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Bricks and mortar…
or how UK government, research and industry tries to
make cities smart
Klaus Moessner
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   1
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
  
It’s always about people or ‘citizens’
What smart?
5 engineers, 5 solutions
5 politicians, 20 policies
5 users, 100 wishes
Or: the UK approach to make cities smart
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   3
Smart sells! …. a nice title alone does not help much!
What makes a city smart?
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   4
[REF to be provided]
Or the IBM view of the world
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   5
[REF to be provided]
What makes a city smart?
a modern digital infrastructure
secure but open access approach to public re-useable data
access to the information citizens need, when they need it
UK gov/research and industry define 5 aspects
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   6
Comms infrastructure is important
… only those who know about them!
a recognition that service delivery is improved by being citizen
centric: placing the citizen’s needs at the forefront
sharing management information to provide a coherent service,
rather than operating in a multiplicity of service silos (for example,
sharing changes of address more effectively)
offering internet service delivery where possible (at a fraction of the face
to face cost)
But who cares about services and information?
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   7
Knowledge needs intelligence needs information
an intelligent physical infrastructure (“smart” systems or the Internet of
Things)
enable service providers to use the full range of data both to manage
service delivery on a daily basis and to inform strategic investment in the
city/community
for example, gathering and analysing data on whether public transport
is adequate to cope with rush hour peaks
Information needs sensing and collection
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   8
[REF to be provided]
New thinking
an openness to learn from others and experiment with new
approaches and new business models
Not all old models will work, information will allow personalisation and customisation
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   9
[REF to be provided]
Push services through competition
transparency of outcomes/
performance, for example,
city service dashboards to
enable citizens to compare
and challenge performance, establishment by
establishment, and borough by
borough.
Offering better services and attracting
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   10
[REF to be provided]
One definition…. many interpretations
Some of UKs Smart City initiatives
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   11
Back again: Smart sells! …. a nice title alone does not help much!
Nice principles, but little practical impact, so far!
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   12
Milton	
  
Keynes	
  
Glasgow	
  
London	
  
Manchester	
  
Bristol	
  
Peterborough	
   [REF to be provided]
Bristol
Bristol is looking to leverage their 30Gbps fibre optic broadband network and
Bristol Uni’s supercomputer by building a sensor network on top of this
infrastructure.
As part of the ‘Bristol is Open’ project, investigate how big data can be used
to solve problems such as air pollution, traffic congestion and assisted living
for the elderly.
They are also investigating self-driving cars.
As with other cities, they want to use city data sets to invigorate the
development of new services to create ecosystems.
air pollution, traffic congestion and assisted living for the elderly
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   13
Milton Keynes
The MK:Smart project has currently installed sensors in the public bins to
notify dustmen when to empty them.
Sensors for pest control and monitoring cycle and pedestrian traffic.
Driverless vehicle technology.
The goal of the project is to innovate in the areas of transport, energy and
water management, tackling key demand issues whilst addressing the
challenges of supporting sustainable growth without exceeding the capacity
of the infrastructure, and whilst meeting key carbon reduction targets.
rubbish collection, pest control, traffic management, autonomous vehicles
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   14
Glasgow
Glasgow is building a smart city demonstrator (Future City Glasgow) for
integrated services across health, transport, energy and public safety. It will
also serve as a testbed for businesses to test new solutions which can then
be implemented in other cities.
As part of this project:
•  City Data Hub – Provides entrepreneurs with almost 400 city data sets
(e.g. smart street lights) to allow them to create new services.
•  Sensorised homes to help reduce energy wastage.
integrated services across health, transport, energy and public safety
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   15
Manchester
Manchester is undertaking a number of initiatives to encourage its
development as a “smart city” and is a partner in a number of European
projects with other comparable cities such as Helsinki, Barcelona,
Amsterdam, Ghent, Bologna and Cologne. The aim is to share best practice
in the use of technology to significantly improve life for the people who live
and work in our urban areas.
They are looking to develop a living lab although not much information about
it currently exists.
Living lab for best practice in the use of technology
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   16
Peterborough
Part of IBM’s Smarter Planet/Smarter Cities Initiative.
They are promoting their Peterborough DNA programme which aims to
deliver growth, innovation and sustainability for the city.
Similar to other cities promoting themselves as ‘smart’, they are creating
enablers such as these to encourage entrepreneurs to make the city a better
place.
Improve business environment
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   17
London
At the core of London’s Smart City vision, it believes it must harness new technologies and its creative strengths if
the city is to adapt to meet the challenges caused by a growing population (congestion, public services, pollution,
etc.). Some of the key areas London is trying to promote itself is:
•  The provision of open data. The London Datastore receives over 25,000 visits a month and over 450
transport apps alone have been created from it. The management of London’s passenger and road transport
systems is amongst the most advanced in the world. Innovations include: Congestion Charging using number
plate recognition, the intelligent road network management systems trialled during the Olympics and Wifi
on the Tube. London’s move towards digital money is bringing efficiency savings - from London Transport's
contactless Oyster card to using credit and debit cards to instantly pay for travel.
•  The application of new technologies to re-use waste heat, such as from underground shafts and sub
stations, and showcasing how hydrogen energy and fuel cell technology can be an emission free way to
power London’s transport, homes and businesses.
-  A centre for showcasing new technology and innovation, collaborating with London’s world class research
institutions. Examples include Siemens’ £30 million investment in the Crystal to explore how technology can
create a better future for our cities, and Intel’s investment in a Connected Cities’ institute with Imperial College
and UCL, which engages Londoners in the development and design of new technology to ensure it meets the
needs of citizens, not just cities.
Transport, and almost anything else…
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   18
London
It is expected that an investment in technology and data can drive improvements in:
•  Enterprise - enabling businesses to innovate and respond to these demands
•  Skills – enhancing access to knowledge and training to enable Londoners to take part
•  Energy & utilities – efficient and responsive management of resources, absorbing
additional pressure while reducing carbon impact
•  Safety – converging technology and data to improve the safety of Londoners (e.g.
enabling cross-agency responses to emergency call outs)
•  Health - new ways of providing holistic patient care and monitoring
•  Transport – planning and managing journeys to reduce congestion
Why are they bothering?
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   19
London
a rather extreme use case
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   20
Making a “grown up” city smart
London
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   21
[data.london.gov.uk]
Similar views everywhere
How other approach smart cities
CityPulse
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   22
Internet of Things and Data Analytics
for Smart Cities
23	
  
Payam Barnaghi
Institute for Communication Systems (ICS)
University of Surrey
Guildford, United Kingdom
AnyPlace	
   AnyTime	
  
AnyThing	
  
Data	
  Volume	
  
Security,	
  Reliability,	
  	
  
Trust	
  	
  and	
  Privacy	
  
Societal	
  Impacts,	
  Economic	
  Values	
  	
  
and	
  Viability	
  
	
  
Services	
  and	
  Applica?ons	
  
Networking	
  and	
  
Communica?on	
  
25
CityPulse: Large-scale data analytics
for smart cities
What	
  type	
  of	
  problems	
  we	
  expect	
  to	
  solve	
  	
  
in	
  	
  
“smart”	
  ciIes	
  	
  
27Source	
  LAT	
  Times,	
  hKp://documents.laImes.com/la-­‐2013/	
  
Future cities: A view from 1998
28
Source:	
  hKp://robertluisrabello.com/denial/traffic-­‐in-­‐la/#gallery[default]/0/	
  
Source: wikipedia
Smart City Data Analysis
Analysis of thousands of traffic, pollution, weather, congestion, public transport,
waste and event sensory data to provide better transport and city
management.
Converting smart meter readings to information that can help prediction and
balance of power consumption in a city.
Monitoring elderly homes, personal and public healthcare applications.
Event and incident analysis and prediction using (near) real-time data collected
by citizen and device sensors.
Turning social media data (e.g. Tweets) related to city issues into event and
sentiment analysis.
Any many more…
29
Designing for City Problems
101 Smart City Use-case Scenarios
hKp://www.ict-­‐citypulse.eu/page/content/smart-­‐city-­‐use-­‐cases-­‐and-­‐requirements	
  
Big (IoT) Data Analytics
.	
  
.	
  
.	
  
Real World Data
Smart	
  City	
  Framework	
  
Smart	
  City	
  Scenarios	
  
Data Processing and Information Extraction
Analysis	
  of	
  traffic	
  data	
  in	
  City	
  of	
  Aarhus	
  
University	
  of	
  Surrey	
  Smart	
  Campus	
  data	
  analysis	
  
TwiKer	
  data	
  analysis	
  for	
  detecIng	
  city	
  events	
  
In Conclusion
Combining data from Physical, Cyber and Social sources can give more
complete, complementary data and contributes to better analysis and
insights.
Intelligent processing methods should be adaptable and able to handle
dynamic, multi-modal, heterogeneous and noisy and incomplete data.
Smart cities are complex social systems and no technological and data-
analytics-driven solution alone can solve the problems.
34
EU FP7 CityPulse Project:
http://www.ict-citypulse.eu/
@pbarnaghi
p.barnaghi@surrey.ac.uk
So what’s the lesson?
Learning from others…
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   36
Similarities and non-similarities
Data and open access are at the heart of all services
that turn a city into a smart city!
While all have similar problems, their motivations are different
Tuesday,	
  8	
  September	
  15	
   37

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UK smart cities

  • 1. Bricks and mortar… or how UK government, research and industry tries to make cities smart Klaus Moessner Tuesday,  8  September  15   1
  • 2. Tuesday,  8  September  15   It’s always about people or ‘citizens’
  • 3. What smart? 5 engineers, 5 solutions 5 politicians, 20 policies 5 users, 100 wishes Or: the UK approach to make cities smart Tuesday,  8  September  15   3
  • 4. Smart sells! …. a nice title alone does not help much! What makes a city smart? Tuesday,  8  September  15   4 [REF to be provided]
  • 5. Or the IBM view of the world Tuesday,  8  September  15   5 [REF to be provided]
  • 6. What makes a city smart? a modern digital infrastructure secure but open access approach to public re-useable data access to the information citizens need, when they need it UK gov/research and industry define 5 aspects Tuesday,  8  September  15   6
  • 7. Comms infrastructure is important … only those who know about them! a recognition that service delivery is improved by being citizen centric: placing the citizen’s needs at the forefront sharing management information to provide a coherent service, rather than operating in a multiplicity of service silos (for example, sharing changes of address more effectively) offering internet service delivery where possible (at a fraction of the face to face cost) But who cares about services and information? Tuesday,  8  September  15   7
  • 8. Knowledge needs intelligence needs information an intelligent physical infrastructure (“smart” systems or the Internet of Things) enable service providers to use the full range of data both to manage service delivery on a daily basis and to inform strategic investment in the city/community for example, gathering and analysing data on whether public transport is adequate to cope with rush hour peaks Information needs sensing and collection Tuesday,  8  September  15   8 [REF to be provided]
  • 9. New thinking an openness to learn from others and experiment with new approaches and new business models Not all old models will work, information will allow personalisation and customisation Tuesday,  8  September  15   9 [REF to be provided]
  • 10. Push services through competition transparency of outcomes/ performance, for example, city service dashboards to enable citizens to compare and challenge performance, establishment by establishment, and borough by borough. Offering better services and attracting Tuesday,  8  September  15   10 [REF to be provided]
  • 11. One definition…. many interpretations Some of UKs Smart City initiatives Tuesday,  8  September  15   11
  • 12. Back again: Smart sells! …. a nice title alone does not help much! Nice principles, but little practical impact, so far! Tuesday,  8  September  15   12 Milton   Keynes   Glasgow   London   Manchester   Bristol   Peterborough   [REF to be provided]
  • 13. Bristol Bristol is looking to leverage their 30Gbps fibre optic broadband network and Bristol Uni’s supercomputer by building a sensor network on top of this infrastructure. As part of the ‘Bristol is Open’ project, investigate how big data can be used to solve problems such as air pollution, traffic congestion and assisted living for the elderly. They are also investigating self-driving cars. As with other cities, they want to use city data sets to invigorate the development of new services to create ecosystems. air pollution, traffic congestion and assisted living for the elderly Tuesday,  8  September  15   13
  • 14. Milton Keynes The MK:Smart project has currently installed sensors in the public bins to notify dustmen when to empty them. Sensors for pest control and monitoring cycle and pedestrian traffic. Driverless vehicle technology. The goal of the project is to innovate in the areas of transport, energy and water management, tackling key demand issues whilst addressing the challenges of supporting sustainable growth without exceeding the capacity of the infrastructure, and whilst meeting key carbon reduction targets. rubbish collection, pest control, traffic management, autonomous vehicles Tuesday,  8  September  15   14
  • 15. Glasgow Glasgow is building a smart city demonstrator (Future City Glasgow) for integrated services across health, transport, energy and public safety. It will also serve as a testbed for businesses to test new solutions which can then be implemented in other cities. As part of this project: •  City Data Hub – Provides entrepreneurs with almost 400 city data sets (e.g. smart street lights) to allow them to create new services. •  Sensorised homes to help reduce energy wastage. integrated services across health, transport, energy and public safety Tuesday,  8  September  15   15
  • 16. Manchester Manchester is undertaking a number of initiatives to encourage its development as a “smart city” and is a partner in a number of European projects with other comparable cities such as Helsinki, Barcelona, Amsterdam, Ghent, Bologna and Cologne. The aim is to share best practice in the use of technology to significantly improve life for the people who live and work in our urban areas. They are looking to develop a living lab although not much information about it currently exists. Living lab for best practice in the use of technology Tuesday,  8  September  15   16
  • 17. Peterborough Part of IBM’s Smarter Planet/Smarter Cities Initiative. They are promoting their Peterborough DNA programme which aims to deliver growth, innovation and sustainability for the city. Similar to other cities promoting themselves as ‘smart’, they are creating enablers such as these to encourage entrepreneurs to make the city a better place. Improve business environment Tuesday,  8  September  15   17
  • 18. London At the core of London’s Smart City vision, it believes it must harness new technologies and its creative strengths if the city is to adapt to meet the challenges caused by a growing population (congestion, public services, pollution, etc.). Some of the key areas London is trying to promote itself is: •  The provision of open data. The London Datastore receives over 25,000 visits a month and over 450 transport apps alone have been created from it. The management of London’s passenger and road transport systems is amongst the most advanced in the world. Innovations include: Congestion Charging using number plate recognition, the intelligent road network management systems trialled during the Olympics and Wifi on the Tube. London’s move towards digital money is bringing efficiency savings - from London Transport's contactless Oyster card to using credit and debit cards to instantly pay for travel. •  The application of new technologies to re-use waste heat, such as from underground shafts and sub stations, and showcasing how hydrogen energy and fuel cell technology can be an emission free way to power London’s transport, homes and businesses. -  A centre for showcasing new technology and innovation, collaborating with London’s world class research institutions. Examples include Siemens’ £30 million investment in the Crystal to explore how technology can create a better future for our cities, and Intel’s investment in a Connected Cities’ institute with Imperial College and UCL, which engages Londoners in the development and design of new technology to ensure it meets the needs of citizens, not just cities. Transport, and almost anything else… Tuesday,  8  September  15   18
  • 19. London It is expected that an investment in technology and data can drive improvements in: •  Enterprise - enabling businesses to innovate and respond to these demands •  Skills – enhancing access to knowledge and training to enable Londoners to take part •  Energy & utilities – efficient and responsive management of resources, absorbing additional pressure while reducing carbon impact •  Safety – converging technology and data to improve the safety of Londoners (e.g. enabling cross-agency responses to emergency call outs) •  Health - new ways of providing holistic patient care and monitoring •  Transport – planning and managing journeys to reduce congestion Why are they bothering? Tuesday,  8  September  15   19
  • 20. London a rather extreme use case Tuesday,  8  September  15   20
  • 21. Making a “grown up” city smart London Tuesday,  8  September  15   21 [data.london.gov.uk]
  • 22. Similar views everywhere How other approach smart cities CityPulse Tuesday,  8  September  15   22
  • 23. Internet of Things and Data Analytics for Smart Cities 23   Payam Barnaghi Institute for Communication Systems (ICS) University of Surrey Guildford, United Kingdom
  • 24. AnyPlace   AnyTime   AnyThing   Data  Volume   Security,  Reliability,     Trust    and  Privacy   Societal  Impacts,  Economic  Values     and  Viability     Services  and  Applica?ons   Networking  and   Communica?on  
  • 25. 25 CityPulse: Large-scale data analytics for smart cities
  • 26. What  type  of  problems  we  expect  to  solve     in     “smart”  ciIes    
  • 27. 27Source  LAT  Times,  hKp://documents.laImes.com/la-­‐2013/   Future cities: A view from 1998
  • 29. Smart City Data Analysis Analysis of thousands of traffic, pollution, weather, congestion, public transport, waste and event sensory data to provide better transport and city management. Converting smart meter readings to information that can help prediction and balance of power consumption in a city. Monitoring elderly homes, personal and public healthcare applications. Event and incident analysis and prediction using (near) real-time data collected by citizen and device sensors. Turning social media data (e.g. Tweets) related to city issues into event and sentiment analysis. Any many more… 29
  • 30. Designing for City Problems
  • 31. 101 Smart City Use-case Scenarios hKp://www.ict-­‐citypulse.eu/page/content/smart-­‐city-­‐use-­‐cases-­‐and-­‐requirements  
  • 32. Big (IoT) Data Analytics .   .   .   Real World Data Smart  City  Framework   Smart  City  Scenarios  
  • 33. Data Processing and Information Extraction Analysis  of  traffic  data  in  City  of  Aarhus   University  of  Surrey  Smart  Campus  data  analysis   TwiKer  data  analysis  for  detecIng  city  events  
  • 34. In Conclusion Combining data from Physical, Cyber and Social sources can give more complete, complementary data and contributes to better analysis and insights. Intelligent processing methods should be adaptable and able to handle dynamic, multi-modal, heterogeneous and noisy and incomplete data. Smart cities are complex social systems and no technological and data- analytics-driven solution alone can solve the problems. 34
  • 35. EU FP7 CityPulse Project: http://www.ict-citypulse.eu/ @pbarnaghi p.barnaghi@surrey.ac.uk
  • 36. So what’s the lesson? Learning from others… Tuesday,  8  September  15   36
  • 37. Similarities and non-similarities Data and open access are at the heart of all services that turn a city into a smart city! While all have similar problems, their motivations are different Tuesday,  8  September  15   37