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1 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
Personal hygiene
Sanitation: - Rules of personal hygiene and sanitary food handling are not invented just to
make your life difficult.
There are good reasons for all of these.
All food service operators are responsible for knowing the health department regulations in
their own city and state.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. (HACCP)
Preventing food borne illness is one of the most important challenges facing every food
service industries.
In order to prevent the illness, a food worker must understand the source of food borne
disease.
Most food borne illness is the result of eating food that has been contaminated. It means
food contains harmful substances that were not present originally in the food or in other
words contaminated food is that is not pure.
It is very important to know how these substances get into the food to contaminate it and
how food workers can prevent contamination and avoid serving contaminated food.
Any substances in the food that can cause illness or injury is called as HAZARD.
Food hazards are of three types:-
1. Biological Hazards
2. Chemical Hazards
3. Physical Hazards
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
Pathogens: Microorganisms
1) BACTERIA- Condition to grow.
FOOD-Sufficient amount of protein is best suited for bacteria to grow
MOISTURE-It requires water to absorb the food. Dry foods do not support bacterial growth.
Foods with relatively high salt or sugar can also be considered a safe food.
TEMPERATURE-Bacteria grows at warm temperature.50C-600C is the best growth suited
temperature to promote the disease causing bacteria.
OXYGEN-Some bacteria needs oxygen to grow.
ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY-In general disease producing bacteria like a. The acidity or alkalinity
of a substance is indicated by a measurement called PH. The scale ranges from 0(strongly
acidic)to 14(strongly alkaline).A PH of 7 is neutral. Pure water has a PH of 7.
TIME-When bacteria are introduced to a new environment it needs time to adapt to their
surroundings before they start growing. This time is called as lag phase.
2) VIRUSES- Viruses are even smaller than bacteria. Unlike bacteria they can’t reproduce or
multiply unless they are inside a living cell but they can be carried on almost any surface
and can survive for days or even months. Because viruses do not multiply in food like
2 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
bacteria. Food borne viral diseases are usually caused by contamination from people,
food contact surface or in the case of sea foods, contaminated water.
3) PARASITES-Parasites are organisms that can survive only by living on or inside another
organism. Human parasites are generally transmitted to them from the animal host.
These are very small and microscopic. They can be killed by proper cooking or by
freezing.
4) FUNGI-Molds and yeasts are examples of fungi. These are associated with food spoilage
rather than food borne disease. Most molds and yeast, even those that cause spoilage
are not dangerous to most human beings. Some of the fungi are useful.
E.g.: Veining (of) in blue cheese, fermentation of bread dough
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Chemical poisoning is caused by the use of defective or improper equipment or
equipment that has been handled improperly. Do not use the following material that
causes food poisoning.
i) ANTIMONY-Caused by storing or cooking acid foods in chipped grey enamel
ware.
ii) CADMIUM-Caused by cadmium plated ice cube tray or container.
iii) CYANIDE-Caused by silver polish containing cyanide.
iv) LEAD-Caused by lead water pipe/containing lead/utensils containing lead.
v) ZINC-Caused by cooking food in zinc plated galvanized utensils.
vi) COPPER UTENSILS-Carbonated beverage in contact with copper tubing.
PHYSICAL CONTAMINATION:
It is a contamination of food with objects that may not be toxic
but may cause injury or discomfort.
Examples: Pieces of glass froma broken container.
Metal sharping from an improperly opened can.
Stones from poorly sorted dried beans.
Hair in food.
3 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
Personal hygiene
Most food borne illness/disease may also be caused or spread by food handler also.
Some examples of situations in which cross contamination can occur include the following.
1. Mixing contaminated left over with a freshly cooked batch of food.
2. Handling ready to eat food with unclean hands. Handling several types of foods
without washing hands in between.
3. Cutting raw chicken and then using the same cutting board unsanitary to cut
vegetables.
4. Placing ready to eat food on a lower refrigerator shelf and allowing juices from raw
fish and meat to drip on to them from an upper shelf.
5. Wiping down work surface with a soiled cloth.
Good personal hygiene
Even when we are healthy, we have bacteria all over our skin and in our nose and mouth.
Some of these bacteria if given the chance to grow in food will make people ill.
1. Do not work with food if you have any communicable disease or infection.
2. Bath or shower daily.
3. Wear clean uniform.
4. Keep hair neat and clean always. Always wear hat or hair net (inside the kitchen )
5. Keep moustaches and beard trimmed and be clean shaved.
6. Wash hands and exposed parts of arm before work and as often as during work
including
 After eating/drinking or smoking.
 After using toilets.
 After touching or handling anything that may be contaminated with
bacteria.
7. Cover cough and sneezes then wash hands.
8. Keep your hands away from your face, eyes, hair, and arms.
9. Keep finger nails clean and short. Do not wear nail polish.
10. Do not smoke or chew gums while on duty.
11. Do not sit on work tables.
12. Do not use strong perfumes; a mild-deodorant can be used.
Procedure for washing hands
1. Wash hands in/with hot running water. Use water as hot as you comfortably stand.
Hot at least 100’f/38’c is best suited.
2. Apply enough soap, to make good lather.
3. Rub hands together thoroughly for 20 seconds or longer, washing not only the hands
but the wash and the lower part of the forearm.
4. Using a nail brush cleans be neat the finger nails and fingers.
4 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
5. Rinse hands well under hot running water. If possible use a clean paper towel to turn
of the water to avoid contaminating the hands by contact with soiled towels.
6. Dry hands with clean single use paper towels or warm air hand dryer.
Use of gloves
1. Use gloves to handle/serve/touch ready to eat foods. For which doesn’t need any
further cooking.
2. Wash hands before putting in gloves or when changing to another pair. Gloves are
not a substitute for proper hand washing.
3. Remove and discard gloves, wash hands one change to a new pair of gloves after
handling one food item and before starting work on another.
4. Gloves are for single use only.
5 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
Pre preparation of ingredients
Mise en place:-
Only if advance preparation is done thoroughly and systematically will service go smooth.
Good chefs take pride in the thoroughness and quality of their advance preparation of mise
en place.
 This French term meaning
‘’ Everything put in place’’ (pre preparation of
ingredients)
Even on the simplest level pre preparation is necessary. If you are preparing only for the
recipe you must first:-
o Assemble your tools.
o Assemble your ingredients.
o Wash, trim, cut, prepare and measure your raw materials.
o Prepare your equipment
 preheating of oven
 Line baking sheet etc.
Only then you begin the actual preparation.
Solid foods which are to be mixed have to be reduced in to small sizes which will allow them
to combine readily.
1. WASHING: - This is done to remove superficial dirt. Wash vegetables, meat and
fish in cold water and before any preparation is done. If they are soaked for a
long period or washed after cutting, there is greater loss of water soluble
vitamins and minerals.
Thawing: - frozen foods to be brought to their original state before
any preparation is done. That process of converting is called a
thawing. Thawing is done by three ways:-
1. Putting the food in a container with water and allowing
the water to run on the food.
2. By storing in a refrigerator maintained at 3*c to 4*c
prior to a day of cooking.
3. Microwave thawing.
2. PEELING AND SCRAPING: - Spoilt, soiled, and inedible portions are removed.
Skins of the vegetables like potatoes, carrots etc. or of fruits are removed by
either peeling or scraping, while peeling, remove as little of the flesh as possible.
3 PARING: - removing the outer surface layer by cutting as in paring an apple.
 A circular motion is used.
4 CUTTING: - reducing to small parts by means of a knife or scissors. When the
reduction is done by a chopping knife or a food chopper it is known as chopping.
Cutting into even sized cubes is called dicing.
Cutting into very fine pieces is called mincing.
Shredding is cutting into fine long pieces with a knife or shredder.
Slicing is also cutting into thin long pieces, but these are not as fine as shredding.
6 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
5 GRATING: - reducing to fine particles by rubbing over a rough sharp surface.
6 GRINDING: - reducing to small fragments by crushing in a mill or in a grinding
stone.
7 MASHING: - this is a method of breaking up soft foods such as a cooked potatoes
or vegetables.
8 SIEVING: - passing through wire mesh to remove impurities, to break down to
even portions or to enclose air.
9 MILLING: - removing the husks from cereals is called as milling applied to
mills/rice mills etc.
10 STEEPING: - extracting the colour and flavour by allowing the ingredients to stand
in water generally at a temperature just below the boiling point as in tea
preparation or as in saffron.
11 SLITTING: - to make a slit in the middle length wise as slitting of green chillies.
12 SKIMMING: - to remove the floating impurities in stock making or in milk is called
as skimming.
13 CENTRIFUGING: - promotion of separation by the application of whirling force.
Separation of butter from curd or cream from milk.
14 EMULSIFICATION: - blending of one liquid with another in which it is insoluble
e.g. oil and egg yolk in mayonnaise preparation.
15 EVAPORATION: - removal of excess moisture by heating/boiling the food.
16 HOMOGENISATION:- sub division of layers drops into smaller ones by passing
through a small hole under great pressure is called as Homogenisation.
Methods of mixing food
1. Beating: - generally applied to thin mixtures of liquid. Should be done with the aim of
incorporating air. E.g. Beating of egg in cake making.
This term is used synonymously with whipping.
2. Blending: - mixing one or more ingredients thoroughly with a help of blender/whisk/ or a
food processor/ mixer.
3. Cutting in: - incorporation of fat in flour with the help of a knife by cutting is called as
cutting in. this produce a coarse division of fat and does not result in blending.
i. E.g. Cutting of fat into pastry mixture.
4. Creaming: - softening of fat by frication of a wooden spoon or by hand. This is generally
followed by incorporation of sugar as in cake mixing.
5. Folding: - mixing mixtures by lifting and dropping motion. The edge of the spoon is used.
The mixture is carefully lifted and turned completely and then gently replaced.
6. Kneading:-Manipulating by altering pressure with folding and stretching motion. The
food is pressed with the knuckle. The dough is brought from outside of the basin to the
centre and at the same time the bowl is moved so that the different sections are
kneaded at the same time. This will ensure even distribution of ingredient.
7. Rubbing in: - Rubbing of fat into flour with the help of fingers. Rub until the mixture
becomes like a bread crumb. This is normally done with the tip of your finger.
7 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
8. Rolling in: - rolling of fat in the dough as in the puff pastry. (Butter) into the soft dough
this is normally done with rolling pin.
9. Pressing in: - This is done to shape up the cooked foods e.g. Cutlets or as, the method to
separate the liquids from solids by weights or mechanical pressure as in the making of
paneer.
10.Stirring:- Mixing foods with a suitable tool such as a spoon by a circular motion in a
concept with the pan
i.) To prevent the food from burning.
ii.) To drive out the air as previously enclosed.
iii.) To blend.
Preliminary Cooking and Flavouring.
Advance preparation often requires certain precooking and flavouring of ingredients to
main them recovery for use in the finished recipe.
Blanching / par cooking
Removing the outer sine by putting food in the hot water, bringing it to boil and refreshing it
under cold running water is called as blanching.
 To remove the outer skin of vegetable such as tomato.
 To remove the outer skin of almonds pista etc.
 To whiten the meat bones in moving white stock.
 To remove the impurities as in making stock.
 To remove blood strains as in bones again in stock making.
Marinating:
To soak the food product in seasoned liquid in order to
 Flavour the product
 Tenderise the product.
Marinades have four categories of ingredients.
1. Oil: oil helps to preserve the meat moisture. It is sometimes avoided especially for
long marinations as the oil would only float on top, out of contact with the product
being marinated. Tasteless vegetable oil is used when a natural flavour is required.
Special oils such as olive oil, are used to add flavour to the item being marinated.
2. Acids from vinegar, lemon juice or wine: acids helps to tenderise the protein food. It
adds flavour (its own and dissolved flavours from spices and herbs)
Strong acids can be used in marinades if they are used in small quantities or if the
meat is marinated for only a few hours.
3. Flavouring -spices, herbs, vegetables: a wide choice is available depending upon the
purpose. Whole spices release flavours more slowly, so they are more suitable for
long marinations.
4. Salt: they are used to tenderise the food. In right quantity they bring out the taste
and flavours of other ingredients.
8 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
Texture
It is a term used to describe the characteristic of a finished food product. The order in which
ingredients are added, the way of mixing and the method of cooking affect the resulting
products.
A good cook should not only know how to distinguish between one texture and another but
also be able to produce what he or she want.
Only through experience one can find out the correct texture of a particular product.
A brief description of some commonly found texture and their correct occurrence is given
below, but it must also be born in mind that the difference between one texture and
another is very fine.
1. Firm and close: the holes made by the raising agents are many but small and the
mixture is not in the least spongy. The fat added prevents the mixture from being
too hard. E.g. In biscuit or plain small pastry.
2. Short of crumbly: this is similar to firm and close but more fat is added.in short
bread and naankatais.
3. Spongy: a soft and elastic texture showing inclusion of air e.g. Swiss role sponge
cake and idly.
4. Light and even: holes are plentiful and of a fair size. The food is firm but not hard or
soft. It is neither as short as pastry nor as spongy as sponge cakes e.g. Madeira
cake.
5. Flaky: this is caused by the method of adding fat. Thin crisp layers are formed,
separated by air pockets. The flakes themselves should not be tough .e.g. Flaky and
puff pastry. etc.
 Coarse: - holes are large and uneven. And the food in the
sunken in the centre. This is brought about by the addition of
too much of raising agent or too little liquids.
 Tough: - coarse mixtures are also tough. Toughness is caused
by too much liquids, are through in correct mixing. This will
also result if too little fat is added.
 Hard: - bad fault brought about by the addition of too much
of liquid or too much pressure while mixing. Hard mixtures are
usually heavy since the air enclose driven off.
9 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
Cooking materials
Different raw materials are used in cooking to produce a complete dish. Each ingredient in
dish has a special part to play and knowledge of what each food does is necessary to
understand cooking thoroughly.
The materials are classified according to the part they play in making up of dishes
Given below is the classification of raw materials:-
1. FOUNDATION INGREDIENTS.
2. FATS AND OILS
3. RAISING AGENTS.
4. EGGS
5. SALT
6. LIQUIDS
7. FLAVOURING AND SEASONING
8. SWEETENING AGENTS
9. THICKNENING AGENTS
FOUNDATION INGREDIENTS:-
Every dish has a foundation ingredient on which the other ingredients are based.
It can be a liquid or a solid .e.g. the foundation ingredient in the bread is flour, meat in
roast, milk or stock in soups.
It is not only necessary to know the proportion of various ingredients but also the
composition of the different ingredients and the action of heat on these.
Food composed of five main nutrients:-
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fats
3. Proteins
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals.
FATS AND OILS
 Oils are liquid at room temperature but solidify at lower temperature. The
commonly used cooling oils are - linseed oil, sesame oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil ,
peanut oil, Corn oil and sunflower oil.
Hydrogenation of oils:
Whale oil, cotton seed oil, soya been oil, peanut oil, etc are sold as
shortening of varying consistencies’.
The conversion of oil into fat is brought about by a process known as the
hydrogenation.
10 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
Treating oil under presence of a catalyst, usually nickel under these condition the
unsaturated fatty acids present in the oil combine with hydrogen. This chemical
process brings about a physical change, the liquid oil become solid fat.
Fats are used in cooking either as shortening agent or as frying medium.
Fats are used in confectionary to enrich the food and to impart to them short eating
qualities. Collectively they are referred to as shortening agent.
There effect is to be breakdown or destroy the toughness of gluten, so that instead
of being hard and tough to eat food containing fat brave of short and readily melt in
the mouth.
As shortening agent Fat add up:
* Nutrition value.
* contributes to the characteristic flavour and texture.
The type of fat and the way in which fat is incorporated affect the texture as in short
crust pastry, flaky pastry, puff pastry.
As heat melt fat, cooking must be done at the correct temperature So that the flour
can absorb the fat as it melt.
If the heat is insufficient the fat runs out of the mixture and is wasted besides leaving
the food tough and oily.
Fat as a frying medium function in 3 ways:
1. Transfer heat to the food to be fried.
2. It adds nutritive value of the food.
3. It contributes to the flavour of the food.
Fat used for frying should have a high smoke point, low moisture content, and high stability
and an acceptable flavour.
Rendering of fats:
The process of melting to extract fat from fatty tissues good supply of dripping
can be obtained by rendering down suet (fat surrounding the kidney of low or sheep) and
pieces of fat from meat.
RAISING AGENTS /LEAVENING AGENT
The function of the raising agents is to puff up the food so that it spreads and rises. Thus
making it light, not close and heavy. The tiny air spaces caused by the raising agents are
retained during the process of cooking. The leavening of flour mixer is accomplished by the
expansion of incorporated air and by the internal production and expansion of water vapour
and carbon dioxide.
When the product is heated, the air expands and the part of water vaporises.
The formation of carbon dioxide requires the presence of suitable micro-organisms.
11 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
GLUTEN
Gluten a substance found in flour develops when moisture is added and helps to retain the
raising agents within food till the food sets, thus helping to make the food light. Gluten is a
sticky elastic substance which stretches as the air or gas expands and preventing these from
escaping. The air or gas trapped in the mixture expands further when heated and make the
cooked food light. Too much raising agents raises the food too rapidly, break the surface
and allows the gas produced to escape and as a result the product sinks and become heavy.
1. Air as raising agent: - air is incorporated by sifting flour, by beating eggs or by beating
the mixture itself.
2. Water vapour as a raising agent: - water vapour is formed in quantities sufficient to
raise the mixture when liquids and flour are used in correct proposition.
3. Chemical as raising agents: - chemical such as soda bi carbonate, cream or tartar,
baking powder, ammonium carbonate etc. are added to mixture to make food light.
In each case the result is the production of carbon dioxide.
4. Yeast as raising agent: - carbon dioxide is produced either from sugar by yeast, or
from a carbonate usually, sodium bi carbonate by action of an acid.
Yeast: - fermentation is a process by which yeast acts on carbohydrates and change
them into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. This release of gas produces the leavening
action in yeast product. The alcohol evaporates completely during and immediately
after baking.
Yeast
1ºc/34ºc------ ----- Inactive: storage temperature.
60º to 70ºF ---------slow action
(15ºc to 20ºc)
70º to 90ºF ---------- best growth
(20ºc to 32ºc) proofing temperaturefor bread dough.
Above 100ºF --------- reaction slows.
(38ºc)
140ºF (60ºc)----------yeast iskilled.
raising
agents
mechanical
biologicalchemical
12 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
Yeast
Yeast consist of microscopic ,unicellular plants which are capable of rapid multiplication
when conditions are favourable and obtain energy by breaking down sugar to carbon
dioxide and alchohol.This process is known as fermentation and is brought about by the
enzymes known as zymase found in yeast .
Dried yeast.
Activated dried yeast.
Compressed yeast.
Dried yeast: This is a mixture of yeast and corn flour or corn meal pressed into cakes
and dried. The yeast continues to live but in an inactive state .when furnished with
food and moisture, it begins to develop and multiply, but this process is slow.
Dried yeast has to be soaked in Luke warm water and mixed with soft dough, before
all the ingredients are added.
Activated dried yeast: This develops more rapidly than dried yeast and is the type
now available .it can be used in straight dough mixing. It is less perishable than
compressed yeast and activated dried yeast is longer at refrigerated temperature
than at room temperature.
Compressed yeast: this is a moist mixture of yeast plant and starch.
The yeast remains active and will grow and multiply rapidly when added to dough. It
has to be kept in refrigerated temperature.
Leavening agent: leavening is the production of incorporation of gases in a baked
product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture. These gases must be
retained in the product until the structure is set enough (by the coagulation of gluten
and egg protein) to hold its shape.
Exact measurement of leavening agent is important because small change
can produce major defects in baked products.
Actionof heat on carbohydrates
Starches and sugar are carbohydrates. Both compounds are present in foods in many terms.
They are found in fruit, vegetables, grains, beans and nuts.
Meat and fish also contains a small amount of carbohydrates. The most important changes
in carbohydrates by heat are caramelization and gelatinization.
13 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
Caramelization: is the browning of sugar. The browning of sautéed vegetables and the
golden crust of bread crust are formed of caramelization.
Sugar is changed into invert sugar (by a process where sucrose is broken down into glucose
and fructose) when heated with fruit juices or other weak acids.
Sugar on boiling passes through regular stages till it becomes caramelized at 163 ºc/325ºf.
The following are the stages through which it passes.
Small thread 102ºc 216ºf
large thread 103ºc 218ºf
pearl 106ºc 222ºf
soft ball 114ºc 237ºf
hard ball 120ºc 247ºf
soft crack 143ºc 290ºf
hard crack 156ºc 312ºf
caramel 163ºc-177ºc 325ºf-350ºf
Gelatinization occurs when starches absorb water and swell. This is a major principle of the
thickening of sauces and in the production of breads and pastries.
Generally starches swells up and become softer. Starch is enclosed within granules. These
starch, they swell up and then burst and release the starch.
Actions of HEAT on Proteins
Protein is the major component of meats, poultry, fish, egg, milk, and milk products. It is
also present in smaller amounts in nuts, beans and grains.
Coagulation
Proteins consist of long chains of components called amino acids. These chains normally
form tight coils. As proteins are heated the coils gradually unwind. At this point, the proteins
is said to be denatured. When the protein coils unwind they become attracted to each other
and form bonds. This bonding is called as coagulation.
The coagulation proteins form a solid network of these bonds and become firm. As the
temperature increases, the proteins shrink and become firmer and lose major moisture.
Exposure of proteins to excessive heat toughens them and makes them dry. Most proteins
coagulate at 160º F to 185 º F (75º to 85º).
MAILLARD REACTION
Many protein foods such as meat contain small quantities of carbohydrates. When amino
acids in the proteins chains react with carbohydrates molecules and undergo a complex
chemical reaction. The result is that they turn brown and develop richer flavour. This
reaction is called as MAILLARD REACTION.
14 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
` CONNECTIVETISSUES
These are special proteins that are present in meats. Meats with a great deal of connective
tissues are dissolved when cooled slowly with moisture. Cooling tough meats properly
therefore makes them tenderer.
Acids such as lemon juice, vinegar and tomato products to two things to protein. They speed
up coagulation; they help dissolve some connective tissues.
The coagulation process helps in keeping the nourishment within the food. When boiling
protein foods such as meat and fish put them in boiling liquid and then reduce the
temperature. When roasting meat put them in oven which is at a fairly high temperature
and then reduce the heat. The Myoglobulin in the muscle tissues and haemoglobin in the
capillaries give meat its red colour. Both these decompose on heating causing a brown
colour, which is generally found in cooked meat.
Actions of Heat on Fats
Fats are present in meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk products, nuts and grains and to a lesser
extent vegetables and fruits.
Fats are also important as cooking medium as for frying .Fats are either solid or liquid at
room temperature. Liquid fats are called as oils.
When solid fats are heated, they begin to break down from solid to liquid. The melting
point of solids fats varies.
When the fats are heated, they begin to break down. When hot enough, they deteriorate
rapidly and smoke. The temperature at which this happens is called the smoke point and it
varies by type of fat. A stable fat is one with a high smoke is an important consideration in
deep fat frying.
With continuous use, fat deteriorates because of excessive temperature, moisture , air and
the presence of carbonized crumbs and small pieces of food to a point where it will just
bubble in the pan , too weak to perform the action of frying .
Fat begins to thicken, becoming gummy like substance. This condition is known as
BLYMENIZATION, and fat that has reached this stage is no longer fit to use.
Action of heat on minerals
There is no appreciable loss of minerals due to cooking, except when cooking liquor is
thrown out.
Some minerals are made more rapidly available by cooking.
Actions of heat on vitamins
Vitamin C , is the only vitamin which is really unstable when heated , although careful
cooking helps to retain some of it .
Vitamin A and D ARE NOT destroyed by ordinary cooking methods.
Vitamin B may be destroyed during cooking it cooled at high temperature, eg baking of
biscuits and manufacture of breakfast, cereals, by the addition of baking soda or when
cooking liquor is thrown away.
15 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
THE ORGANISATION OF MODERN KICTCHEN
EXECUTIVE CHEF (CHEF DE CUISINE)
↓
SOUS CHEF
↓
CHEF DE PARTIE
↓
DEMI CHEF DE PARTIE
↓
COMMIS-1
↓
COMMIS-2
↓
COMMIS-3
↓
PORTERS
↓
TRAINEES
↓
APPRENTICE
THE ORGANIZATION OF MODERN KITCHENS
The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so that the work can be
done efficiently and properly and so all workers know what their responsibilities are.
The way a kitchen is organised depends on several factors.
1. MENUS
2. THE TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT
3. THE SIZE OF THE ORGNIZATION (The number of customers and the volume of food
served)
4. THE PHYSICAL FACILITIES, INCLUDING THE EQUIPMENT IN USE.
THE CLASSICAL BRIGADE
ESCOFFIER’S important achievement was the reorganisation of the kitchen. This
reorganisation divided the kitchen into departments or stations, based on the kind of food
produced. A station chef was placed in charge of each department.
EXECUTIVE CHEF/CHEF DE CUISINE
a) The chef is the person in charge of the kitchen. He is responsible for all the aspects
of food production, including menu planning, purchasing, costing (food), planning
work schedules, hiring and training.
b) The duties of the chef are complicated and require many years of experience and
training.
c) He should be able to prepare all kinds of food, sweets and puddings and should have
a good knowledge about bakery also.
16 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
d) He should be capable of introducing new dishes and find new methods in
preparation and presentation of food.
e) In general he should be the master of the kitchen.
f) Compiling the menu in consultation with F&B/Restaurant manager.
g) He is responsible for ordering perishable goods from the store and it is his duty to
make sure that there is no wastage.
h) Supervising the kitchen and the kitchen staff.
i) Inspecting the food prepared to ensure the quality and quantity.
j) He should make sure that the equipment’s used in the kitchen are maintained
properly.
k) He is responsible for the cleanliness for the kitchen and his staff.
l) The most important duty of the chef is to control the food cost and make sure that
there is no pilferage.
m) He should have a thorough knowledge about market availability and market rates.
n) He should be able to organise festivals and theme buffets.
o) He should maintain the standards in food production and introduce new varieties
periodically.
SOUS CHEF
He is directly in charge of production and works as an assistant to the executive chef/chef
de cuisine. The word sous is French for “under”. Because the executive chef’s
responsibilities may require a great deal of time in the office, the sous chef faces command
of the actual production and the minute by minute supervision of the staff.
a) The duties of the sous chef are complicated and require many years of experience
and training.
b) He should be able to prepare all kinds of food, sweets and puddings and should have
a good knowledge about bakery also.
c) His duties are same as that of the chef de cuisine. In the absence of the executive
chef, he is completely in charge of the kitchen.
d) He should be capable of introducing new dishes and find new methods in
preparation and presentation of food.
e) He is responsible for ordering perishable goods from the store and it is duty to make
sure that there is no wastage.
f) Supervising the kitchen and the kitchen staff is also his duty.
g) Inspecting the food prepared, to ensure the quantity and quality.
h) He should make sure that the equipment’s used in the kitchen are maintained
properly.
i) He is responsible for the cleanliness for the kitchen and his staff.
j) The most important duty of the chef is to control the food cost and make sure that
there is no pilferage.
k) Makes duty rotas for staff, also arranges for staff leave and holidays alternative
arrangements for cooks on leave in various departments.
17 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
l) To coordinate the activities of various departments in delivering food orders to
restaurant, large banquet parties, to relieve the barker at times.
m) To check the temperature of food stuffs, proper garnish and checking buffets and
various service outlets.
n) To arrange for training class for the kitchen and service staff.
STATION CHEFS/CHEFS DE PARTIE
IN CHARGE OF PARTICULAR AREAS OF PRODUCTION
a) To check the temperature of the refrigerator in his station and for proper storage of
food stuffs.
b) To choose the menus in advance, to order for food stuffs and for mise en place.
c) He is responsible for his own selection for production and should train the staff
under him.
d) He should make sure that the orders are received and executed properly in his
section with the proper garnish.
e) He should be aware of the food cost of his section and maintain the same.
f) He is responsible for the equipment’s used in his section and its cleaning and
maintenance.
g) He is responsible for any complaints in his section.
h) He should allot duties for the staff in his section.
DUTIES OF COMMIS
Depending on the section, the chef de partie will be assisted by one or more trained cooks
called “commis”. Commis should have completed their apprenticeship or training.
The different commis are
I. Commis-1
II. Commis-2
III. Commis-3
a) The first commis is capable for taking charge of the department, when the chef de
partie is off duty.
b) He helps the chef assist in collecting the raw materials from the stores and making
mise en place.
c) To make sure the section is clean.
APPRENTICE
The apprentices are learning the trade and are moved to various parties to gain knowledge
of all sections of the kitchen.
DUTIES OF KITCHEN PORTER
a) Kitchen porters are responsible for general cleaning of the kitchen.
b) Large parties like pantry, gardemanger, vegetables will have one porter for each.
c) The porter works under a head chef, and his duties are to change linen, uniform, etc.
d) Other porters work under the head porter who is responsible to the head chef.
e) Other porters may help in peeling vegetables, mise en place and in grinding.
18 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
f) To carry food from one section to another and from store to kitchen.
g) To clean vessels and for general cleaning of the kitchen.
SPECIALITY COOKS
1. CHEF SAUCIER/SAUCE COOK
a) Prepares sauces, stew, and hot hors d’oeuvres, and sauté foods to order. This is
usually the highest position of all the stations.
b) He prepares all the entrees i.e., all the meat, poultry and game, dishes which are not
roasted or grilled.
c) This includes dishes such as stews, braised, poeled and sautéed dishes.
d) They are also responsible to prepare certain garnish for these dishes and make the
meat, poultry and game sauces.
e) They are responsible for the hot appetisers/hors d’oeuvres.
2. POISSONNIER/FISH COOK
a) Prepares fish dishes. In some kitchens, this station is handled by the saucier.
b) The pre preparation of the food is usually done by a fish monger in a larder.
c) He performs all fish cooking, garnishing, saucing and dishing of fish.
d) His duties of preparing fish are very complex and challenging.
e) He is responsible for baking, grilling, crabs and lobsters.
f) He makes the sauces for his fish dishes.
3. ENTREMETIER/VEGETABLE COOK
a) Prepares vegetables, soups, starches and eggs.
b) Large kitchen may divide these duties among the vegetable cook and the soup cook.
They are also responsible for preparing potatoes, eggs and farinaceous dishes.
4. ROTISSEUR / THE ROAST COOK
a) Prepares roasted and braised meats and their gravies and broils meats and other
items to order.
b) A large kitchen may have a separate broiler cook called Grillardin to handle the
broiled items.
c) He is responsible to produce all roasts, grilled meats, poultry and game and grilled
and deep fried fish.
d) The grill cook is called as Grillardin in French.
e) The grill cook is responsible for producing all kinds of grilled meat, poultry and fish.
f) Grill cooks need long years of experience and good judgement to cook/steam to
various degree of doneness.
19 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
5. GARDE MANGER / PANTRY CHEF
a) He is responsible for cold foods, including salads and dressings, pates, cold hors
d’oeuvres and buffet items.
b) Cold sauces, sandwiches, canapés, and the filling to bouchees are done here.
c) Hors d’oeuvres and salads are prepared in this station only.
d) He is also responsible for cold buffet works.
6. PATISSIER / PASTRY CHEF
a) Prepares pastries and desserts (cold).
b) They are also responsible for making sweet salads (fruit salads etc.)
7. TOURNANT / RELIEF COOK / SWING COOK
a) Replaces other station heads.
b) Also relieves the chefs of the sauce, roast, fish and vegetable parties on their day
offs.
c) His position in the kitchen brigade is just below the sous chef and above the chef de
partie.
d) He should have a thorough knowledge of the working of all departments.
e) Should be able to work on different departments by actual working in shifts.
8. POTAGER / SOUP COOK
a) In large hotels, there are separate cooks to make the soups and their garnishes.
b) As soup gives a best impression, he is very important in position.
9. ABOYEUR (Announcer)
a) Accepts orders from waiters and passes them on to the cooks on the line.
b) Calls orders to be finished and plated at proper time and inspects each plate before
passing it to the dining room staff.
c) In many hotels, this position is taken by the head chef or the sous chef.
d) He is in range of the chef de partie.
e) To read out the orders from the different service departments.
f) To follow the order and make sure that it is getting ready.
g) He should keep a check on the KOT.
h) He maintains a control on wastage and pilferage.
i) He should have a good knowledge about different accompaniments and garnishes.
10. BOUCHER / BUTCHER
a) Usually the butcher works under the direct control of the chef or sous chef.
b) Dissects the carcasses and prepares all the joints and cuts ready for cooking.
c) To make various cuts according to the menu.
d) To ensure proper storage of different kinds of food.
20 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
e) To prepare various meats for special occasions such as stuffed meat leg or saddle of
lamb etc.
f) May also do jobs like pickling/salting of meat.
g) To check quality and selection procedure.
11. PATISSIER (Pastry Chef)
a) All the sweets and pastries are made by the pastry cook as well as such items
required by other parties, such as vol au vent’s bouchees and also covering for meat
for meat and poultry dishes.
b) Ice creams and petit fours are made here. A glacier is responsible for all ice creams
but now most ice creams are produced in factories.
12. BOULANGER (The Baker)
a) They are responsible for all types of bread, rolls, croissants, etc.
13. CHEF DE NUIT (Night Cook)
a) Takes charge of the kitchen after the main duty cooks leave the kitchen.
b) To run 24 hour Coffee shop/Room service.
c) Some cooks do mise en place for the breakfast. May have to cater to the
breakfast for some groups or individuals who leave the hotel early in the
morning.
d) Night cooks usually look after two or three sections for preparation of orders
like sandwiches, steaks, burgers, etc.
14. LE CHEF DE GARDE (Duty Cook)
15. CHEF DE PETIT DEJUENER (Breakfast Cook)
16. LE COMMUNARD (Staff cook)
POULTRY MAN
a) He also works under the butcher.
b) His duty is to check for quality of different poultry.
c) Processing and preparing the poultry.
d) Jointing poultry and different other cuts according to the menu.
e) To prepare turkey, sauce, for stuffing and trussing for special occasions.
f) Also responsible for dressing different kinds of game cooking.
g) For maintaining hygiene in his department and care for the equipment.
h) Should know proper storage and thawing temperatures.
i) Should keep an account for meat coming inside from the store and the issue.
FISH MONGER
a) Fish monger works under the butcher or the poissonier.
21 | P a g e N S K N O T E S
b) Should know to check the quality and freshness of the fish.
c) To prepare whole fishes, to remove skin, bone and filleting.
d) To make different cuts according to the menu like darne or fillet etc.
e) Shelling of prawns and dressing of crabs.
f) Special precaution should be taken not to store shell fishes for long time without
proper temperature, because they are very expensive and highly perishable. Eg.
Prawns, lobster, crab, etc.
g) Good knowledge about preparation, storing and hygiene.

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BSc HOTEL MANAGEMENT 1st year notes1

  • 1. 1 | P a g e N S K N O T E S Personal hygiene Sanitation: - Rules of personal hygiene and sanitary food handling are not invented just to make your life difficult. There are good reasons for all of these. All food service operators are responsible for knowing the health department regulations in their own city and state. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. (HACCP) Preventing food borne illness is one of the most important challenges facing every food service industries. In order to prevent the illness, a food worker must understand the source of food borne disease. Most food borne illness is the result of eating food that has been contaminated. It means food contains harmful substances that were not present originally in the food or in other words contaminated food is that is not pure. It is very important to know how these substances get into the food to contaminate it and how food workers can prevent contamination and avoid serving contaminated food. Any substances in the food that can cause illness or injury is called as HAZARD. Food hazards are of three types:- 1. Biological Hazards 2. Chemical Hazards 3. Physical Hazards BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS Pathogens: Microorganisms 1) BACTERIA- Condition to grow. FOOD-Sufficient amount of protein is best suited for bacteria to grow MOISTURE-It requires water to absorb the food. Dry foods do not support bacterial growth. Foods with relatively high salt or sugar can also be considered a safe food. TEMPERATURE-Bacteria grows at warm temperature.50C-600C is the best growth suited temperature to promote the disease causing bacteria. OXYGEN-Some bacteria needs oxygen to grow. ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY-In general disease producing bacteria like a. The acidity or alkalinity of a substance is indicated by a measurement called PH. The scale ranges from 0(strongly acidic)to 14(strongly alkaline).A PH of 7 is neutral. Pure water has a PH of 7. TIME-When bacteria are introduced to a new environment it needs time to adapt to their surroundings before they start growing. This time is called as lag phase. 2) VIRUSES- Viruses are even smaller than bacteria. Unlike bacteria they can’t reproduce or multiply unless they are inside a living cell but they can be carried on almost any surface and can survive for days or even months. Because viruses do not multiply in food like
  • 2. 2 | P a g e N S K N O T E S bacteria. Food borne viral diseases are usually caused by contamination from people, food contact surface or in the case of sea foods, contaminated water. 3) PARASITES-Parasites are organisms that can survive only by living on or inside another organism. Human parasites are generally transmitted to them from the animal host. These are very small and microscopic. They can be killed by proper cooking or by freezing. 4) FUNGI-Molds and yeasts are examples of fungi. These are associated with food spoilage rather than food borne disease. Most molds and yeast, even those that cause spoilage are not dangerous to most human beings. Some of the fungi are useful. E.g.: Veining (of) in blue cheese, fermentation of bread dough CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS Chemical poisoning is caused by the use of defective or improper equipment or equipment that has been handled improperly. Do not use the following material that causes food poisoning. i) ANTIMONY-Caused by storing or cooking acid foods in chipped grey enamel ware. ii) CADMIUM-Caused by cadmium plated ice cube tray or container. iii) CYANIDE-Caused by silver polish containing cyanide. iv) LEAD-Caused by lead water pipe/containing lead/utensils containing lead. v) ZINC-Caused by cooking food in zinc plated galvanized utensils. vi) COPPER UTENSILS-Carbonated beverage in contact with copper tubing. PHYSICAL CONTAMINATION: It is a contamination of food with objects that may not be toxic but may cause injury or discomfort. Examples: Pieces of glass froma broken container. Metal sharping from an improperly opened can. Stones from poorly sorted dried beans. Hair in food.
  • 3. 3 | P a g e N S K N O T E S Personal hygiene Most food borne illness/disease may also be caused or spread by food handler also. Some examples of situations in which cross contamination can occur include the following. 1. Mixing contaminated left over with a freshly cooked batch of food. 2. Handling ready to eat food with unclean hands. Handling several types of foods without washing hands in between. 3. Cutting raw chicken and then using the same cutting board unsanitary to cut vegetables. 4. Placing ready to eat food on a lower refrigerator shelf and allowing juices from raw fish and meat to drip on to them from an upper shelf. 5. Wiping down work surface with a soiled cloth. Good personal hygiene Even when we are healthy, we have bacteria all over our skin and in our nose and mouth. Some of these bacteria if given the chance to grow in food will make people ill. 1. Do not work with food if you have any communicable disease or infection. 2. Bath or shower daily. 3. Wear clean uniform. 4. Keep hair neat and clean always. Always wear hat or hair net (inside the kitchen ) 5. Keep moustaches and beard trimmed and be clean shaved. 6. Wash hands and exposed parts of arm before work and as often as during work including  After eating/drinking or smoking.  After using toilets.  After touching or handling anything that may be contaminated with bacteria. 7. Cover cough and sneezes then wash hands. 8. Keep your hands away from your face, eyes, hair, and arms. 9. Keep finger nails clean and short. Do not wear nail polish. 10. Do not smoke or chew gums while on duty. 11. Do not sit on work tables. 12. Do not use strong perfumes; a mild-deodorant can be used. Procedure for washing hands 1. Wash hands in/with hot running water. Use water as hot as you comfortably stand. Hot at least 100’f/38’c is best suited. 2. Apply enough soap, to make good lather. 3. Rub hands together thoroughly for 20 seconds or longer, washing not only the hands but the wash and the lower part of the forearm. 4. Using a nail brush cleans be neat the finger nails and fingers.
  • 4. 4 | P a g e N S K N O T E S 5. Rinse hands well under hot running water. If possible use a clean paper towel to turn of the water to avoid contaminating the hands by contact with soiled towels. 6. Dry hands with clean single use paper towels or warm air hand dryer. Use of gloves 1. Use gloves to handle/serve/touch ready to eat foods. For which doesn’t need any further cooking. 2. Wash hands before putting in gloves or when changing to another pair. Gloves are not a substitute for proper hand washing. 3. Remove and discard gloves, wash hands one change to a new pair of gloves after handling one food item and before starting work on another. 4. Gloves are for single use only.
  • 5. 5 | P a g e N S K N O T E S Pre preparation of ingredients Mise en place:- Only if advance preparation is done thoroughly and systematically will service go smooth. Good chefs take pride in the thoroughness and quality of their advance preparation of mise en place.  This French term meaning ‘’ Everything put in place’’ (pre preparation of ingredients) Even on the simplest level pre preparation is necessary. If you are preparing only for the recipe you must first:- o Assemble your tools. o Assemble your ingredients. o Wash, trim, cut, prepare and measure your raw materials. o Prepare your equipment  preheating of oven  Line baking sheet etc. Only then you begin the actual preparation. Solid foods which are to be mixed have to be reduced in to small sizes which will allow them to combine readily. 1. WASHING: - This is done to remove superficial dirt. Wash vegetables, meat and fish in cold water and before any preparation is done. If they are soaked for a long period or washed after cutting, there is greater loss of water soluble vitamins and minerals. Thawing: - frozen foods to be brought to their original state before any preparation is done. That process of converting is called a thawing. Thawing is done by three ways:- 1. Putting the food in a container with water and allowing the water to run on the food. 2. By storing in a refrigerator maintained at 3*c to 4*c prior to a day of cooking. 3. Microwave thawing. 2. PEELING AND SCRAPING: - Spoilt, soiled, and inedible portions are removed. Skins of the vegetables like potatoes, carrots etc. or of fruits are removed by either peeling or scraping, while peeling, remove as little of the flesh as possible. 3 PARING: - removing the outer surface layer by cutting as in paring an apple.  A circular motion is used. 4 CUTTING: - reducing to small parts by means of a knife or scissors. When the reduction is done by a chopping knife or a food chopper it is known as chopping. Cutting into even sized cubes is called dicing. Cutting into very fine pieces is called mincing. Shredding is cutting into fine long pieces with a knife or shredder. Slicing is also cutting into thin long pieces, but these are not as fine as shredding.
  • 6. 6 | P a g e N S K N O T E S 5 GRATING: - reducing to fine particles by rubbing over a rough sharp surface. 6 GRINDING: - reducing to small fragments by crushing in a mill or in a grinding stone. 7 MASHING: - this is a method of breaking up soft foods such as a cooked potatoes or vegetables. 8 SIEVING: - passing through wire mesh to remove impurities, to break down to even portions or to enclose air. 9 MILLING: - removing the husks from cereals is called as milling applied to mills/rice mills etc. 10 STEEPING: - extracting the colour and flavour by allowing the ingredients to stand in water generally at a temperature just below the boiling point as in tea preparation or as in saffron. 11 SLITTING: - to make a slit in the middle length wise as slitting of green chillies. 12 SKIMMING: - to remove the floating impurities in stock making or in milk is called as skimming. 13 CENTRIFUGING: - promotion of separation by the application of whirling force. Separation of butter from curd or cream from milk. 14 EMULSIFICATION: - blending of one liquid with another in which it is insoluble e.g. oil and egg yolk in mayonnaise preparation. 15 EVAPORATION: - removal of excess moisture by heating/boiling the food. 16 HOMOGENISATION:- sub division of layers drops into smaller ones by passing through a small hole under great pressure is called as Homogenisation. Methods of mixing food 1. Beating: - generally applied to thin mixtures of liquid. Should be done with the aim of incorporating air. E.g. Beating of egg in cake making. This term is used synonymously with whipping. 2. Blending: - mixing one or more ingredients thoroughly with a help of blender/whisk/ or a food processor/ mixer. 3. Cutting in: - incorporation of fat in flour with the help of a knife by cutting is called as cutting in. this produce a coarse division of fat and does not result in blending. i. E.g. Cutting of fat into pastry mixture. 4. Creaming: - softening of fat by frication of a wooden spoon or by hand. This is generally followed by incorporation of sugar as in cake mixing. 5. Folding: - mixing mixtures by lifting and dropping motion. The edge of the spoon is used. The mixture is carefully lifted and turned completely and then gently replaced. 6. Kneading:-Manipulating by altering pressure with folding and stretching motion. The food is pressed with the knuckle. The dough is brought from outside of the basin to the centre and at the same time the bowl is moved so that the different sections are kneaded at the same time. This will ensure even distribution of ingredient. 7. Rubbing in: - Rubbing of fat into flour with the help of fingers. Rub until the mixture becomes like a bread crumb. This is normally done with the tip of your finger.
  • 7. 7 | P a g e N S K N O T E S 8. Rolling in: - rolling of fat in the dough as in the puff pastry. (Butter) into the soft dough this is normally done with rolling pin. 9. Pressing in: - This is done to shape up the cooked foods e.g. Cutlets or as, the method to separate the liquids from solids by weights or mechanical pressure as in the making of paneer. 10.Stirring:- Mixing foods with a suitable tool such as a spoon by a circular motion in a concept with the pan i.) To prevent the food from burning. ii.) To drive out the air as previously enclosed. iii.) To blend. Preliminary Cooking and Flavouring. Advance preparation often requires certain precooking and flavouring of ingredients to main them recovery for use in the finished recipe. Blanching / par cooking Removing the outer sine by putting food in the hot water, bringing it to boil and refreshing it under cold running water is called as blanching.  To remove the outer skin of vegetable such as tomato.  To remove the outer skin of almonds pista etc.  To whiten the meat bones in moving white stock.  To remove the impurities as in making stock.  To remove blood strains as in bones again in stock making. Marinating: To soak the food product in seasoned liquid in order to  Flavour the product  Tenderise the product. Marinades have four categories of ingredients. 1. Oil: oil helps to preserve the meat moisture. It is sometimes avoided especially for long marinations as the oil would only float on top, out of contact with the product being marinated. Tasteless vegetable oil is used when a natural flavour is required. Special oils such as olive oil, are used to add flavour to the item being marinated. 2. Acids from vinegar, lemon juice or wine: acids helps to tenderise the protein food. It adds flavour (its own and dissolved flavours from spices and herbs) Strong acids can be used in marinades if they are used in small quantities or if the meat is marinated for only a few hours. 3. Flavouring -spices, herbs, vegetables: a wide choice is available depending upon the purpose. Whole spices release flavours more slowly, so they are more suitable for long marinations. 4. Salt: they are used to tenderise the food. In right quantity they bring out the taste and flavours of other ingredients.
  • 8. 8 | P a g e N S K N O T E S Texture It is a term used to describe the characteristic of a finished food product. The order in which ingredients are added, the way of mixing and the method of cooking affect the resulting products. A good cook should not only know how to distinguish between one texture and another but also be able to produce what he or she want. Only through experience one can find out the correct texture of a particular product. A brief description of some commonly found texture and their correct occurrence is given below, but it must also be born in mind that the difference between one texture and another is very fine. 1. Firm and close: the holes made by the raising agents are many but small and the mixture is not in the least spongy. The fat added prevents the mixture from being too hard. E.g. In biscuit or plain small pastry. 2. Short of crumbly: this is similar to firm and close but more fat is added.in short bread and naankatais. 3. Spongy: a soft and elastic texture showing inclusion of air e.g. Swiss role sponge cake and idly. 4. Light and even: holes are plentiful and of a fair size. The food is firm but not hard or soft. It is neither as short as pastry nor as spongy as sponge cakes e.g. Madeira cake. 5. Flaky: this is caused by the method of adding fat. Thin crisp layers are formed, separated by air pockets. The flakes themselves should not be tough .e.g. Flaky and puff pastry. etc.  Coarse: - holes are large and uneven. And the food in the sunken in the centre. This is brought about by the addition of too much of raising agent or too little liquids.  Tough: - coarse mixtures are also tough. Toughness is caused by too much liquids, are through in correct mixing. This will also result if too little fat is added.  Hard: - bad fault brought about by the addition of too much of liquid or too much pressure while mixing. Hard mixtures are usually heavy since the air enclose driven off.
  • 9. 9 | P a g e N S K N O T E S Cooking materials Different raw materials are used in cooking to produce a complete dish. Each ingredient in dish has a special part to play and knowledge of what each food does is necessary to understand cooking thoroughly. The materials are classified according to the part they play in making up of dishes Given below is the classification of raw materials:- 1. FOUNDATION INGREDIENTS. 2. FATS AND OILS 3. RAISING AGENTS. 4. EGGS 5. SALT 6. LIQUIDS 7. FLAVOURING AND SEASONING 8. SWEETENING AGENTS 9. THICKNENING AGENTS FOUNDATION INGREDIENTS:- Every dish has a foundation ingredient on which the other ingredients are based. It can be a liquid or a solid .e.g. the foundation ingredient in the bread is flour, meat in roast, milk or stock in soups. It is not only necessary to know the proportion of various ingredients but also the composition of the different ingredients and the action of heat on these. Food composed of five main nutrients:- 1. Carbohydrates 2. Fats 3. Proteins 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals. FATS AND OILS  Oils are liquid at room temperature but solidify at lower temperature. The commonly used cooling oils are - linseed oil, sesame oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil , peanut oil, Corn oil and sunflower oil. Hydrogenation of oils: Whale oil, cotton seed oil, soya been oil, peanut oil, etc are sold as shortening of varying consistencies’. The conversion of oil into fat is brought about by a process known as the hydrogenation.
  • 10. 10 | P a g e N S K N O T E S Treating oil under presence of a catalyst, usually nickel under these condition the unsaturated fatty acids present in the oil combine with hydrogen. This chemical process brings about a physical change, the liquid oil become solid fat. Fats are used in cooking either as shortening agent or as frying medium. Fats are used in confectionary to enrich the food and to impart to them short eating qualities. Collectively they are referred to as shortening agent. There effect is to be breakdown or destroy the toughness of gluten, so that instead of being hard and tough to eat food containing fat brave of short and readily melt in the mouth. As shortening agent Fat add up: * Nutrition value. * contributes to the characteristic flavour and texture. The type of fat and the way in which fat is incorporated affect the texture as in short crust pastry, flaky pastry, puff pastry. As heat melt fat, cooking must be done at the correct temperature So that the flour can absorb the fat as it melt. If the heat is insufficient the fat runs out of the mixture and is wasted besides leaving the food tough and oily. Fat as a frying medium function in 3 ways: 1. Transfer heat to the food to be fried. 2. It adds nutritive value of the food. 3. It contributes to the flavour of the food. Fat used for frying should have a high smoke point, low moisture content, and high stability and an acceptable flavour. Rendering of fats: The process of melting to extract fat from fatty tissues good supply of dripping can be obtained by rendering down suet (fat surrounding the kidney of low or sheep) and pieces of fat from meat. RAISING AGENTS /LEAVENING AGENT The function of the raising agents is to puff up the food so that it spreads and rises. Thus making it light, not close and heavy. The tiny air spaces caused by the raising agents are retained during the process of cooking. The leavening of flour mixer is accomplished by the expansion of incorporated air and by the internal production and expansion of water vapour and carbon dioxide. When the product is heated, the air expands and the part of water vaporises. The formation of carbon dioxide requires the presence of suitable micro-organisms.
  • 11. 11 | P a g e N S K N O T E S GLUTEN Gluten a substance found in flour develops when moisture is added and helps to retain the raising agents within food till the food sets, thus helping to make the food light. Gluten is a sticky elastic substance which stretches as the air or gas expands and preventing these from escaping. The air or gas trapped in the mixture expands further when heated and make the cooked food light. Too much raising agents raises the food too rapidly, break the surface and allows the gas produced to escape and as a result the product sinks and become heavy. 1. Air as raising agent: - air is incorporated by sifting flour, by beating eggs or by beating the mixture itself. 2. Water vapour as a raising agent: - water vapour is formed in quantities sufficient to raise the mixture when liquids and flour are used in correct proposition. 3. Chemical as raising agents: - chemical such as soda bi carbonate, cream or tartar, baking powder, ammonium carbonate etc. are added to mixture to make food light. In each case the result is the production of carbon dioxide. 4. Yeast as raising agent: - carbon dioxide is produced either from sugar by yeast, or from a carbonate usually, sodium bi carbonate by action of an acid. Yeast: - fermentation is a process by which yeast acts on carbohydrates and change them into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. This release of gas produces the leavening action in yeast product. The alcohol evaporates completely during and immediately after baking. Yeast 1ºc/34ºc------ ----- Inactive: storage temperature. 60º to 70ºF ---------slow action (15ºc to 20ºc) 70º to 90ºF ---------- best growth (20ºc to 32ºc) proofing temperaturefor bread dough. Above 100ºF --------- reaction slows. (38ºc) 140ºF (60ºc)----------yeast iskilled. raising agents mechanical biologicalchemical
  • 12. 12 | P a g e N S K N O T E S Yeast Yeast consist of microscopic ,unicellular plants which are capable of rapid multiplication when conditions are favourable and obtain energy by breaking down sugar to carbon dioxide and alchohol.This process is known as fermentation and is brought about by the enzymes known as zymase found in yeast . Dried yeast. Activated dried yeast. Compressed yeast. Dried yeast: This is a mixture of yeast and corn flour or corn meal pressed into cakes and dried. The yeast continues to live but in an inactive state .when furnished with food and moisture, it begins to develop and multiply, but this process is slow. Dried yeast has to be soaked in Luke warm water and mixed with soft dough, before all the ingredients are added. Activated dried yeast: This develops more rapidly than dried yeast and is the type now available .it can be used in straight dough mixing. It is less perishable than compressed yeast and activated dried yeast is longer at refrigerated temperature than at room temperature. Compressed yeast: this is a moist mixture of yeast plant and starch. The yeast remains active and will grow and multiply rapidly when added to dough. It has to be kept in refrigerated temperature. Leavening agent: leavening is the production of incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to produce shape and texture. These gases must be retained in the product until the structure is set enough (by the coagulation of gluten and egg protein) to hold its shape. Exact measurement of leavening agent is important because small change can produce major defects in baked products. Actionof heat on carbohydrates Starches and sugar are carbohydrates. Both compounds are present in foods in many terms. They are found in fruit, vegetables, grains, beans and nuts. Meat and fish also contains a small amount of carbohydrates. The most important changes in carbohydrates by heat are caramelization and gelatinization.
  • 13. 13 | P a g e N S K N O T E S Caramelization: is the browning of sugar. The browning of sautéed vegetables and the golden crust of bread crust are formed of caramelization. Sugar is changed into invert sugar (by a process where sucrose is broken down into glucose and fructose) when heated with fruit juices or other weak acids. Sugar on boiling passes through regular stages till it becomes caramelized at 163 ºc/325ºf. The following are the stages through which it passes. Small thread 102ºc 216ºf large thread 103ºc 218ºf pearl 106ºc 222ºf soft ball 114ºc 237ºf hard ball 120ºc 247ºf soft crack 143ºc 290ºf hard crack 156ºc 312ºf caramel 163ºc-177ºc 325ºf-350ºf Gelatinization occurs when starches absorb water and swell. This is a major principle of the thickening of sauces and in the production of breads and pastries. Generally starches swells up and become softer. Starch is enclosed within granules. These starch, they swell up and then burst and release the starch. Actions of HEAT on Proteins Protein is the major component of meats, poultry, fish, egg, milk, and milk products. It is also present in smaller amounts in nuts, beans and grains. Coagulation Proteins consist of long chains of components called amino acids. These chains normally form tight coils. As proteins are heated the coils gradually unwind. At this point, the proteins is said to be denatured. When the protein coils unwind they become attracted to each other and form bonds. This bonding is called as coagulation. The coagulation proteins form a solid network of these bonds and become firm. As the temperature increases, the proteins shrink and become firmer and lose major moisture. Exposure of proteins to excessive heat toughens them and makes them dry. Most proteins coagulate at 160º F to 185 º F (75º to 85º). MAILLARD REACTION Many protein foods such as meat contain small quantities of carbohydrates. When amino acids in the proteins chains react with carbohydrates molecules and undergo a complex chemical reaction. The result is that they turn brown and develop richer flavour. This reaction is called as MAILLARD REACTION.
  • 14. 14 | P a g e N S K N O T E S ` CONNECTIVETISSUES These are special proteins that are present in meats. Meats with a great deal of connective tissues are dissolved when cooled slowly with moisture. Cooling tough meats properly therefore makes them tenderer. Acids such as lemon juice, vinegar and tomato products to two things to protein. They speed up coagulation; they help dissolve some connective tissues. The coagulation process helps in keeping the nourishment within the food. When boiling protein foods such as meat and fish put them in boiling liquid and then reduce the temperature. When roasting meat put them in oven which is at a fairly high temperature and then reduce the heat. The Myoglobulin in the muscle tissues and haemoglobin in the capillaries give meat its red colour. Both these decompose on heating causing a brown colour, which is generally found in cooked meat. Actions of Heat on Fats Fats are present in meats, poultry, fish, eggs, milk products, nuts and grains and to a lesser extent vegetables and fruits. Fats are also important as cooking medium as for frying .Fats are either solid or liquid at room temperature. Liquid fats are called as oils. When solid fats are heated, they begin to break down from solid to liquid. The melting point of solids fats varies. When the fats are heated, they begin to break down. When hot enough, they deteriorate rapidly and smoke. The temperature at which this happens is called the smoke point and it varies by type of fat. A stable fat is one with a high smoke is an important consideration in deep fat frying. With continuous use, fat deteriorates because of excessive temperature, moisture , air and the presence of carbonized crumbs and small pieces of food to a point where it will just bubble in the pan , too weak to perform the action of frying . Fat begins to thicken, becoming gummy like substance. This condition is known as BLYMENIZATION, and fat that has reached this stage is no longer fit to use. Action of heat on minerals There is no appreciable loss of minerals due to cooking, except when cooking liquor is thrown out. Some minerals are made more rapidly available by cooking. Actions of heat on vitamins Vitamin C , is the only vitamin which is really unstable when heated , although careful cooking helps to retain some of it . Vitamin A and D ARE NOT destroyed by ordinary cooking methods. Vitamin B may be destroyed during cooking it cooled at high temperature, eg baking of biscuits and manufacture of breakfast, cereals, by the addition of baking soda or when cooking liquor is thrown away.
  • 15. 15 | P a g e N S K N O T E S THE ORGANISATION OF MODERN KICTCHEN EXECUTIVE CHEF (CHEF DE CUISINE) ↓ SOUS CHEF ↓ CHEF DE PARTIE ↓ DEMI CHEF DE PARTIE ↓ COMMIS-1 ↓ COMMIS-2 ↓ COMMIS-3 ↓ PORTERS ↓ TRAINEES ↓ APPRENTICE THE ORGANIZATION OF MODERN KITCHENS The purpose of kitchen organization is to assign or allocate tasks so that the work can be done efficiently and properly and so all workers know what their responsibilities are. The way a kitchen is organised depends on several factors. 1. MENUS 2. THE TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT 3. THE SIZE OF THE ORGNIZATION (The number of customers and the volume of food served) 4. THE PHYSICAL FACILITIES, INCLUDING THE EQUIPMENT IN USE. THE CLASSICAL BRIGADE ESCOFFIER’S important achievement was the reorganisation of the kitchen. This reorganisation divided the kitchen into departments or stations, based on the kind of food produced. A station chef was placed in charge of each department. EXECUTIVE CHEF/CHEF DE CUISINE a) The chef is the person in charge of the kitchen. He is responsible for all the aspects of food production, including menu planning, purchasing, costing (food), planning work schedules, hiring and training. b) The duties of the chef are complicated and require many years of experience and training. c) He should be able to prepare all kinds of food, sweets and puddings and should have a good knowledge about bakery also.
  • 16. 16 | P a g e N S K N O T E S d) He should be capable of introducing new dishes and find new methods in preparation and presentation of food. e) In general he should be the master of the kitchen. f) Compiling the menu in consultation with F&B/Restaurant manager. g) He is responsible for ordering perishable goods from the store and it is his duty to make sure that there is no wastage. h) Supervising the kitchen and the kitchen staff. i) Inspecting the food prepared to ensure the quality and quantity. j) He should make sure that the equipment’s used in the kitchen are maintained properly. k) He is responsible for the cleanliness for the kitchen and his staff. l) The most important duty of the chef is to control the food cost and make sure that there is no pilferage. m) He should have a thorough knowledge about market availability and market rates. n) He should be able to organise festivals and theme buffets. o) He should maintain the standards in food production and introduce new varieties periodically. SOUS CHEF He is directly in charge of production and works as an assistant to the executive chef/chef de cuisine. The word sous is French for “under”. Because the executive chef’s responsibilities may require a great deal of time in the office, the sous chef faces command of the actual production and the minute by minute supervision of the staff. a) The duties of the sous chef are complicated and require many years of experience and training. b) He should be able to prepare all kinds of food, sweets and puddings and should have a good knowledge about bakery also. c) His duties are same as that of the chef de cuisine. In the absence of the executive chef, he is completely in charge of the kitchen. d) He should be capable of introducing new dishes and find new methods in preparation and presentation of food. e) He is responsible for ordering perishable goods from the store and it is duty to make sure that there is no wastage. f) Supervising the kitchen and the kitchen staff is also his duty. g) Inspecting the food prepared, to ensure the quantity and quality. h) He should make sure that the equipment’s used in the kitchen are maintained properly. i) He is responsible for the cleanliness for the kitchen and his staff. j) The most important duty of the chef is to control the food cost and make sure that there is no pilferage. k) Makes duty rotas for staff, also arranges for staff leave and holidays alternative arrangements for cooks on leave in various departments.
  • 17. 17 | P a g e N S K N O T E S l) To coordinate the activities of various departments in delivering food orders to restaurant, large banquet parties, to relieve the barker at times. m) To check the temperature of food stuffs, proper garnish and checking buffets and various service outlets. n) To arrange for training class for the kitchen and service staff. STATION CHEFS/CHEFS DE PARTIE IN CHARGE OF PARTICULAR AREAS OF PRODUCTION a) To check the temperature of the refrigerator in his station and for proper storage of food stuffs. b) To choose the menus in advance, to order for food stuffs and for mise en place. c) He is responsible for his own selection for production and should train the staff under him. d) He should make sure that the orders are received and executed properly in his section with the proper garnish. e) He should be aware of the food cost of his section and maintain the same. f) He is responsible for the equipment’s used in his section and its cleaning and maintenance. g) He is responsible for any complaints in his section. h) He should allot duties for the staff in his section. DUTIES OF COMMIS Depending on the section, the chef de partie will be assisted by one or more trained cooks called “commis”. Commis should have completed their apprenticeship or training. The different commis are I. Commis-1 II. Commis-2 III. Commis-3 a) The first commis is capable for taking charge of the department, when the chef de partie is off duty. b) He helps the chef assist in collecting the raw materials from the stores and making mise en place. c) To make sure the section is clean. APPRENTICE The apprentices are learning the trade and are moved to various parties to gain knowledge of all sections of the kitchen. DUTIES OF KITCHEN PORTER a) Kitchen porters are responsible for general cleaning of the kitchen. b) Large parties like pantry, gardemanger, vegetables will have one porter for each. c) The porter works under a head chef, and his duties are to change linen, uniform, etc. d) Other porters work under the head porter who is responsible to the head chef. e) Other porters may help in peeling vegetables, mise en place and in grinding.
  • 18. 18 | P a g e N S K N O T E S f) To carry food from one section to another and from store to kitchen. g) To clean vessels and for general cleaning of the kitchen. SPECIALITY COOKS 1. CHEF SAUCIER/SAUCE COOK a) Prepares sauces, stew, and hot hors d’oeuvres, and sauté foods to order. This is usually the highest position of all the stations. b) He prepares all the entrees i.e., all the meat, poultry and game, dishes which are not roasted or grilled. c) This includes dishes such as stews, braised, poeled and sautéed dishes. d) They are also responsible to prepare certain garnish for these dishes and make the meat, poultry and game sauces. e) They are responsible for the hot appetisers/hors d’oeuvres. 2. POISSONNIER/FISH COOK a) Prepares fish dishes. In some kitchens, this station is handled by the saucier. b) The pre preparation of the food is usually done by a fish monger in a larder. c) He performs all fish cooking, garnishing, saucing and dishing of fish. d) His duties of preparing fish are very complex and challenging. e) He is responsible for baking, grilling, crabs and lobsters. f) He makes the sauces for his fish dishes. 3. ENTREMETIER/VEGETABLE COOK a) Prepares vegetables, soups, starches and eggs. b) Large kitchen may divide these duties among the vegetable cook and the soup cook. They are also responsible for preparing potatoes, eggs and farinaceous dishes. 4. ROTISSEUR / THE ROAST COOK a) Prepares roasted and braised meats and their gravies and broils meats and other items to order. b) A large kitchen may have a separate broiler cook called Grillardin to handle the broiled items. c) He is responsible to produce all roasts, grilled meats, poultry and game and grilled and deep fried fish. d) The grill cook is called as Grillardin in French. e) The grill cook is responsible for producing all kinds of grilled meat, poultry and fish. f) Grill cooks need long years of experience and good judgement to cook/steam to various degree of doneness.
  • 19. 19 | P a g e N S K N O T E S 5. GARDE MANGER / PANTRY CHEF a) He is responsible for cold foods, including salads and dressings, pates, cold hors d’oeuvres and buffet items. b) Cold sauces, sandwiches, canapés, and the filling to bouchees are done here. c) Hors d’oeuvres and salads are prepared in this station only. d) He is also responsible for cold buffet works. 6. PATISSIER / PASTRY CHEF a) Prepares pastries and desserts (cold). b) They are also responsible for making sweet salads (fruit salads etc.) 7. TOURNANT / RELIEF COOK / SWING COOK a) Replaces other station heads. b) Also relieves the chefs of the sauce, roast, fish and vegetable parties on their day offs. c) His position in the kitchen brigade is just below the sous chef and above the chef de partie. d) He should have a thorough knowledge of the working of all departments. e) Should be able to work on different departments by actual working in shifts. 8. POTAGER / SOUP COOK a) In large hotels, there are separate cooks to make the soups and their garnishes. b) As soup gives a best impression, he is very important in position. 9. ABOYEUR (Announcer) a) Accepts orders from waiters and passes them on to the cooks on the line. b) Calls orders to be finished and plated at proper time and inspects each plate before passing it to the dining room staff. c) In many hotels, this position is taken by the head chef or the sous chef. d) He is in range of the chef de partie. e) To read out the orders from the different service departments. f) To follow the order and make sure that it is getting ready. g) He should keep a check on the KOT. h) He maintains a control on wastage and pilferage. i) He should have a good knowledge about different accompaniments and garnishes. 10. BOUCHER / BUTCHER a) Usually the butcher works under the direct control of the chef or sous chef. b) Dissects the carcasses and prepares all the joints and cuts ready for cooking. c) To make various cuts according to the menu. d) To ensure proper storage of different kinds of food.
  • 20. 20 | P a g e N S K N O T E S e) To prepare various meats for special occasions such as stuffed meat leg or saddle of lamb etc. f) May also do jobs like pickling/salting of meat. g) To check quality and selection procedure. 11. PATISSIER (Pastry Chef) a) All the sweets and pastries are made by the pastry cook as well as such items required by other parties, such as vol au vent’s bouchees and also covering for meat for meat and poultry dishes. b) Ice creams and petit fours are made here. A glacier is responsible for all ice creams but now most ice creams are produced in factories. 12. BOULANGER (The Baker) a) They are responsible for all types of bread, rolls, croissants, etc. 13. CHEF DE NUIT (Night Cook) a) Takes charge of the kitchen after the main duty cooks leave the kitchen. b) To run 24 hour Coffee shop/Room service. c) Some cooks do mise en place for the breakfast. May have to cater to the breakfast for some groups or individuals who leave the hotel early in the morning. d) Night cooks usually look after two or three sections for preparation of orders like sandwiches, steaks, burgers, etc. 14. LE CHEF DE GARDE (Duty Cook) 15. CHEF DE PETIT DEJUENER (Breakfast Cook) 16. LE COMMUNARD (Staff cook) POULTRY MAN a) He also works under the butcher. b) His duty is to check for quality of different poultry. c) Processing and preparing the poultry. d) Jointing poultry and different other cuts according to the menu. e) To prepare turkey, sauce, for stuffing and trussing for special occasions. f) Also responsible for dressing different kinds of game cooking. g) For maintaining hygiene in his department and care for the equipment. h) Should know proper storage and thawing temperatures. i) Should keep an account for meat coming inside from the store and the issue. FISH MONGER a) Fish monger works under the butcher or the poissonier.
  • 21. 21 | P a g e N S K N O T E S b) Should know to check the quality and freshness of the fish. c) To prepare whole fishes, to remove skin, bone and filleting. d) To make different cuts according to the menu like darne or fillet etc. e) Shelling of prawns and dressing of crabs. f) Special precaution should be taken not to store shell fishes for long time without proper temperature, because they are very expensive and highly perishable. Eg. Prawns, lobster, crab, etc. g) Good knowledge about preparation, storing and hygiene.