Musical instruments

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Musical instruments

  1. 1. LEVELED READER • P Musical Instruments A Reading A–Z Level P Leveled Reader Word Count: 1,124 Written by Kira Freed Visit www.readinga-z.com www.readinga-z.com for thousands of books and materials.
  2. 2. Photo Credits: Front cover, pages 4, 5, 7 (upper left, lower left), 8, 9 (upper right), 13, 17, 19, 20, 21 (bottom), 22, 23, 25: © PhotoDisc; back cover, page 24: © Digital Stock; title page, pages 6, 7 (upper right), 9 (lower left, lower right), 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18: © Artville; page 21 (top): Courtesy of Aleksandar Rakovic/www.njegos.org Musical Instruments Level P Leveled Reader © 2002 Learning Page, Inc. Written by Kira Freed ReadingA–ZTM © Learning Page, Inc. Written by Kira Freed Correlation All rights reserved. LEVEL P Learning Page 1630 E. River Road #121 Fountas & Pinnell N Tucson, AZ 85718 Reading Recovery 21 DRA 30 www.readinga-z.com www.readinga-z.com
  3. 3. Table of Contents Introduction...........................................4 Instruments ...........................................6 Frame drum Orchestras .............................................8 with mallet Bands ..................................................16 Instruments Around the World ............19 Introduction Music has probably been important Glossary...............................................26 since the first humans lived on Earth. They made musical instruments from everyday objects. Music might have been discovered unintentionally when musical tones were created by accidentally hitting a tree trunk or a rock. Or the wind might have created music when it blew through a shell, a reed, or a piece of bamboo. 3 4
  4. 4. Music is still important to us today. We can make music with our voices Instruments or with instruments. We can also dance Just as there are many types to it or just listen to it. Music brings of music, there are also many pleasure and joy to life. Gentle, quiet types of instruments. Each music soothes us. Loud music excites us instrument has its own and gives us energy. We can special personality. Each create or find music to one creates its own kind express all of of sound and mood. our moods. The sounds can be soft, loud, gentle, harsh, wild, or soothing. Taiko drummer (Japan) Saxophone 5 6
  5. 5. Mandolin (wood) Tambourine (skin) The type of sound made by a musical instrument depends on its shape, design, and size. The sound also depends Orchestras on the materials One place where many from which the musical instruments are instrument is found is an orchestra. made and the way This is a group of it is played. It is musicians who play truly amazing how together on certain many types of musical instruments. musical instruments Most big cities, and there are in the many smaller cities, world. Each one can have an orchestra. bring pleasure to Orchestras usually Orchestral conductor both the player play what is called Gong (metal) and the listener. classical music. 7 8
  6. 6. The biggest part of an orchestra is the string section. This includes a family of stringed instruments that are played with a bow. These instruments all create Another stringed instrument in an a similar kind of sound, Violin orchestra is plucked instead even though some are smaller of bowed. It is the harp. with a higher sound and some It is a quieter are bigger with a deeper sound. instrument than The string section includes many other violins, violas, cellos, and orchestra double basses. The instruments. string section of The harp a large orchestra is usually can contain played while over 70 fewer other musicians. instruments are playing so that it can be heard. Sometimes the harp is played solo, or alone. Cello Double bass Harp 9 10
  7. 7. Another important part of an orchestra is the woodwind family. The Woodwind woodwinds include flutes, instruments oboes, clarinets, and are played by bassoons. The woodwinds blowing air into have other family members them. They have that may be part of an many holes that make orchestra, too. The flute has a different musical notes smaller cousin, called a piccolo. when the holes are covered The other woodwinds have or uncovered. Sometimes bigger cousins called the the holes are covered by the English horn, bass clarinet, player’s fingers. Sometimes and double bassoon. the player holds down keys Clarinet that cover the holes. Flute 11 12
  8. 8. Percussion instruments are another important part of an orchestra. These instruments are all struck, or hit, in one way or another. They are made of skin, metal, or wood. Some percussion instruments, such as a xylophone, create musical notes. Others, such as castanets and most drums, create sound with no musical notes. Percussion adds bangs and splashes to the sound of an French horn orchestra. Another section of the orchestra is the brass section. This includes trumpets, horns, trombones, and tubas. These are among the most powerful instruments in an orchestra. Brass instruments, like woodwinds, are played by blowing into them. Trumpets, horns, and tubas have valves that a player pushes to change notes. Trombones have a U-shaped metal tube and slide. The player moves the slide to change notes. Kettledrum 13 14
  9. 9. Keyboard instruments include the piano Bands and organ. These instruments have Bands are another kind of musical closed cases that hide the inside of group that have their the instrument. Pianos have strings own kinds of instruments. that vibrate. Organs create sound by Marching bands use the use of wind. These instruments brass, woodwind, and all have many keys that can create percussion instruments, many more notes but no strings. There are than most other many other kinds of instruments. bands as well. They often include one or more guitars, another stringed Electric guitar instrument. Guitars are the foundation of many bands in the same way that the violin family is the foundation of an orchestra. Guitars played in bands are often made louder by the use Baby grand piano of amplifiers. 15 16
  10. 10. A rock band can include electric guitars, bass guitars, drums, and an electronic keyboard, along with other instruments. A jazz band can have many of the same instruments as a rock band. It can also have woodwinds and brass instruments. Latin bands often have extra percussion 5-string banjo such as the marimba, an instrument related to a Bluegrass and xylophone. country music bands may have guitars, banjos, mandolins, and autoharps. They may also have various percussion instruments such as spoons, Marimba washboards, and bucket basses. These bands also have fiddles, which are violins played in a very different style than they are in an orchestra. 17 18
  11. 11. Native American flute Panpipes (Greece, Latin America, Kalimba, or Far East) thumb piano (Africa) Blown instruments, Instruments Around the World including the Cultures around the world have woodwinds, all instruments that are very different from force air down a the ones described so far in this book. tube. Look at these But most instruments, no matter where illustrations of blown they are found, are played in one instruments from of four ways— by blowing, scraping, around the world. plucking, or hammering. Some examples of each type of instrument are shown on the following pages. Scottish bagpipes (Scotland) 19 20
  12. 12. Gusle player (Eastern Europe) Koto (Japan) Plucked instruments have strings that can be plucked using fingers or a variety of other objects. Here are some plucked instruments from around the world. Hurdy-gurdy (Europe) Scraped instruments include the violin family. They often use a bow that creates sound when scraped over strings. But Lute (Middle East, Europe) many scraped instruments create music in other ways. These are two unusual scraped instruments. Sitar (India) 21 22
  13. 13. Shekere, or beaded gourd shaker (Africa) Castanets (Spain) Hammered instruments include drums and other percussion instruments. They create music by hitting one object with another. Barbershop quartet Cultures In many ways, the human voice can around the be considered a musical instrument. world have It is perhaps the most flexible musical many kinds instrument of all. It can create and sing of hammered songs with words, tunes without words, instruments. and a wide variety of rhythms and Here are a sounds. It doesn’t cost anything since no few of them. extra equipment is needed. If you are in a place where you need to be quiet, you Drum (Africa) can still hum or sing silently to yourself. 23 24
  14. 14. Glossary amplifier electronic equipment that makes a musical instrument sound louder (p. 16) bow a flexible rod with horsehairs stretched from end to end for playing instruments of the violin family (p. 9) brass a group of metal instruments that includes trumpets, trombones, horns, and tubas (p. 13) Music brings great keyboard a group of instruments that includes joy to life. It helps the piano, organ, harpsichord, and more. us to express Also, the row or rows of keys ourselves, and it fills on any of these instruments (p. 15) our world with beauty. percussion a group of instruments on which Whether you sing, music is made by hammering or dance, play an banging, such as the drum (p. 14) instrument, or sit strings the violins, violas, cellos, and double and listen to music, basses in an orchestra (p. 9) be sure to make it woodwinds a group of instruments that includes a part of your life. flutes, clarinets, oboes, and bassoons (p. 11) Saxophone player 25 26

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