East Timor


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Conflict in ET, Australia's involvement, importance of ET's stability to Australia

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East Timor

  1. 1. East Timor Azita and Selina
  2. 2. Conflicts in East Timor• Civil war between Fretilin and UDT, August 1975• Indonesian invasion (Operasi Seroja), December 1975• Indonesian campaign of terror, 1999• Political crisis, 2006
  3. 3. Civil war
  4. 4. Civil war August 1975• Secret Indonesian propaganda campaign Operasi Komodo divides supporters of UDT and Fretilin• UDT fears coup from Fretilin and stages own in Dili• Fretilin overcomes UDT’s attempt to push away Fretilin supporters• Fretilin declares independence of East Timor on 28th November 1975• Indonesia responds with “Balibo Declaration”, for unity of Indonesia and East Timor
  5. 5. Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor
  6. 6. Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor December 1975• Began 7th December, 1975• Largest military operation carried out by Indonesia• Political instability and fight against communism used as excuses to invade• Indonesian troops shoot East Timorese in cities, loot houses and rape women and girls• 2000 people killed in Dili in first week• Many more put to death• East Timor made Indonesia’s 27th province• Annexation unrecognised by UN
  7. 7. Indonesian campaign of terror
  8. 8. Indonesian campaign of terror 1999• East Timorese are permitted to vote between autonomy and independence• Almost all eligible voters vote in referendum• Majority vote on independence (78.5%)• Militia supported by Indonesia rampage through East Timor• INTERFET is established• Australia leads international intervention force to stop killings• Indonesia withdraws troops and allows intervention force to stabilise conditions
  9. 9. 2006 crisis
  10. 10. 2006 crisis• East Timorese troops from the West complain of discrimination using a petition• Almost 600 soldiers desert barracks• Deserters refuse to obey order to return to army• Petitioners relieved of duty• Peaceful demonstration held in Dili by former soldiers and supporters• Protest becomes violent and continues• FDTL arrive and shoot civilians in crowd while fighting rebels• Major Alfredo Reinado and followers desert FDTL in protest of “deliberate murder of civilians”• Government promises to compensate former soldiers with wages• Majority of rebels surrender
  11. 11. Australia’s involvement in East Timor
  12. 12. Australia’s involvement in East Timor• Did not recognise Fretilin’s declaration of independence in 1975• Did not oppose idea of annexation of East Timor in 1975• Did not attempt to intervene in invasion in 1975• Howard government changed position from no support of East Timorese self-determination• Troops led international intervention force in 1999 to stop killings• Helped to create good conditions for East Timor to gain independence
  13. 13. Australia’s involvement in East Timor cont.• Committed 5500 troops to and led INTERFET• Public approved of support of East Timor• Convinced Thailand, Singapore, Philippines and Malaysia to join INTERFET• Had 440 troops stay in East Timor with UN peacekeeping force in 2004• Led ISF to stabilise situation in Dili’s 2006 crisis• Soldiers and police trained East Timor’s army and police force• Supported (as ISF) but was not part of UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste• Currently has troops stationed in Dili for “as long as Dili wants them”• Gave $123.7 million for aid in 2011-2012
  14. 14. The importance of EastTimor’s stability to Australia
  15. 15. The importance of East Timor’s stability to Australia• Conflicts in East Timor require more Australian troops and funding to respond• Could also potentially mean more loss of Australian lives• Instability could increase number of migrants• Support of East Timor in conflict might harm relations with Indonesia• Fragility of law and government means it could become a base for transnational crime and terrorism