, they added functionality that allowed users to search thedatabase of sites. 6
  7. 7. The Birth of Search Engines as We Know ThemIn early 1994, the first real search engine—which included a spider that crawledentire websites and indexed them according to relevance—was born. This step http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/forward in search and indexing technology preempted the launch of manyinnovative search engines that year. Among the newcomers were Lycos, Infoseek,and AltaVista.The mid to late ‘90s saw a rapid expansion of the Web, with millions and millionsof pages of content being created and indexed by search engines. By late 1996,Lycos had already indexed some 60 million pages of content.The rapid growth of online content led to the emergence of a much greater problemwith all search engines: the relevance of the results returned for keyword searches.A simple search algorithm would work sufficientlywell with a database of 10,000 documents, but trying to return the most relevantsite out of an index of 100 million documents was another story altogether. 7
  8. 8. Google Is Launched by Sergey Brin and Larry PageIn early 1996, two PhD students at Stanford University began collaborating on asearch engine they called BackRub. The difference between their project and other http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/search engines of the day was that BackRub used a unique technique: analyzing thebacklinks pointing to a website to determine its relevance for a particular searchquery.Citation notation—common in academia—was the underlying concept behindBackRub’s ranking engine. If one source is cited frequently by other documents, itusually means that it’s more important and relevant. On the Internet, a backlink is,in effect, a citation.During 1998, these two enterprising engineering students launched Google. This newsearch engine was built around a technology they dubbed PageRank, which wasbased on BackRub’s ranking engine.By the year 2000, Google was powering the searches for AOL, Yahoo, and variousother major online providers. The company had raised over $25 million in funding,and had come to essentially dominate the search engine landscape. 8
  9. 9. The Missing Link: Making Money from Search During 2000, Google launched what would grow to power its phenomenal growth and allow it to expand to markets as broad as books, video, news, and http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ maps. AdWords, as it was called, was a service that sold ads on a cost-per- thousand (CPM) basis; by 2002 it had evolved into the current model, which places ads using a cost-per-click (CPC) auction system. AOL chose Google to provide its paid search functionality, which it ran alongside relevant search results, in early 2002. This marked a turning point in Google’s history: until then, the company had been growing quickly, but had yet to tackle the paid search market, which had up to that point been dominated by a company called Overture. 9
  10. 10. Search in 2003 and Beyond Since 2003, all major search engines, including Google, Yahoo, Overture, and Microsoft’s Live Search (now Bing), have maintained the same underlying http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ business model: indexing web page content, and serving ads alongside search results. Major search engines all employ the same basic page layout, with search refinement options on the left, site listings in the middle, and paid ads across the top and right-hand side of the page. The difference between the major search engines that existed in 2003 and those we have in 2010 is the underlying algorithms that are used to index and rank content according to relevance. Google’s superior technology and matching techniques are the major reasons why it has captured the most significant share of the worldwide search market. Search engine algorithms rely on scale, and on machine learning to adapt to market changes and understand various nuances within specific niches. For example, a good search algorithm will attempt to understand the meaning of a phrase and its context, rather than just search for the frequency of a given keyword. 10
  11. 11. Moreover, the more people search for a given phrase, the more visitor interactionscan be recorded by the search engine. The engine can then learn which kinds ofresults are more relevant for particular phrases and categories. This has meantthat as Google grew faster than other search engines, the amount of relevant data http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/it captured across a multitude of different niches and categories allowed itsengineers to deliver even more relevant and meaningful results.The search wars of today are waged over relevance; paid search results are simplythe ammunition that fuels massive research and development budgets at searchcompanies. Google continues to dominate the search industry: in the 2009 financialyear, Google’s revenue was just under US$24 billion, with over US$8 billion inprofit. 11
  12. 12. Microsoft Starts Taking Search SeriouslyMicrosoft was famously late to the search party, given that it had total marketdomination of desktop computers connected to the Internet. Microsoft’s first forayinto online search was made through the MSN portal, which launched in 1998; http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/however, it was only in early 2005 that MSN stopped using external providerssuch as Yahoo to power its search engine, and brought search technology in-house.In late 2006, Microsoft launched its Live Search (Live.com), which was its firstserious attempt at becoming a player in the search space. This service never gainedthe traction Microsoft had hoped for, constantly lagging behind both Google andYahoo in relevance and market share.With falling market share and inferior search technology, Microsoft made one of thebiggest plays in the history of the Web—an attempt to purchase Yahoo outright forover US$44 billion. Although the bid was ultimately unsuccessful, it was theturning point that signaled both Yahoo’s decline and Microsoft’s resurgence as anonline player.On May 28, 2009, Microsoft launched Bing, the replacement for the Live.comsearch engine, which has received praise for innovations and for its content-type-specific results pages. At the time of writing, Bing has roughly 12.1% share of theUS search market, which remains lower than Yahoo’s 18.3% and Google’s 63.7%shares. While there are certainly other search engines, these are—at least for 12now—the three main ones you need to concern yourself with.
  13. 13. The Anatomy of a Search Results Page You now know the backstories of Google, Yahoo, and some of the other major online forces involved in search. So, let’s take a closer look at the core component http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ of a search engine, and our ultimate goal as SEO professionals: the search engine results page (or SERP). All of the major search engines follow the same basic layout and usability principles, and this is no accident. The SERP is made up of the following elements: Search box All three major search engines place the search box front and center on the page, giving users the ability to conduct more searches. Search refinements The left-hand side of each SERP features more advanced segmentation of the search results you’re viewing. You can sort by media type (images, video, and so on), country, website, date, and other refinements. 13
  14. 14. Organic resultsLocated below the search box are the natural search results or organic searchresults—those results that have been ranked purely on the basis of the searchengine’s algorithms, that is, on their relevance. These results are sorted on the http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/basis of each search engine’s specific algorithms, and the goal of your SEOcampaign should be to appear in the first position within this section.Paid resultsSitting to the right-hand side of the organic results, and sometimes above them,are the paid search results, or PPC (pay per click) ads. The paid searchresults are bid on in an auction system, and the position of each ad isdetermined by a combination of relevance, the amount the advertiser bid, andthe ad copy used. 14
  15. 15. Viewing the SERPs of Google, Yahoo, and Bing http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 15
  16. 16. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 16
  17. 17. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 17
  18. 18. How Search WorksSearch engines are constantly indexing content, and recording which site links towhich other site, the content that appears on each page, the tags and keywordsassociated with certain topics, and a number of other elements. In all, there are http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/hundreds of different signals search engines use to determine relevance—a wordthat’s used to indicate how, well, relevant a given page is to a given query.The search engine indexing process starts with the search spider. When we referto a search engine spider or bot (short for robot), we’re talking about one or morededicated computers that have been programmed to crawl the Web and collect allthe information they can find, and store how all that information is related tovarious search terms.Modern search engine spiders have two distinct tasks:Crawling is the traveling from site to site, and page to page, discovering contentand links.Indexing is the task of building a database (or an index) of keywords and phrases,the sites and pages that are relevant to them, and the links between those sites. 18
  19. 19. Once the search engine spider has scoured pages, various bits of information arestored in the search engine’s index. Some of those important pieces of informationinclude: The content and structure of each page http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ A record of all other pages—both internal and external to the site—that arelinked to from the page A record of all the pages that link to the page Key HTML tags such as the page title, headings, and imagesThis is a very basic list of the types of data that search engines index. There areobviously some very smart ways in which they identify relationships betweenpieces of information and index websites, but for the purposes of this chapter, thosepieces of information are all you need to concern yourself with.Once this information has been collected and stored in a database, the searchengine’s proprietary algorithms take over; each engine uses its own specialcalculations to determine how relevant your website’s content is to a particularsearch term. These algorithms are the difference between a search engine that anyprogrammer could write in a week, and the dominant search engines today.The major factors that search engines use to determine a page’s relevance for aparticular search query are much the same now as they were in the days whenGoogle first launched its PageRank technology; however, they’ve become more19sophisticated and complex over time through the ongoing battle for more relevantsearch results.
  20. 20. Two key factors are: The number and authority of related websites that link to the page http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ The relevance of the content on the page to the query 20
  21. 21. History of Bing Search Engine http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ URL http://www.bing.com Slogan Bing and decide Commercial Yes Type of site Search engine Registration Optional Available languages Multilingual (40) Owner Microsoft Created by Microsoft Lunched June 1, 2009 21 Alexa rank 23 Current status Active
  22. 22. Bing (formerly Live Search, Windows Live Search, and MSN Search) is thecurrent web search engine (advertised as a "decision engine") from Microsoft.Bing was unveiled by Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer on May 28, 2009 at the AllThings Digital conference in San Diego. It went fully online on June 3, 2009, with http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/a preview version released on June 1, 2009. 22
  23. 23. Notable changes include the listing of search suggestions as queries are enteredand a list of related searches (called "Explorer pane") based on semantictechnology from Powerset that Microsoft purchased in 2008. As of January2010, Bing is the third largest search engine on the web by query volume, at http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/3.16%, after its competitor Google at 85.35% and Yahoo at 6.15%, according toNet Applications.On July 29, 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing wouldpower Yahoo! Search.History:MSN SEARCH:MSN Search was a search engine by Microsoft that comprised a search engine,index, and web crawler. MSN Search first launched in the third quarter of 1998and used search results from Inktomi.In early 1999, MSN Search launched a version which displayed listings fromLooksmart blended with results from Inktomi except for a short time in 1999when results from AltaVista were used instead. Since then Microsoft upgradedMSN Search to provide its own self-built search engine results, the index ofwhich was updated weekly and sometimes daily. The upgrade started as a betaprogram in November 2004, and came out of beta in February 2005. Imagesearch was powered by a third party, Picsearch. The service also started 23providing its search results to other search engine portals in an effort to bettercompete in the market.
  24. 24. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/WINDOWS LIVE SEARCH :The first public beta of Windows Live Search was unveiled on March 8, 2006, withthe final release on September 11, 2006 replacing MSN Search. The new searchengine used search tabs that include Web, news, images, music, desktop, local, andMicrosoft Encarta. In the roll-over from MSN Search to Windows Live Search,Microsoft stopped using Picsearch as their image search provider and startedperforming their own image search, fueled by their own internal image searchalgorithms. 24
  25. 25. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/LIVE SEARCH :On March 21, 2007, Microsoft announced that it would separate its searchdevelopments from the Windows Live services family, rebranding the service asLive Search. Live Search was integrated into the Live Searchand Ad Platform headed by Satya Nadella, part of Microsofts Platform andSystems division. As part of this change, Live Search was merged withMicrosoft adCenter. 25
  26. 26. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/A series of reorganizations and consolidations of Microsofts search offerings weremade under the Live Search branding. On May 23, 2008, Microsoft announced thediscontinuation of Live Search Books and Live Search Academic and integrated allacademic and book search results into regular search, and as a result this alsoincluded the closure of Live Search Books Publisher Program. Soon after, WindowsLive Expo was discontinued on July 31, 2008. Live Search Macros, a service forusers to create their own custom search engines or use macros created by otherusers, was also discontinued shortly after. On May 15, 2009, Live Product Upload, aservice which allowed merchants to upload products information onto Live SearchProducts, was discontinued. The final reorganization came as Live Search QnA wasrebranded as MSN QnA on February 18, 2009, however, it was subsequentlydiscontinued on May 21, 2009.Microsoft recognized that there would be a brand issue as long as the word "Live"remained in the name. As an effort to create a new identity for Microsofts search26services, Live Search was officially replaced by Bing on June 3, 2009.
  27. 27. Yahoo! search deal :On July 29, 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! announced that they had made a 10-year deal in which the Yahoo! search engine would be replaced by Bing. Yahoo!will get to keep 88% of the revenue from all search ad sales on its site for the http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/first five years of the deal, and have the right to sell adverts on some Microsoftsites. Yahoo! Search will still maintain its own user interface, but willeventually feature "Powered by Bing" branding.Market Share :Before the launch of Bing the market share of Microsoft web search pages (MSNand Live search) had been steadily declining. Since Bings launch in the US,Microsoft has increased its US search market share. Microsoft, in third-place,has increased its share from 8 percent in May to 11.5 percent in February 2010,according to figures from ComScore. 27
  28. 28. Features :INTERFACE FEATURES : Daily changing of background image. The images are mostly of noteworthy http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/places in the world, though it sometimes displays animals, people, and sports. Thebackground image also contains information about the element(s) shown in theimage. Left side navigation pane. Includes navigation and, on results pages, relatedsearches and prior searches. Right side extended preview which shows a bigger view of the page and givesURLs to links inside of the page. Sublinks. On certain search results, the search result page also shows sectionlinks within the article (this is also done on other search engines, includingGoogle). Enhanced view where third party site information can be viewed inside Bing. On certain sites, search from within the website on the results page. On certain sites, Bing will display the Customer Service number on the results 28page.
  29. 29. MEDIA FEATURES : Video thumbnail Preview where, by hovering over a video thumbnail, the videoautomatically starts playing. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ Image search with continuous scrolling images results page that has adjustablesettings for size, layout, color, style and people. Video search with adjustable setting for length, screen size, resolution andsource. 29
  30. 30. INSTANT ANSWERS : Sports. Bing can directly display scores from a specific day, recent scores from aleague or scores and statistics on teams or players. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ Finance. When entering a company name or stock symbol and either stock orquote in the search box Bing will show direct stock information like a stock chart,price, volume, and p/e ratio in a webslice that users cansubscribe to. Math calculations (e.g., 2 * pi * 24).[20] Users can enter math expressions in thesearch box using a variety of math operators and (trig) functions and Bing willprovide a direct calculation of the expression. Package tracking and tracing. When a user types the name of the shippingcompany and the tracking number Bing will provide direct tracking information. Dictionary. When define, definition or what is followed by a word is entered inthe searchbox Bing will show a direct answer from the Encarta dictionary. Spell check. Will change frequently misspelled search terms to the morecommonly spelled alternative. 30
  31. 31.  Best match (plus similar sites). Product shopping and Bing cash back. Health information. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ Flight trackingLOCAL INFO : Current traffic information Business listing People listing Collections Localized searching for restaurants and services Restaurant reviews 31
  32. 32.  Movies played in an area. When a current movie title is entered in the searchbox Bing will provide listings of local theaters showing the movie. When a city isadded to the search box, Bing provides the movie listings localized for that city. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ City hotel listings. When hotels and a city name is entered in the search boxBing can provide hotel listings with a map. The listing leads to a detail searchpage with the hotels listed that holds extended information on the hotels andcontains links to reviews, directions reservations and bird eye view of the hotel.On the page with the listings the list can be refined by settings on ratings,pricing, amenities, payment and parking. 32
  33. 33. INTEGRATION WITH HOTMAIL :With Hotmails "Quick Add" feature, users can insert derivatives of Bing searchresults such as restaurant reviews, movie times, images, videos, and mapsdirectly into their e-mail messages. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/InternationalBing is available in many languages and has been localized for many countries.LANGUAGESAlbanian Arabic British English BulgarianCatalan Chinese Simplified Chinese Traditional CroatianCzech Danish Dutch EnglishEstonian Finnish French GermanGreek Hebrew Hungarian IcelandicIndonesian Italian Japanese KoreanLatvian Lithuanian Malay NorwegianPersian Polish Portuguese PortugalRomanian Russian Serbian Slovak 33Slovenian Spanish Swedish ThaiTurkish Ukrainian
  34. 34. Search products :In addition to its tool for searching web pages, Bing also provides the following search offerings:Service Description Bing Health refines health searches using related medical concepts to get relevant health information and to allow users toHealth navigate complex medical topics with inline article results from experts. This feature is based on the Medstory acquisition. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ Bing Images enables the user to quickly search and display most relevant photos and images of interest. The infinite scroll feature allows browsing a large number of images quickly. The advance filters allows refining search results in terms of properties suchImages as image size, aspect ratio, color or black and white, photo or illustration, and facial features recognition.Local Bing Local searches local business listings with business details and reviews, allowing users to make more informed decisions. Bing Maps enables the user to search for businesses, addresses, landmarks and street names worldwide, and can select from a road-map style view, a satellite view or a hybrid of the two. Also available are "birds-eye" images for many cities worldwide, and 3DMaps maps which include virtual 3D navigation and to-scale terrain and 3D buildings. For business users it will be available as "Bing Maps For Enterprise". Bing News is a news aggregator and provides news results relevant to the search query from a wide range of online news andNews information services. Bing Reference semantically indexes Wikipedia content and displays them in an enhanced view within Bing. It also allow users toReference input search queries that resembles full questions and highlights the answer within search results. This feature is based on the Powerset acquisition. Bing Shopping lets users search from a wide range of online suppliers and marketers merchandise for all types of products and goods.Shopping This service also integrates with Bing cashback offering money back for certain purchases made through the site. This feature is based on the Jellyfish.com acquisition.Translator Bing Translator lets users translate texts or entire web pages into different languages. Bing Travel searches for airfare and hotel reservations online and predicts the best time to purchase them. This feature is basedTravel on the Farecast acquisition. Bing Twitter search allow users to search for and retrieve real-time information from the Twitter service. Bing Twitter search also provides "best match" and "social captions" functionalities that prioritises results based on relevance and contexts. Only publicTwitter feeds from the past 7 days will be displayed in Bing Twitter search results. Bing Videos enables the user to quickly search and view videos online from various websites. The Smart Preview feature allows theVideos user to instantly watch a short preview of an original video. Bing Videos also allow users to access editorial video contents from MSN Video.Visual Search Bing Visual Search allow users to refine their search queries for structured results through data-grouping image galleries that resembles "large online catalogues", powered by Silverlight. 34 Bing xRank lets users search for celebrities, musicians, politicians and bloggers, read short biographies and news about them, andxRank track their trends or popularity rankings.
  35. 35. Webmaster services :Bing allows webmasters to manage the web crawling status of their ownwebsites through Bing Webmaster Center. Additionally, users may also submitcontents to Bing via the following methods: http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/•Bing Local Listing Center allow businesses to add business listings onto BingMaps and Bing Local.•Soapbox on MSN Video allow users to upload videos for searching via BingVideos. 35
  36. 36. Mobile services Bing Mobile allow users to conduct search queries on their mobile devices, either via themobile browser or a downloadable mobile application. In the United States, Microsoft also http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/operates a toll-free number for directory assistance called Bing 411.Other services :Bing Tweets is a service that combines Twitter trends with Bing search results, enablingusers to see real-time information about the hottest topics on Twitter. The Bing Tweetsservice was initiated on July 14, 2009 in a partnership between Microsoft, Twitter andFederated Media. 36
  37. 37. Toolbars, gadgets and plug-insTOOLBARS http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Both Windows Live Toolbar and MSN Toolbar will be powered by Bing and aim to offerusers a way to access Bing search results. Together with the launch of Bing, MSN Toolbar4.0 will be released with inclusion of new Bing-related features such as Bing cash backoffer alerts. 37
  38. 38. GADGETSThe discontinued Live Search versions of the Windows Sidebar gadgets The BingSearch gadget is a Windows Sidebar Gadget that uses Bing Search to fetch the http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/users search results and render them directly in the gadget. Another gadget, theBing Maps gadget, displays real-time traffic conditions using Bing Maps. Thegadget provides shortcuts to driving directions, local search and full-screen trafficview. However, traffic data is limited only for major US and Canadian cities,including Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles,Milwaukee, Montreal, New York City, Oklahoma City, Ottawa, Philadelphia,Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Portland, Providence, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, SanDiego, San Francisco, Seattle, St. Louis, Tampa, Toronto, Vancouver, andWashington, D.C.Prior to October 30, 2007, the gadgets were known as Live Search gadget and LiveSearch Maps gadget; both gadgets were removed from Windows Live Gallery dueto possible security concerns. The Live Search Maps gadget was made available fordownload again on January 24, 2008 with the security concern addressed.However around the introduction of Bing in June 2009 both gadgets have beenremoved again for download from Windows Live Gallery. 38
  39. 39. ACCELERATORS :Accelerators allow users to access Bing features directly from selected text in awebpage. Accelerators provided by the Bing team include: http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Bing TranslatorBing MapsBing ShoppingWEB SLICES :Web Slices can be used to monitor information gathered by Bing.Web Slices provided by the Bing team include:Weather from BingFinance from BingTraffic from BingPLUG-INSThe Bing team provides an official Bing Firefox add-on, which adds searchsuggestions to the Firefox search box from Bing. 39
  40. 40. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 40Advertising
  41. 41. Live SearchSince 2006, Microsoft had conducted a number of tie-ins and promotions forpromoting Microsofts search offerings. These include: http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Amazons A9 search service and the experimental Ms. Dewey interactive search sitesyndicated all search results from Microsofts then search engine, Live Search. Thistie-in started on May 1, 2006.Search and Give - a promotional website launched on 17 January 2007 where allsearches done from a special portal site would lead to a donation to the UNHCRsorganization for refugee children, ninemillion.org. Reuters AlertNet reported in 2007that the amount to be donated would be $0.01 per search, with a minimum of$100,000 and a maximum of $250,000 (equivalent to 25 million searches). Accordingto the website the service was decommissioned on June 1, 2009, having donated over$500,000 to charity and schools.Club Bing - a promotional website where users can win prizes by playing word gamesthat generate search queries on Microsofts then search service Live Search. Thiswebsite began in April 2007 as Live Search Club.Big Snap Search - a promotional website similar to Live Search Club. This websitebegan in February 2008, but was discontinued shortly after. 41Live Search SearchPerks! - a promotional website which allowed users to redeemtickets for prizes while using Microsofts search engine. This website began onOctober 1, 2008 and was decommissioned on April 15, 2009.
  42. 42. BING :Bings debut features an $80 to $100 million online, TV, print, and radio advertisingcampaign in the US. The advertisements do not mention other search enginescompetitors, such as Google and Yahoo, directly by name; rather, they attempt to http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/convince users to switch to Bing by focusing on Bings search features and functionality.The ads claim that Bing does a better job countering "search overload," offering more-relevant, higher-quality results and helps you find what youre looking for fasterthrough the features that Bing offers that its competition does not.NAME ORIGIN :The word "bing" is an onomatopoeia, a word that imitates the sound it represents.Through focus groups Microsoft decided that the name Bing was memorable, short,easy to spell, and that it would function well as a URL around the world. The wordwould remind people of the sound made during "the moment of discovery anddecision making." Microsoft was assisted by branding consultancy Interbred in theirsearch for the best name for the new search engine. The name also has strongsimilarity to the word bingo, which is used to mean that something sought has beenfound or realized, as is interjected when winning the game Bingo. 42
  43. 43. Microsoft advertising strategist David Webster originally proposed the name"Bang" for the same reasons the name Bing was ultimately chosen (easy to spell,one syllable, and easy to remember). He noted, "Its there, its an exclamation point[...] Its the opposite of a question mark." This name was ultimately not chosen http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/because it could not be properly used as s verb in the context of an internet search.Qi Lu, president of Microsoft Online Services, also announced that Bings officialChinese name is bì yìng (simplified Chinese: 必应; traditional Chinese: 必應), whichliterally means "very certain to respond" or "verycertain to answer" in Chinese.While being tested internally by Microsoft employees, Bings codename was Kumo (くも), which came from the Japanese word for spider (蜘蛛; くも, kumo) as well ascloud (雲; くも, kumo), referring to the manner in which search engines "spider"Internet resources to add them to their database, as well as cloud computing. 43
  44. 44. LEGAL CHALLENGES :On July 31, 2009, The Laptop Company, Inc. released a press release stating that itis challenging Bings trademark application, alleging that Bing may cause confusionin the marketplace as Bing and their product BongoBing both do online product http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/search. A U.S. federal trademark application for BongoBing was filed on August 2,2009 by The Laptop Company, three days after the press release with a descriptionof an Comparison shopping services; Promoting the goods and services of others bymeans of operating an on-line shopping mall with links to the retail web sites ofothers. Software company Terabyte Unlimited, which has a product called BootItNext Generation (abbreviated to BING) also contended the trademark applicationon similar grounds, as did a Missouri-based design company called Bing!Information Design.Microsoft contends that claims by The Laptop Company and others challenging itstrademark are without merit because these other companies filed for U.S. federaltrademark applications only recently, after the filing of the Bing trademark byMicrosoft and after the services public release. Microsoft filed for its U.S. trademarkon the name Bing on March 2, 2009 with the description "computer search enginesoftware; graphical user interface software, namely, toolbar software for use withsearch engine software and websites.", exactly 5 months before the U.S.federal filing by The Laptop Company. Nonetheless, The Laptop Company and otherchallengers to the Bing trademark contend that they enjoy certain protections under44common law and state laws.
  45. 45. Adult content :VIDEO CONTENT :Bings video search tool has a preview mode that could potentially be used to previewpornographic videos. By simply turning off safe search, users can search for and view http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/pornographic videos by hovering the cursor over a thumbnail, since the video andaudio, in some cases, are cached on Microsofts Server.Since the videos are playing within Bing instead of the site where they are hosted, thevideos are not necessarily blocked by parental control filters. Monitoring programsdesigned to tell parents what sites their children have visited are likely to simplyreport "Bing.com" instead of the site that actually hosts the video. The same situationcan be said about corporate filters, many of which have been fooled by this feature.Users do not need to leave Bings site to view these videos.Microsoft responded in a blog post on June 4, 2009, with a short term work-around. Byadding "&adlt=strict" to the end of a query, no matter what the settings are for thatsession it will return results as if safe search were set to strict. The query would looklike this: http:/ / www. bing. com/ videos/ search?q=adulttermgoeshere& adlt=strict(case sensitive). 45
  46. 46. On June 12, 2009, Microsoft announced two changes regarding Bings Smart MotionPreview and Safe Search features. All potentially explicit images and video contentwill be coming from a separate single domain, explicit.bing.net. Additionally, Bingwill also return source URL information in the query string for image and videocontents. Both changes allow both home users and corporate users to filter content by http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/domain regardless of what the Safe Search settings might be.Regional censorship :Bing censors results for adult search terms like "sex" for some of the regionsincluding India, Peoples Republic of China, Germany and Arab countries. Thiscensoring is done based on the local laws of those countries.However, Bing allows users to simply change their country/region preference tosomewhere without restrictions – such as the United States, United Kingdom,Ireland or Australia – to sidestep this censorship. 46
  47. 47. CRITICISM :Censorship in China :Microsoft has been criticized for censoring Bing search results to queries made in http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/simplified Chinese characters in Mainland China. Although Microsoft has been lessthan transparent in addressing the reasons why, it is widely presumed this is done tocomply with the internet filtering requirements of the communist leadership inChina. Microsoft has not indicated a willingness to stop censoring search results inChina in the wake of Googles decision to do so.PERFORMANCE ISSUES :Bing has been known for being slower to index sites than Google or Yahoo! It has alsobeen criticized for not indexing certain sites at all. 47
  48. 48. See alsoWindows LiveGoogle search http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Yahoo! SearchList of search enginesPage HuntExternal linksBingBing for MobileDiscover BingDecision EngineBing CommunityBing Toolbox - for developers and webmasters.Bing Visual Search. 48
  49. 49. References:http://www.bing.comhttp://www.bing.com/community/forums/p/653570/ 9582219.aspxhttp://www.seroundtable.com/archives/021475.html http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/http://www.bing.com/http://m.bing.com/http://www.discoverbing.com/http://www.decisionengine.com/http://www.bing.com/communityhttp://www.bing.com/toolboxhttp://www.bing.com/visualsearchhttp://www.wikipedia.org/ 49
  50. 50. Yahoo! Search http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/The Yahoo YearsYahoo started life back in 1994, its humble beginnings were the confines of auniversity campus trailer, Yahoo started life as a collection of favorites put togetherby a couple of clever chaps called David Filo and Jerry Yang.At this time point who would ever of guessed that this humble beginning wouldevolve into a global brand, lets face it the first recordable name given to thiscollection of Internet information was ‘Jerry and David’s Guide to the World WideWeb’ the acronym for this – JDGWWW doesn’t really aspire to becoming a worldleading brand.The collection matured and expanded and soon there were categories and subcategories and this concept became the basic structure for what we see today.Obviously JDGWWW was a non starter as a name and probably never came into the 50heads of these clever guys, however the physical structure was growing and soontheir attention did indeed turn to the subject of brand.
  51. 51. Yahoo is BornYahoo was born from a definition:- ‘uncouth, rude and unsophisticated’, of course thereis a connection between this definition and the cry of ‘Yahoo’, that many recognize asbeing a loud way to show excitement. The common train of thought is that Yahoo was http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/chosen due to its acronym association with the term: “Yet Another HierarchicalOfficious Oracle,” although there are variations of this such as “Yet AnotherHierarchical Obstreperous Oracle,” and even “Yet Another Hierarchical OdiferousOracle,” but this according to Mr Filo and Mr Yang is not correct.Within 12 months this collection of categories and sub categories would gain suchpopularity that it would break the threshold of one million hits in a single day. Thisobviously underlined the growing need to marry up the ‘peoples’ need for informationwith the Internet itself. This interest and popularity continued to grow rapidly and theguys realized they had the making of a business on their hands.Soon investment followed with a respected venture capital company (Sequoia Capital)and the boys were in business. Two years later the company was incorporated with asuccessful IPO and the brand continued to gain strength. 51
  52. 52. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 52
  53. 53. Yahoo! Search is a web search engine, owned by Yahoo! Inc. and was as of December2009, the 2nd largest search engine on the web by query volume, at 6.29%, after itscompetitor Google at 85.35% and before Bing at 3.27%,according to Net Applications. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Originally, Yahoo! Search started as a web directory of other websites, organized in ahierarchy, as opposed to a searchable index of pages. In the late 1990s, Yahoo! evolvedinto a full-fledged portal with a search interface and, by 2007, a limited version ofselection-based search.Yahoo! Search, originally referred to as Yahoo! provided Search interface, would sendqueries to a searchable index of pages supplemented with its directory of sites. Theresults were presented to the user under the Yahoo! brand.Originally, none of the actual web crawling and storage/retrieval of data was done byYahoo! itself. In 2001 the searchable index was powered by Inktomi and later waspowered by Google until 2004, when Yahoo! Search became independent. Yahoo!Search major competitors are: Google Search, Bing and Ask Search.On July 29, 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing would powerYahoo! Search. 53
  54. 54. URL search.yahoo.comType of site Search EngineCommercial? Yes http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Registration OptionalAvailable Multilingual (40)language(s)Owner YahooCreated by YahooLaunched March 1, 1995Alexa rank 4Current status Active 54
  55. 55. Search technology acquisitionSeeking to provide its own search engine results, Yahoo! acquired their own searchtechnology. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/In 2002, they bought Inktomi, a "behind the scenes" or OEM search engine provider,whose results are shown on other companies websites and powered Yahoo! in itsearlier days. In 2003, they purchased Overture Services, Inc., which owned the Allthe Web and AltaVista search engines. Initially, even though Yahoo! owned multiplesearch engines, they didnt use them on the main yahoo.com website, but kept usingGoogles search engine for its results.Starting in 2003, Yahoo! Search became its own web crawler-based search engine,with a reinvented crawler called Yahoo! Slurp. Yahoo! Search combined thecapabilities of all the search engine companies they had acquired, with its existingresearch, and put them into a single search engine. The new search engine resultswere included in all of Yahoo!s sites that had a web search function. Yahoo! alsostarted to sell the search engine results to other companies, to show on their own websites. Their relationship with Google was terminated at that time, with the formerpartners becoming each others main competitors.In October 2007, Yahoo! Search was updated with a more modern appearance in linewith the redesigned Yahoo! home page. In addition, Search Assist was added; whichprovides real-time query suggestions and related concepts as they are typed. 55
  56. 56. In July 2008, Yahoo! Search announced the introduction of a new service called"Build Your Own Search Service,“ or BOSS. This service opens the doors fordevelopers to use Yahoo!s system for indexing information and images and createtheir own custom search engine. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/In July 2009, Yahoo! signed a deal with Microsoft, the result of which was thatYahoo! Search would be powered by Bing.Yahoo! Search blog & announcementsThe team at Yahoo! Search frequently blogged about search announcements,features, updates and enhancements. The Yahoo! Search Blog, as stated provided Alook inside the world of search from the people at Yahoo!. This included indexupdates named Weather Updates and their Yahoo! Search Assist feature.International presenceYahoo! Search also provided their search interface in at least 38 internationalmarkets and a variety of available languages. Yahoo! has a presence in Europe,Asia and across the Emerging Markets. 56
  57. 57. LanguagesArabic Bulgarian Catalan ChineseChinese Croatian Czech Danish http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/(traditional)Dutch English Estonian FinnishFrench German Greek HebrewHungarian Icelandic Indonesian ItalianJapanese Korean Latvian LithuanianMalay Norwegian Persian PolishPortuguese Romanian Russian SerbianSlovak Slovenian Spanish SwedishTagalog Thai Turkish Vietnamese 57
  58. 58. YAHOO! SERVICESAddress Book Answers Autos CalendarDainik Jagran Education Finance Flickr http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Games Groups Health InternationalLocal Maps Movies MusicNews Omg Real Estate ShineShopping Sports Travel TVYahoo! en Español Downloads Downloads Get Yahoo! on Get the Yahoo! Your Phone ToolbarGet Yahoo! on Your MoreTablet Services 58
  59. 59. Yahoo Mail: Yahoo! Mail (shortened to Y! Mail) is a free web mail service provided by Yahoo!. It was inaugurated in 1997. According to comScore, Yahoo! Mail is the second largest web-based e-mail service with 273.1 million users as of November 2010. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ Currently, Yahoo! offers three versions of Yahoo! Mail: the traditional full-page- scroll "Yahoo! Mail Classic," which continues the availability of the simpler 1997- 2006 interface for the brands considerable installed base of users, an Outlook-like Ajax interface based upon code the company acquired from Oddpost in 2004, and "Yahoo Mail Beta" which includes a new design and reportedly enhanced performance, improved search functionality, and improved Facebook integration. In early 2008, Yahoo! started offering unlimited mail storage to its users, in response to heated competition in the free-web mail market segment. On June 27, 2009, Yahoo! Messenger was integrated with Yahoo! Mail. 59
  60. 60. Yahoo! AnswersYahoo! Answers (Formerly known as Yahoo! Q & A) is a community-driven question-and-answer (Q&A) site launched by Yahoo! on July 5, 2005 that allows users to bothsubmit questions to be answered and answer questions asked by other users. Thesite gives members the chance to earn points as a way to encourage participation http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/and is based on Navers Knowledge iN. Yahoo! Answers is available in 12 languages,but several Asian sites operate a different platform which allows for non-Latincharacters. The platform is known as Yahoo! Chiebukuro (Yahoo!) in Japan, andYahoo! Knowledge in Korea, Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong[citation needed]. AnArabic language Q&A platform called Seen Jeem is available through the Yahoo!subsidiary Maktoob.Yahoo! Answers was created to replace Ask Yahoo!, their former Q&A platformwhich was discontinued in March 2006.Yahoo! Answers is the second most popular Q&A site in the US after Answers.com,according to comScore. 60
  61. 61. Yahoo! FinanceYahoo! Finance is a service from Yahoo! that provides financial information. It is thetop financial news and research website in the United States, with more than 23million visitors in February 2010, according to comScore. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Yahoo! Finance offers information including stock quotes, stock exchange rates,corporate press releases and financial reports, and popular message boards fordiscussing a companys prospects and stock valuation. It also offers some hosted toolsfor personal finance management. Yahoo! Finance Worldwide offers similar portalslocalized to assorted large countries in South America, Europe, and Asia. 61
  62. 62. Yahoo! Site Explorer:Theres only a few basic features here, which includes the ability to see:A list of links that point to a given URL http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/A list of links that point to a given fully-qualified domain (e.g.,southernfood.about.com,www.trusstechnosofts.com , or reddit.com)A list of links that point to a given pay-level domain (e.g., *.about.com,*.seomoz.org, or *.reddit.com - including all their respective subdomains)A modifier that removes links coming from internal pages, either on the fully-qualified or pay-level domainUsing Site Explorer is simple - just enter a given URL and go (or type a standardlink or link domain search query into Yahoo! Search and youll be re-directed). Youllbe given options to modify the domain parameters and exclusions in the results. 62
  63. 63. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 63
  64. 64. Selection-based searchOn June 20, 2007, Yahoo! introduced a selection-based search feature called Yahoo!Shortcuts. When activated this selection-based search feature enabled users to invokesearch using only their mouse and receive search suggestions in floating windows http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/while remaining on Yahoo! properties such as Yahoo! Mail. This feature was onlyactive on Yahoo web pages or pages within the Yahoo! Publisher Network. Yahoo!Shortcuts required the content-owner to modify the underlying HTML of his or herwebpage to call out the specific keywords to be enhanced. The technology for context-aware selection-based search on Yahoo pages was first developed by Reiner KraftSearch ScanOn May 11, 2008, Yahoo! Introduced Search Scan. If enabled this add-on/featureenhanced Yahoo! Search by automatically alerting users of viruses, spyware andspam websites. 64
  65. 65. Search verticalsYahoo! Search provided the ability to search across numerous vertical propertiesoutside just the Web at large. These included Images, Videos, Local, Shopping,Yahoo! Answers, Audio, Directory, Jobs, News, Mobile, Travel and various other http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/services as listed on their About Yahoo! Search page. 65
  66. 66. Yahoo! DirectoryThe Yahoo! Directory is a web directory that rivals the Open Directory Project insize. The directory was Yahoo!s first offering. When Yahoo! changed to crawler-based listings for its main results in October 2002, the human-edited directoryssignificance dropped, but it was still being updated in August 2010. The Yahoo! http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Directory offers two options for suggesting websites for possible listing: "Standard",which is free, and a paid submission process that offers expedited review.Payment is required when suggesting a commercial site. Yahoo! provides both a search engine and a directory service, and the directory is searchable separately from the rest of their search engine results. While Yahoo! has closed a number of country-specific directories, the company has stated that it currently "has no plans to close the main Yahoo! Directory 66
  67. 67. Yahoo FlickrFlickr is an image hosting and video hosting website, web services suite, andonline community created by Ludicorp and later acquired by Yahoo!. Inaddition to being a popular website for users to share and embed personal http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/photographs, the service is widely used by bloggers to host images that theyembed in blogs and social media. In September 2010, it reported that it washosting more than 5 billion images. For mobile users, Flickr has an official appfor iPhone, BlackBerry and for Windows Phone 7, but not for other mobiledevices. 67
  68. 68. Delicious BookmarkingDelicious (formerly del.icio.us, pronounced "delicious") is a socialbookmarking web service for storing, sharing, and discovering webbookmarks. The site was founded by Joshua Schachter in 2003 and http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/acquired by Yahoo! in 2005, then sold to AVOS Systems on April 27,2011.By the end of 2008, the service claimed more than 5.3 million usersand 180 million unique bookmarked URLs. It is headquartered inSunnyvale, California. 68
  69. 69. Yahoo! Music VideosYahoo! Music puts users in control over their content. Yahoo! Music and its worldwidesyndication provide users with up-to-date videos, concerts and interviews whilearchiving old materials for new users to discover. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Function Yahoo! Musics video page allows users to enjoy the latest music video from their favorite artist or discover new artists. Yahoo! helps musicians gain or sustain exposure while letting fans watch the newest videos. Fans also enjoy videos from live performances, video premieres and Yahoo! Music exclusive interviews.Features The site features a Browse section that allows users to search for videos by genre. Theres a panel for the top 100 music videos and a panel for the newest videos. There are several features that help users discover new artists. The "Recommended Artists" panel suggests some well-rounded artists, while the "Video Stations" panel can help find something new by organizing content into thematic channels. 69
  70. 70. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 70 Yahoo! Local Listings
  71. 71. Yahoo! Local Listings is an online local advertising system that gives businesses theability to provide detailed business information to millions of potential customers onYahoo! Local. Three products currently make up Yahoo! Local Listings: http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Basic Listings are free of charge and allow business owners to add listings toYahoo! Local and include important details such as:operation information (hours of operation, accepted payment methods, etc.)services provided & products solda link to a web site (when applicable)Your business can stand out from the crowd with the Enhanced Listing option. Inaddition to the Basic Listing features, Enhanced Listings also include:up to ten photosa company taglinea long description that is searchable by Yahoo! userstwo additional links to a web site (when applicable)performance reports 71
  72. 72. Yahoo! AdvertisingOpen a Microsoft Advertising adCenter account and youll be able to reach morethan 159 million searchers in the U.S. and Canada1 on Yahoo! Search, Bing and http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/our partners. 72
  73. 73. Yahoo! MapsYahoo! Maps is a free online mapping portal provided by Yahoo!. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 73
  74. 74. See also• Yahoo! Directory• Yahoo! Next• List of search engines http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/• Yahoo! Search BOSS• Yahoo! Search MonkeyExternal links• Yahoo! Search• Search Engines: costs vs. benefits (Page refreshes is not considered here)Referenceshttp://search.yahoo.com/Alexa yahoo traffic results" (http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/yahoo.com ).Yahoo! Search Blog (http://www.ysearchblog.com/ )Yahoo! international presence (http://world.yahoo.com/ )Advanced Search (http://search.yahoo.com/web/advanced?ei=UTF-8 )Search Basics tutorial (http://help.yahoo.com/l/us/yahoo/search/basics/ )Yahoo! Shortcuts (http://www.ysearchblog.com/archives/000462.html )Yahoo! SearchScan information page (http://tools.search.yahoo.com/newsearch/searchscan )About Yahoo! Search (http://tools.search.yahoo.com/about/forsearchers.html ) 74http://search.yahoo.Comhttp://www.johnsankey.ca/searchbots.html
  75. 75. Google Search URL www.googlr.com Commercial Yes http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ Type of site Search engine Registration Optional Available languages Multilingual (124) Owner Google Created by Brin and larry pages Launched September 15, 1997 Alexa rank 1 Revenue From adwords Current status Active 75
  76. 76. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Google Search or Google Web Search is a web search engine owned by Google Inc. andis the most-used search engine on the Web. Google receives several hundred millionqueries each day through its various services. The main purpose of Google Search is tohunt for text in web pages, as opposed to other data, such as with Google ImageSearch. Google search was originally developed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin in1997.Google Search provides more than 22 special features beyond the original word-searchcapability.These include synonyms, weather forecasts, time zones, stock quotes, maps,earthquake data, movie showtimes, airports, home listings, and sports scores. (seebelow: Special features). There are special features for numbers including prices, 76temperatures, money/unit conversions ("10.5 cm in inches"), calculations ( 3*4+sqrt(6)-pi/2 ), package tracking, patents, area codes, and rudimentary language translation ofdisplayed pages.
  77. 77. The order of search results on Googles search-results pages is based on a priority rankcalled a "PageRank". Google Search provides many options for customized search (seebelow: Search options), such as: exclusion ("-xx"), inclusion ("+xx"), alternatives ("xx ORyy"), and wildcard ("x * x"). http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Search resultsThe exact percentage of the total of web pages that Google indexes is not known, as itis very hard to actually calculate. Google not only indexes and caches web pages butalso takes "snapshots" of other file types, which include PDF, Word documents, Excelspreadsheets, Flash SWF, plain text files, and so on. Except in the case of text andSWF files, the cached version is a conversion to (X)HTML, allowing those without thecorresponding viewer application to read the file.Users can customize the search engine, by setting a default language, using the"SafeSearch" filtering technology and set the number of results shown on each page.Google has been criticized for placing long-term cookies on users‘ machines to storethese preferences, a tactic which also enables them to track a users search terms andretain the data for more than a year. For any query, up to the first 1000 results can beshown with a maximum of 100 displayed per page. 77
  78. 78. Non-indexable dataDespite its immense index, there is also a considerable amount of data available inonline databases which are accessible by means of queries but not by links. This so-called invisible or deep Web is minimally covered by Google and other search engines. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/The deep Web contains library catalogs, official legislative documents of governments,phone books, and other content which is dynamically prepared to respond to a query.Privacy in some countries forbids the showing of some links. For instance inSwitzerland every private person can force Google Inc. to delete a link, which containstheir name.FunctionalityThe Google search engine has many intuitive features making it more functional.Google search consists of a series of localized websites. The largest of those, thegoogle.com site, is the top most-visited website in the world. Some of its featuresinclude a definition link for most searches including dictionary words, the number ofresults you got on your search, links to other searches (e.g. for words that Googlebelieves to be misspelled, it provides a link to the search results using its proposedspelling), and many more. 78
  79. 79. Search syntaxGoogles search engine normally accepts queries as a simple text, and breaks up theusers text into a sequence of search terms, which will usually be words that are to http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/occur in the results, but may also be phrases, delimited by quotations marks ("),qualified terms, with a prefix such as "+", "-", or one of several advanced operators,such as "site:". The WebPages of "Google Search Basics " describe each of theseadditional queries and options (see below: Search options).Googles Advanced Search web form gives several additional fields which may be usedto qualify searches by such criteria as date of first retrieval. All advanced queriestransform to regular queries, usually with additional qualified terms.Query expansionGoogle applies query expansion to the submitted search query, transforming it into thequery that will actually be used to retrieve results. As with page ranking, the exactdetails of the algorithm Google uses are deliberately obscure, but certainly thefollowing transformations are among those that occur:• Term reordering: in information retrieval this is a standard technique to reduce thework involved in retrieving results. This transformation is invisible to the user, since 79the results ordering uses the original query order to determine relevance.
  80. 80. • Stemming is used to increase search quality by keeping small syntactic variants ofsearch terms.• There is a limited facility to fix possible misspellings in queries. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/"Im Feeling Lucky“Googles homepage includes a button labeled "Im Feeling Lucky". When a user clickson the button the user will be taken directly to the first search result, bypassing thesearch engine results page. The thought is that if a user is "feeling lucky", the searchengine will return the perfect match the first time without having to page through thesearch results. According to a study by Tom Chavez of "Rapt", this feature costsGoogle $110 million a year as 1% of all searches use this feature and bypass alladvertising.On October 30, 2009, for some users, the "Im Feeling Lucky" button was removedfrom Googles main page, along with the regular search button. Both buttons werereplaced with a field that reads, "This space intentionally left blank." This text fadesout when the mouse is moved on the page, and normal search functionality isachieved by filling in the search field with the desired terms and pressing enter. AGoogle spokesperson explains, "This is just a test, and a way for us to gauge whetherour users will like an even simpler search interface." Personalized Google homepagesretained both buttons and their normal functions. 80
  81. 81. Rich SnippetsOn 12 May 2009, Google announced that they would be parsing the hCard, hReview,and hProduct microformats and using them to populate search result pages with whatthey called "Rich Snippets". http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Special featuresBesides the main search-engine feature of searching for text, Google Search has morethan 22 "special features“ (activated by entering any of dozens of trigger words) whensearching:• weather – The weather conditions, temperature, wind, humidity, and forecast, formany cities, can be viewed by typing "weather" along with a city for larger cities orcity and state, U.S. zip code, or city and country for smaller cities (such as: weatherLawrence, Kansas; weather Paris; weather Bremen, Germany).• stock quotes – The market data for a specific company or fund can be viewed, bytyping the ticker symbol (or include "stock"), such as: CSCO; MSFT; IBM stock; Fstock (lists Ford Motor Co.); or AIVSX (fund). Results show inter-day changes, or 5-year graph, etc. This does not work for stock names which are one letter long, such asCitigroup (C) or Macys (M) (Ford being an exception), or are common words, such asDiamond Offshore (DO) or Majesco (COOL). 81• time – The current time in many cities (worldwide), can be viewed by typing "time"and the name of the city (such as: time Cairo; time Pratt, KS).
  82. 82. sports scores – The scores and schedules, for sports teams, can be displayed bytyping the team name or league name into the search box.• unit conversion – Measurements can be converted, by entering each phrase, suchas: 10.5 cm in inches; or 90 km in miles http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/• currency conversion – A money or currency converter can be selected, by typingthe names or currency codes (listed by ISO 4217): 6789 Euro in USD; 150 GBP inUSD; 5000 Yen in USD; 5000 Yuan in lira (the U.S. dollar can be USD or "US$" or"$", while Canadian is CAD, etc.).• calculator – Calculation results can be determined, as calculated live, by enteringa formula in numbers or words, such as: 6*77 +pi +sqrt(e^3)/888 plus 0.45. The useris given the option to sear ch for the formula, after calculation. The calculator alsouses the unit and currency conversion functions to allow unit-aware calculations.For example, "(3 EUR/liter) / (40 miles/gallon) in USD / mile" calculates the dollar costper mile for a 40 mpg car with gas costing 3 euros a liter.• dictionary lookup – A definition for a word or phrase can be found, by entering"define" plus the word(s) to lookup (such as: Define philosophy)• maps – Some related maps can be displayed, by typing in the name or U.S. ZIPcode of a location and the word "map" (such as: New York map; Kansas map; or Paris82map).
  83. 83. • movie showtimes – Reviews or film showtimes can be listed for any moviesplaying nearby, by typing "movies" or the name of any current film into the searchbox. If a specific location was saved on a previous search, the top search result willdisplay showtimes for nearby theaters for that movie. These listings however aresometimes totally incorrect and there is no way to ask Google to correct them; for http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/example, on 25 July, for the El Capitan Theatre, google showtimes lists Up butaccording to the El Capitan website, the only movie playing that day is G-Force.• public data – Trends for population (or unemployment rates) can be found forU.S. states & counties, by typing "population" or "unemployment rate" followed by astate or county name.• real estate and housing – Home listings in a given area can be displayed, usingthe trigger words "housing", "home", or "real estate" followed by the name of a city orU.S. zip code.• travel data/airports – The flight status for arriving or departing U.S. flights canbe displayed, by typing in the name of the airline and the flight number into thesearch box (such as: American airlines 18). Delays at a specific airport can also beviewed (by typing the name of the city or three-letter airport code plus word"airport"). 83
  84. 84. • package tracking – Package mail can be tracked by typing the tracking numberof a Royal Mail, UPS, Fedex or USPS package directly into the search box. Resultswill include quick links to track the status of each shipment. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/• patent numbers – U.S. patents can be searched by entering the word "patent"followed by the patent number into the search box (such as: Patent 5123123).• area code – The geographical location (for any U.S. telephone area code) can bedisplayed by typing a 3-digit area code (such as: 650).• synonym search – A search can match words similar to those specified, byplacing the tilde sign (~) immediately in front of a search term, such as: ~fast food.• U.S. Government search – Searching of U.S. government websites can beperformed from webpage: www.google.com/unclesam. 84
  85. 85. Search optionsThe webpages maintained by the Google Help Center have text describing more than15 various search options. The Google operators: http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/• OR – Search for either one, such as "price high OR low" searches for "price" with"high" or "low".• "-" – Search while excluding a word, such as "apple -tree" searches where word"tree" is not used.• "+" – Force inclusion of a word, such as "Name +of +the Game" to require the words"of" & "the" to appear on a matching page.• "*" – Wildcard operator to match any words between other specific words.Some of the query options are as follows:• define: – The query prefix "define:" will provide a definition of the words listed afterit.• stocks: – After "stocks:" the query terms are treated as stock ticker symbols forlookup.• site: – Restrict the results to those websites in the given domain, such as,85site:www.acmeacme.com. The option "site:com" will search all domain URLs namedwith ".com" (no space after "site:").
  86. 86. • allintitle: – Only the page titles are searched (not the remaining text on eachwebpage).• intitle: – Prefix to search in a webpage title, such as "intitle:google search" will list http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/pages with word "google“ in title, and word "search" anywhere (no space after"intitle:").• allinurl: – Only the page URL address lines are searched (not the text inside eachwebpage).• inurl: – Prefix for each word to be found in the URL; others words are matchedanywhere, such as "inurl:acme search" matches "acme" in a URL, but matches"search" anywhere (no space after "inurl:"). The page-display options (or query types)are:• cache: – Highlights the search-words within the cached document, such as"cache:www.google.com xxx" shows cached content with word "xxx" highlighted.• link: – The prefix "link:" will list webpages that have links to the specified webpage,such as "link:www.google.com" lists webpages linking to the Google homepage.• related: – The prefix "related:" will list webpages that are "similar" to a specifiedweb page. 86
  87. 87. • info: – The prefix "info:" will display some background information about onespecified webpage, such as, info:www.google.com. Typically, the info is the first text(160 bytes, about 23 words) contained in the page, displayed in the style of a resultsentry (for just the 1 page as matching the search). http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/• filetype: - results will only show files of the desired type (ex filetype:pdf will returnpdf files) Note that Google searches the HTML coding inside a webpage, not thescreen appearance: the words displayed on a screen might not be listed in the sameorder in the HTML coding.Error messagesSome searches will give a 403 Forbidden error with the text"Were sorry...... but your query looks similar to automated requests from a computer virus orspyware application. To protect our users, we cant process your request right now.Well restore your access as quickly as possible, so try again soon. In the meantime, ifyou suspect that your computer or network has been infected, you might want to run avirus checker or spyware remover to make sure that your systems are free of virusesand other spurious software. 87We apologize for the inconvenience, and hope well see you again on Google.“sometimes followed by a CAPTCHA prompt.
  88. 88. The screen was first reported in 2005, and was a response to the heavy use of Googleby search engine optimization companies to check on ranks of sites they wereoptimizing. The message is triggered by high volumes of requests from a single IPaddress. Google apparently uses the Google cookie as part of its determination ofrefusing service. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/In June 2009, after the death of pop superstar Michael Jackson, this messageappeared to many internet users who were searching Google for news stories relatedto the singer, and was assumed by Google to be a DDoS attack, although manyqueries were legitimate searchers.January 2009 malware bugA screen-shot of the error of January 31, 2009 Google flags search results with themessage "This site may harm your computer" if the site is known to install malicioussoftware in the background or otherwise surreptitiously. Google does this to protectusers against visiting sites that could harm their computers. For approximately 40minutes on January 31, 2009, all search results were mistakenly classified asmalware and could therefore not be clicked; instead a warning message wasdisplayed and the user was required to enter the requested URL manually. The bugwas caused by human error. The URL of "/" (which expands to all URLs) wasmistakenly checked in as a value to the file. 88
  89. 89. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/ 89
  90. 90. Google DoodleOn certain occasions, the logo on Googles webpage will change to a special version,known as a "Google Doodle". Clicking on the Doodle links to a string of Google search http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/results about the topic. The first was a reference to the Burning Man Festival in1998, and others have been produced for the birthdays of notable people like AlbertEinstein, historical events like the interlocking Lego blocks 50th anniversary andholidays like Valentines Day.Google CaffeineIn August 2009, Google announced the rollout of a new search architecture,codenamed "Caffeine". The new architecture was designed to return results fasterand to better deal with rapidly updated information from services including Facebookand Twitter. Google developers noted that most users would notice little immediatechange, but invited developers to test the new search in its sandbox. One change thatwas noticeable was the search return time. In numerous tests it returned results innearly half the time. Other differences noted for their impact upon Search EngineOptimization included heavier keyword weighting and the importance of thedomains age.The move was interpreted in some quarters as a response to Microsofts recentrelease of an upgraded version of its own search service, renamed Bing. 90
  91. 91. InternationalGoogle is available in many languages and has been localized for many countries.Google support 124 languages. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Arabic Bulgarian Catalan ChineseChinese Croatian Czech Danish(traditional)Dutch English Estonian FinnishFrench German Greek HebrewHungarian Icelandic Indonesian ItalianJapanese Korean Latvian LithuanianMalay Norwegian Persian PolishPortuguese Romanian Russian SerbianSlovak Slovenian Spanish SwedishTagalog Thai Turkish Vietnamese 91
  92. 92. Domain namesIn addition to the main URL Google.com , Google Inc. owns 160 domain names for eachof the countries/regions in which it has been localized. As Google is an Americancompany, the main domain name can be considered as the U.S. one. For a list of thecurrent domain names, see page: {{Google.com}}. Some domain names unregistered by http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Google are currently squatted, such as "Google.ua" (for Ukraine, where the correctURL is "google.com.ua“ india Url www.google.in).Search productsIn addition to its tool for searching webpages, Google also provides services forsearching images, Usenet newsgroups, news websites, videos, searching by locality,maps, and items for sale online. In 2006, Google has indexed over 25 billion webpages,[36] 400 million queries per day, 1.3 billion images, and over one billionUsenet messages. It also caches much of the content that it indexes. Google operatesother tools and services including Google News, Google Suggest, Google ProductSearch, Google Maps, Google Co-op, Google Earth, Google Blog Search and GoogleDesktop Search. There are also products available from Google that are not directlysearch-related. Gmail, for example, is a webmail application, but still includes searchfeatures; Google Browser Sync does not offer any search facilities, although itaims to organize your browsing time.Also Google starts many new beta products, like Google Social Search or Google Image 92Swirl.
  93. 93. Google ServicesGoogle +1 ButtonThe +1 button is shorthand for "this is pretty cool" or "you should check this out.“ http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Click +1 to publicly give something your stamp of approval. Your +1s can helpfriends, contacts, and others on the web find the best stuff when they search.URL: www.google.com/+1/button/ 93
  94. 94. Google AdSenseGoogle AdSense is a free, simple way for website publishers of all sizes to earnmoney by displaying targeted Google ads on their websites. http://seosemandsocialnetworking.blogspot.com/Url: www.google.com/adsense 94