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IoT for Healthcare
Miodrag Bolic
Associate Professor
School of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science (EECS)
Faculty of Engineering
Outline
• Handheld Devices and Wearables
– Monitor and Assist
• Challenges and some Research Directions
– Types of sensors and actuators, Quality of data,
Form Factor, Localization, Power Consumption
• My Research Group Vision
• Future Directions
Healthcare and IoT
• Healthcare Landscape is Changing
– Obesity is growing
– Poor diet
– Population is aging (number of people older than 65
in the US is 70 million)
• 75‐80% of health care spending is on chronic disease
management
• Huge market for new systems which improve
productivity cut costs and support the shift of
healthcare from hospital to the home
Applications
• Monitoring elderlies
• Monitoring patient behavior
• Stress monitoring
• Monitoring social activities
• The Preventive Healthcare & Continuous Multiparameter
Monitoring
• Using IoT to monitor different therapies
• Using Healthcare Monitoring to Improve Drug Discovery
and Development
Applications
• Improving processes
– Finding people and equipment
– Tracking hospital equipment
– Patient ID and tracking
– Preventing medication errors
– Tracking samples (e.g. Blood samples)
– Anti-counterfeit measures
– Product recalls
– Tagging implants and remote charging of batteries
Sensors and Wearables
• Monitor = vital signs, falls, wandering, …
• Assist = alarm, notification, graph …
• Monitor More = context-aware measurement, daily
activities, social interactions, …
• Assist More = actuate, stimulate, transdermal
medication as needed, …
Now
Future
Infrastructure sensors
• Infrastructure sensors
– Remote
• Radars, cameras
– Combined wearable and remote
• Real-time location systems
– Close proximity detection or measurement
• Pressure mats, bed occupancy sensors
• Application of infrastructure sensors
– monitoring of health signs
– human–environment interactions
– monitoring falls
– human physical activity
June 12,2014
7
Actuators
An actuator is a mechanical or electrical device for
moving or controlling a mechanism, thus enabling a
system to perform a physical function
• Usually sensor input is used to trigger output
• Several types:
– Initiate movement
• Leg actuator
– Initiate reaction
• Fall prevention due to balance loss
– Treatment
• Neurostimulation for pain management
June 12,2014
8
Sensing and Form Factor
• Smart-phone
• Shirts
• Smart watches
• Smart jewelry
• Arm band
• Headphones
• Hearing aids
• Shoes
• Dental appliances
• Eyeglasses, …
Activities and Interactions
RFID and Wireless
Radio Frequency Identification
(RFID)
• Near Field Communication
– Short range: couple cm
• Far Field RFID
– Long range: 10 m
• Current applications
– Detecting presence and
wandering
– Retirement homes
• Future sensing application
– Detect interactions and
activities
– Localize people
11
RFID – Sample Tags / Readers
Pallet tag, UHF (Matrics)
Cardboard-case tag, MW (Matrics)
Plastic crate tag, UHF (Rafsec)
Sample Tags Sample Readers
Stationary reader and
antenna (Alien)
Signpost activator (Savi)
Stationary reader
(Matrics)
Handheld reader
(Checkpoint)
Doorway antenna
(Checkpoint)
Stationary reader and
antenna (SAMSys)
Stationary readers are typically deployed at
warehouse portals or loading docks, on
conveyor belts or forklift arms, on store
shelves, check-out lanes, etc.
Basic types of tags
• Active
– Tag transmits radio signal
– Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry
– High Read Range (100 m)
• Passive
– Tag reflects radio signal from reader
– Reader powered
– Shorter Read Range (1 cm- 10 m)
• Semi-passive
– Communicates with the reader in the same way as passive
– Have batteries for the electronics
– Range (up to 30m)
12
13
100kHz
LF 125 ~134Khz
1MHz
HF 13.56Mhz UHF 868 ~ 928Mhz
1GHz
2.45Ghz 5.6Ghz
•Access Control
•Automotive
Immob
•Animal-ID
•Asset Tagging
•Access Control
•Logistics
•Post
•Parcel
•baggage
•libraries
•Item
•Carton
•Case
•Retail
Transport
- road pricing
- train location
- fleet management
Under development
Frequency
Transport
• Road tolling
• Container tracking
• Pallets
Tag Type Selection
active tags
passive tags
RFID Tag Spectrum
Remote Monitoring of Activities
and Interactions - Biomedical
Radar
• Through-the-wall radar
– Police, firefighters
• Finding people under the rubble
• Detection of posture and activities of people
• Detection of stop-breathing events
– Suicide events
– Independent living
• Radar sensor networks
June 12,2014
14
Biomedical Radar - Experiments
Ranging and Detection of breathing
June 12,2014
15
Power Consumption
• Battery-less sensors
– Temperature sensing patch
– Knitting the antenna into a sweater
• Rechargeable batteries, energy harvesting
– Radio-frequency
– Temperature
– Movement
• Low power design
– Communication
– Processing
Flexible
battery
Data Quality and Content
• Unsupervised data collection – automatically or by the
patient.
• Quality: How do we know that data is accurate/correct?
 Quality of raw data, data aggregation data, learning
algorithms
 Identity and quantify noise, artifacts, activities …
 Automatic signal quality analysis and mitigation
• Content: When data implies emergency, No false alarms,…
My Research
Assist Monitor
Assist with neural interfaces for
sensing + neuromodulation
Monitor to capture daily activities and
vital signs
Future Directions in the Field
• Miniature sensors
• Power harvesting
• Having a unique communication system that will allow
for communication between different platforms
• Automated storage and security support
• Automated analysis of data
Research Directions
• Measure
– Everything that we wear becomes wearable device
– Everything that we hold becomes hand-held device
(steering wheel, book, …)
– Identifying the person holding the device
– Achieving sufficient measurement quality
– Achieving security and confidentiality
• Assist
– Intelligent actuation/stimulation in the loop
– How to control its use

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IoT for Healthcare

  • 1. IoT for Healthcare Miodrag Bolic Associate Professor School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) Faculty of Engineering
  • 2. Outline • Handheld Devices and Wearables – Monitor and Assist • Challenges and some Research Directions – Types of sensors and actuators, Quality of data, Form Factor, Localization, Power Consumption • My Research Group Vision • Future Directions
  • 3. Healthcare and IoT • Healthcare Landscape is Changing – Obesity is growing – Poor diet – Population is aging (number of people older than 65 in the US is 70 million) • 75‐80% of health care spending is on chronic disease management • Huge market for new systems which improve productivity cut costs and support the shift of healthcare from hospital to the home
  • 4. Applications • Monitoring elderlies • Monitoring patient behavior • Stress monitoring • Monitoring social activities • The Preventive Healthcare & Continuous Multiparameter Monitoring • Using IoT to monitor different therapies • Using Healthcare Monitoring to Improve Drug Discovery and Development
  • 5. Applications • Improving processes – Finding people and equipment – Tracking hospital equipment – Patient ID and tracking – Preventing medication errors – Tracking samples (e.g. Blood samples) – Anti-counterfeit measures – Product recalls – Tagging implants and remote charging of batteries
  • 6. Sensors and Wearables • Monitor = vital signs, falls, wandering, … • Assist = alarm, notification, graph … • Monitor More = context-aware measurement, daily activities, social interactions, … • Assist More = actuate, stimulate, transdermal medication as needed, … Now Future
  • 7. Infrastructure sensors • Infrastructure sensors – Remote • Radars, cameras – Combined wearable and remote • Real-time location systems – Close proximity detection or measurement • Pressure mats, bed occupancy sensors • Application of infrastructure sensors – monitoring of health signs – human–environment interactions – monitoring falls – human physical activity June 12,2014 7
  • 8. Actuators An actuator is a mechanical or electrical device for moving or controlling a mechanism, thus enabling a system to perform a physical function • Usually sensor input is used to trigger output • Several types: – Initiate movement • Leg actuator – Initiate reaction • Fall prevention due to balance loss – Treatment • Neurostimulation for pain management June 12,2014 8
  • 9. Sensing and Form Factor • Smart-phone • Shirts • Smart watches • Smart jewelry • Arm band • Headphones • Hearing aids • Shoes • Dental appliances • Eyeglasses, …
  • 10. Activities and Interactions RFID and Wireless Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) • Near Field Communication – Short range: couple cm • Far Field RFID – Long range: 10 m • Current applications – Detecting presence and wandering – Retirement homes • Future sensing application – Detect interactions and activities – Localize people
  • 11. 11 RFID – Sample Tags / Readers Pallet tag, UHF (Matrics) Cardboard-case tag, MW (Matrics) Plastic crate tag, UHF (Rafsec) Sample Tags Sample Readers Stationary reader and antenna (Alien) Signpost activator (Savi) Stationary reader (Matrics) Handheld reader (Checkpoint) Doorway antenna (Checkpoint) Stationary reader and antenna (SAMSys) Stationary readers are typically deployed at warehouse portals or loading docks, on conveyor belts or forklift arms, on store shelves, check-out lanes, etc.
  • 12. Basic types of tags • Active – Tag transmits radio signal – Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry – High Read Range (100 m) • Passive – Tag reflects radio signal from reader – Reader powered – Shorter Read Range (1 cm- 10 m) • Semi-passive – Communicates with the reader in the same way as passive – Have batteries for the electronics – Range (up to 30m) 12
  • 13. 13 100kHz LF 125 ~134Khz 1MHz HF 13.56Mhz UHF 868 ~ 928Mhz 1GHz 2.45Ghz 5.6Ghz •Access Control •Automotive Immob •Animal-ID •Asset Tagging •Access Control •Logistics •Post •Parcel •baggage •libraries •Item •Carton •Case •Retail Transport - road pricing - train location - fleet management Under development Frequency Transport • Road tolling • Container tracking • Pallets Tag Type Selection active tags passive tags RFID Tag Spectrum
  • 14. Remote Monitoring of Activities and Interactions - Biomedical Radar • Through-the-wall radar – Police, firefighters • Finding people under the rubble • Detection of posture and activities of people • Detection of stop-breathing events – Suicide events – Independent living • Radar sensor networks June 12,2014 14
  • 15. Biomedical Radar - Experiments Ranging and Detection of breathing June 12,2014 15
  • 16. Power Consumption • Battery-less sensors – Temperature sensing patch – Knitting the antenna into a sweater • Rechargeable batteries, energy harvesting – Radio-frequency – Temperature – Movement • Low power design – Communication – Processing Flexible battery
  • 17. Data Quality and Content • Unsupervised data collection – automatically or by the patient. • Quality: How do we know that data is accurate/correct?  Quality of raw data, data aggregation data, learning algorithms  Identity and quantify noise, artifacts, activities …  Automatic signal quality analysis and mitigation • Content: When data implies emergency, No false alarms,…
  • 18. My Research Assist Monitor Assist with neural interfaces for sensing + neuromodulation Monitor to capture daily activities and vital signs
  • 19. Future Directions in the Field • Miniature sensors • Power harvesting • Having a unique communication system that will allow for communication between different platforms • Automated storage and security support • Automated analysis of data
  • 20. Research Directions • Measure – Everything that we wear becomes wearable device – Everything that we hold becomes hand-held device (steering wheel, book, …) – Identifying the person holding the device – Achieving sufficient measurement quality – Achieving security and confidentiality • Assist – Intelligent actuation/stimulation in the loop – How to control its use

Editor's Notes

  1. Classify by function as diagnostic and therapeutic An actuator is a mechanical or electrical device for moving or controlling a mechanism, thus enabling a system to perform a physical function Usually sensor input is used to trigger output Several types: Initiate movement Leg actuator Initiate reaction Fall prevention due to balance loss Treatment Neurostimulation for pain management lation: 1) chronic disease management and post-acute care management and 2) patient safety.
  2. http://www.technologyreview.com/news/529571/using-your-ear-to-track-your-heart/
  3. 11
  4. 13
  5. Automatic biosignal quality analysis can be divided into four fundamental prob- lems: detection of a signal contaminant, identification of the type of contaminant, quantification of the contaminant’s effect on the signal, and mitigation When monitoring moves into unsupervised environments, the quality and inter- pretation of collected data can come into question. Clinicians may not be available to supervise the use of continuous devices or act on alarms. Furthermore, ambulatory monitoring is subject to motion artifact, which may degrade the quality of the data being recorded. Raw data quality  identity and quantify noise, artifacts, activities … Data aggregation quality  data fusion Location quality  GPS position, body posture, etc. Learning quality  Your heartrate is higher than usual. In its recent report, the ECRI Institute identified “Inadequate Alarm Con- figuration Policies and Practices” as the top health technology hazard for 2015 [20]. This includes alarm fatigue, where the false alarm rate is so high that clinicians either waste time responding to them, or ignore them and risk missing true alarms.
  6. remote patient monitoring in this popu An actuator is a mechanical or electrical device for moving or controlling a mechanism, thus enabling a system to perform a physical function Usually sensor input is used to trigger output Several types: Initiate movement Leg actuator Initiate reaction Fall prevention due to balance loss Treatment Neurostimulation for pain management lation: 1) chronic disease management and post-acute care management and 2) patient safety.
  7. development of smart signal processing, data analysis and interpretation, communication standards interoperability, electronic components efficiency, and energy supply. Even more future – turning your phone into the sonar – detecting sleep apnea episodes.