East timor


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Conflict, Aus national interest, Aus involvement.

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East timor

  1. 1. East Timor Azita and Selina
  2. 2. East Timor Mountainous island 430 km west of Darwin Capital city – Dili Official languages – Tetum and Portuguese Working languages – Indonesian and English At beginning, West Timor occupied by Dutch and East Timor by Portuguese Later annexed by Indonesia Voted for independence in 1999 Gained independence in 2002
  3. 3. Conflicts in East Timor
  4. 4. Conflicts in East Timor Civil war between Fretilin and UDT, August 1975 Operasi Seroja, December 1975 Santa Cruz massacre, 1991 Indonesian campaign of terror, 1999 Dili crisis, 2006
  5. 5. Civil war
  6. 6. Civil warAugust 1975 Secret Indonesian propaganda campaign Operasi Komodo divides supporters of UDT and Fretilin UDT fears coup from Fretilin and stages own in Dili Fretilin overcomes UDT’s attempt to push away Fretilin supporters Fretilin declares independence of East Timor on 28th November 1975 Indonesia responds with “Balibo Declaration”, for unity of Indonesia and East Timor
  7. 7. Operasi Seroja
  8. 8. Operasi SerojaDecember 1975 Began 7th December, 1975 Largest military operation carried out by Indonesia Political instability and fight against communism used as excuses to invade Indonesian troops shoot East Timorese in cities, loot houses and rape women and girls 2000 people killed in Dili in first week Many more put to death East Timor made Indonesia’s 27th province Annexation unrecognised by UN
  9. 9. Santa Cruz massacre
  10. 10. Santa Cruz massacreNovember 1991 Independence supporter Sebastião Gomes is shot by Indonesian troops East Timorese hold peaceful protest on the way to Gomes’ memorial service on 12th November Indonesian troops open fire on mourners as they enter the cemetery Cemetery is sealed off and injured East Timorese are left to die Journalists witness and capture footage of massacre and smuggle it to Australia Indonesian authorities pass shootings off as a “misunderstanding” while politicians and officials justify violence
  11. 11. Indonesian campaign of terror
  12. 12. Indonesian campaign of terror1999 East Timorese are permitted to vote between autonomy and independence Almost all eligible voters vote in referendum Majority vote on independence (78.5%) Militia supported by Indonesia rampage through East Timor INTERFET is established Australia leads international intervention force to stop killings Indonesia withdraws troops and allows intervention force to stabilise conditions
  13. 13. Dili crisis
  14. 14. Dili crisis2006  East Timorese troops from the West complain of discrimination using a petition  Almost 600 soldiers desert barracks  Deserters refuse to obey order to return to army  Petitioners relieved of duty  Peaceful demonstration held in Dili by former soldiers and supporters  Protest becomes violent and continues  FDTL arrive and shoot civilians in crowd while fighting rebels  Major Alfredo Reinado and followers desert FDTL in protest of “deliberate murder of civilians”  Government promises to compensate former soldiers with wages  Majority of rebels surrender
  15. 15. Australia’s involvement in EastTimor
  16. 16. Australia’s involvement in EastTimor Did not recognise Fretilin’s declaration of independence in 1975 Did not oppose idea of annexation of East Timor in 1975 Did not attempt to intervene in invasion in 1975 Attempted to confiscate footage of Santa Cruz massacre Howard government changed position from no support of East Timorese self-determination Troops led international intervention force in 1999 to stop killings Helped to create good conditions for East Timor to gain independence
  17. 17. Australia’s involvement in EastTimor cont. Committed 5500 troops to and led INTERFET Public approved of support of East Timor Convinced Thailand, Singapore, Philippines and Malaysia to join INTERFET Had 440 troops stay in East Timor with UN peacekeeping force in 2004 Led ISF to stabilise situation in Dili’s 2006 crisis Soldiers and police trained East Timor’s army and police force Supported (as ISF) but was not part of UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste Currently has troops stationed in Dili for “as long as is necessary” Gave $123.7 million for aid in 2011-2012
  18. 18. Importance of East Timor’sstability to Australia
  19. 19. Importance of East Timor’sstability to Australia Conflicts in East Timor require more Australian troops and funding to respond Could also potentially mean more loss of Australian lives Instability could increase number of migrants Support of East Timor in conflict might harm relations with Indonesia Fragility of law and government means it could become a base for transnational crime and terrorism
  20. 20. The end