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NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Business Opportunities in the Food Industry –Busin...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Introduction
From 2005 until 2014, Botswana import...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Introduction 2
Trade Statistics – Balance of Trade
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Introduction 3
It can never be over-emphasized tha...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Introduction 4
The national situation analysis rec...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Botswana has however been ranked second in Africa ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
“While various government programmes have aimed to...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Botswana’s water supply challenges can be alleviat...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Climate change is expected to cause an increase in...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Gregory (2009) reports that heat stress in animals...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Food innovation needs to respond to emerging chall...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Thus, technological interventions in food processi...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
With Botswana’s food industry being rather small, ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Ensuring that a food product survives and prospers...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Objectives of today’s talk
To discuss the opportun...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Product and Process Development
Before entering th...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Raw Material Availability for Food Processing
Valu...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Raw Material Availability for Food Processing 2
Wh...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt-
b...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
• South Africa is quite advanced in commercializat...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
– Bidding and buying of plant material under the G...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
5. Mmilo – Vangueria infausta – R7.00 for 10 seeds...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt-
b...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
– Indigenous plant species products trade – visit
...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
– Propagation of Indigenous Species (cont’d…)
Depa...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
– Word of Caution:
 It is highly crucial for Bots...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
– Word of Caution (cont’d)….:
The Philippines for...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Food Processing Possibilities
Having painted the p...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Food Processing Possibilities 2
Besides using cult...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Food Processing Possibilities 3
 mokapane (Anthos...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Food Processing Possibilities… 4
As well as… impor...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Food Processing Possibilities 5
… important source...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Food Processing Possibilities 6
Game meat can also...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Food Processing Possibilities 7
Name of Animal Loc...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Food Processing Possibilities 8
Name of
Animal
Loc...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Food Processing Possibilities 9
The following reci...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Food Processing Possibilities 10
bogobe ja lerots...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
NFTRC – Customer-focused approach
NFTRC seeks to: ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
NFTRC’s Research and Development Areas
Indigenous ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Product development and reformulation
NFTRC offers...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Product testing and evaluation
NFTRC offers techni...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Training – skills transfer in food processing and
...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Supporting modules
Product Realization and Marketi...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Technical Description Documents
NFTRC produces tec...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Technical Description Documents (cont’d)
Zoning/lo...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Technical Description Documents (cont’d)
Raw mater...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
NFTRC Prototypes for Commercialization
Nature of
P...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
NFTRC Prototypes for Commercialization
Nature of
P...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
NFTRC Prototypes for Commercialization
Nature of
P...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
NFTRC Prototypes for Commercialization
Nature of
P...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Summary of Product Possibilities
Fruit and Vegetab...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Business Possibilities in Food Safety
From a servi...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Business Possibilities in Food Safety… 2
Schools a...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  The World as a Global Village
International Mark...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  The World as a Global Village
Need for targeted...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  Electronic Business/E-commerceElectronic Busines...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  So, which are the priority/winning products?So, ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  So, which are the priority/winning products?So, ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  So, which are the priority/winning products?So, ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  So, which are the priority/winning products?So, ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  So, which are the priority/winning products?So, ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  So, which are the priority/winning products?So, ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
  So, which are the priority/winning products?So, ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Background
Generally classified as a thick porridg...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Background... 2
Traditionally it is obtained throu...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Indigenous Knowledge Findings
Findings were consis...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
NFTRC Product Formulation
Product = Dried Ting
For...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Sustainability
Highly sustainable; sorghum is Bots...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Physical and Chemical Composition and
Important Fu...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Market Prospects
Dried ting has already proven to ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
NFTRC Processing and Testing Facilities
NFTRC Pilo...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Equipment
ExtruderExtruder • Toasted products are ...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Equipment (cont’d)
RetortRetort
• Food first prepa...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Equipment (cont’d)
Bowl cutter/chopperBowl cutter/...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Equipment (cont’d)
Fruit and Vegetable PulperFruit...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Equipment (cont’d)
SoyCowSoyCow
Soybeans or morama...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Laboratory testing of foods
Routine biochemical an...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Some of NFTRC’s Food Technologies
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Take-home Message
Batswana food industry entrepren...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Take-home Message 2
For a food item to grow from b...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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As a business strategy, agro-/food processing ente...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Once an entrepreneur is in the food business or in...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
The management of intellectual property (IP) and
i...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Entrepreneurs need to be aware of the concept of e...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch
Cognizant of the power and influence that you hold...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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remind your communities that-, contrary to popular...
NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre
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Thank you very muchThank you very much
for your at...
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Business Opportunities in the Food Industry - Botswana - Dec 2014

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Business Opportunities in the Food Industry - Botswana - Dec 2014

  1. 1. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Business Opportunities in the Food Industry –Business Opportunities in the Food Industry – BotswanaBotswana presented by Selalelo M. Mpotokwanepresented by Selalelo M. Mpotokwane
  2. 2. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Introduction From 2005 until 2014, Botswana imports averaged 4.426 billion BWP, reaching an all time high of 9.778 billion BWP in Sept 2008, and a record low of 2.458 billion BWP in Feb 2009 http://www.tradingeconomics.com/botswana/imports These included fuel, food, beverages and tobacco, machinery and electric equipment, chemical and rubber products, and vehicles Currently, main import partners are South Africa (75% of total imports), China, Israel, Namibia and Zimbabwe
  3. 3. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Introduction 2 Trade Statistics – Balance of Trade
  4. 4. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Introduction 3 It can never be over-emphasized that Botswana still continues to struggle in efforts to balance imports with exports, and to diversify her economy away from the diamond mining industry The challenge is even more pronounced with regard to agriculture, where Botswana, being semi-arid already, also has to reckon with the ever-increasing challenges of climate change
  5. 5. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Introduction 4 The national situation analysis recently performed as a preliminary stage in the development of Botswana’s Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Policy identified the following domains that are relevant to food security: Arable Farming (Temo), Livestock-rearing (Thuo), Traditional Food Systems and Cuisine (Dijo/Kapei), and Veld/Forest Products (Dibapalwa-nageng) Agricultural survey results for 2011 indicated that farmers heavily relied on ‘purchased food’ to meet their food needs – about 79.4% of farmers’ food needs were met from ‘purchased food’, vs.15.7% from ‘own farm produce’ Farmers are thus vulnerable to volatile food prices, which may affect their own household food security
  6. 6. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Botswana has however been ranked second in Africa in terms of food security (after South Africa) – Economic Intelligence Unit – Global Food Security Index South Africa – 40th in the world (out of 104 countries ranked) Botswana – 47th “Despite domestic crop failures, Botswana's strong food security situation stems from the country's purchasing power and presence of food safety net programmes. In addition, factors such as the proportion of the population living under or close to US$2 per day or the global poverty line, as well as the level of agricultural import tariffs, also favour the country's food security status”. Food Security Intro’… 5
  7. 7. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch “While various government programmes have aimed to drive self-sufficiency in food production over the decades, latest estimates indicate that food comprises the lion's share of agricultural imports, being valued at P5.23 billion in 2011. Of this total, South Africa accounts for more than 80 percent as a source The biggest threat [to food security] would be increases in the prices of food imports from South Africa, and supply interruptions due to crop failures”. http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php? sid=4&aid=55&dir=2012/July/Friday27 Food Security Intro’… 6
  8. 8. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Botswana’s water supply challenges can be alleviated through promotion of technologies that facilitate utilization of waste-water; this allows for growing of even those crops that typically have a relatively high water demand Several of these technologies e.g. waste-water maturation ponds, reed-beds, etc. are discussed in the document “Proceedings of an Awareness-Raising Workshop on Ecological Sanitation” http://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/Wirbelauer-2004- Proceedings.pdf At a very basic level, grey-water (bath/shower-, laundry and kitchen waste-water) can-, where necessary be treated accordingly (wetlands, waste-water ponds, etc.) and used in backyard gardens Water Resources Intro’… 7
  9. 9. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Climate change is expected to cause an increase in weather-related disasters and extreme weather events Mycotoxins (toxins/poisons produced by moulds) are considered the key issue for food safety under climate change, and are dangerous to human health even at low doses Carbon-dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere affects post-harvest quality, causing tuber malformation, occurrence of common scab, and changes in reducing sugar contents in potatoes Warmer and wetter weather (particularly warmer winters) will increase the risk and occurrence of animal diseases Climate Change Intro’… 8
  10. 10. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Gregory (2009) reports that heat stress in animals can increase the following risks: pale-soft-exudative (PSE) meat in pigs and turkeys heat shortening in broilers dark cutting beef in cattle and dehydration in most species Changes in livestock and poultry management practices in response to climate-change-related hazards could indirectly lead to changes in meat quality; for example, selecting for heat-tolerant cattle could lead to tougher, less juicy beef Also, pre-conditioning broilers to heat stress to encourage better survival during transport could lead to more variable breast meat pH (Gregory, 2009) Climate Change Intro’… 9
  11. 11. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food innovation needs to respond to emerging challenges as regards climate change; Moretti et al. (2009) note that “temperature increase and the effects of greenhouse gases are among the most important issues associated with climate change” Food processing technologies have to build in processes such as fortification/enrichment to compensate for raw materials that have low nutrient content Processing technologies can also be re-designed, e.g. processing at elevated temperatures in situations where the risk of food pathogens is high Climate Change Intro’… 10
  12. 12. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Thus, technological interventions in food processing ought to take into consideration the changes that climate change brings about in agricultural produce Climate Change Intro’… 11
  13. 13. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch With Botswana’s food industry being rather small, local entrepreneurs usually find themselves constantly having to compete unfavourably with imported foods, esp. from South Africa Online retailers such as Alibaba, which commands an enormous global presence and from whom food industry equipment may be purchased from different suppliers at competitive prices, and similar companies such as eBay and Amazon, have made it easier for entrepreneurs to take up new technologies at affordable cost (Alibaba’s phenomenal growth has seen this Chinese company recently list on the New York Stock exchange) http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2014/0 9/19/alibaba-surges-in-first-day-trading/15828389/ Food Enterprises Intro’… 12
  14. 14. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Ensuring that a food product survives and prospers in a highly competitive marketplace takes careful planning and informed decisions Effective technology transfer and commercialization will ensure that food products remain sustainable in the market Food Enterprises Intro’… 13
  15. 15. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Objectives of today’s talk To discuss the opportunities that exist within Botswana’s food industry, and suggest how they can be tapped in order to significantly diversify the economy, and markedly increase food security
  16. 16. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Product and Process Development Before entering the food processing industry, an entrepreneur ought to consider the following aspects, from concept-, to commercialization of each food product that they wish to manufacture •Concept & Prototype Development •Ingredient Functionality & Substitution •Line Extensions & Quality Improvements •Development of Product/Process Specifications •Assessment of Shelf Life & Packaging •Regulatory Issues & Requirements •Manufacturing Process Development & Scale-Up
  17. 17. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Raw Material Availability for Food Processing Value-addition to raw materials from sorghum, beans, sweet potato and maize, which were identified in a NFTRC survey in 2001 as the four most widely grown arable crops, as well as sweet reed, melons, watermelons, etc. can create noticeable profit margins through processed products such as breakfast cereals, puffed snacks, snack bars, desserts, salads, fermented products, malted or sprouted products, beverages, syrups, spreads e.g. jam, etc.
  18. 18. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Raw Material Availability for Food Processing 2 Where water supply is not a challenge, horticultural produce such as cabbage, onions, bell peppers, chilli peppers, tomatoes, etc. can also be produced and processed into frozen vegetables, dried vegetables, sauces, purees, pastes, pickles, etc. Despite being frequently faced with droughts, Botswana is endowed with generally hardy natural/veldt products that, if sustainably utilized, can positively contribute towards food security Animals are also major sources of raw materials, mainly in the form of meat, milk, and eggs
  19. 19. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources • As a baseline, there is need to have quantitative data on the distribution of existing plant species across the country, even before enticing manufacturers to go into processing of products based on • There is also need to actively propagate those landraces that have been identified to have most desirable traits, in an effort to drive towards ensuring availability of raw materials for processing; such agricultural interventions would solidly buttress the agro-processing industry and alleviate prospective food processing entrepreneur’s fears of failing in business due to shortage or lack of raw material
  20. 20. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch • South Africa is quite advanced in commercialization and marketing of plant species, among them indigenous ones e.g. Seeds for Africa http://stores.ebay.com/Seeds-for- Africa , and http://africaseeds.com, http://www.bidorbuy.co.za/seller/390651/Seeds_and_All / Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources 2
  21. 21. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch – Bidding and buying of plant material under the Garden, Outdoor living and Pets category; prices as at November 2013 were: 1. Mogose – Bauhinia petersiana – R16.50 for 10 seeds 2. Mungongo (mokongwa) – Schinziophyton rautanenii – R27.00 for 10 seeds 3. Mowana – Adansonia digitata – R19.00 for 10 seeds (R10.00 for 5 seeds; 20 packs of 5 seeds for R180.00 – Sept 2014) 4. Morula – Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra – R8.00/10seeds (R8.00 for 5 seeds; 20 packs of 5 seeds for R14.00 – Sept 2014) Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources 3
  22. 22. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch 5. Mmilo – Vangueria infausta – R7.00 for 10 seeds 6. Moretlwa – Grewia flava – R5.25 for 10 seeds 7. Mokolwane – Hyphaene petersiana – R30.00 for 10 seeds Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources 4
  23. 23. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources 5 Sustainable Commerce http://www.sustainable- commerce.co.za/indigenous-plant-products • The website notes that South Africa is fortunate to have a wide range of indigenous plants that can be used to create commercial products • Local communities can utilize such species for profit, spurring economic growth and alleviating poverty • Some of the available natural products from indigenous plants being sold by South Africans come from the Baobab tree, Devil’s Claw, and Morula tree • Botanical gardens such as the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden sell indigenous plant seeds http://www.sanbi.org/gardens/kirstenbosch
  24. 24. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch – Indigenous plant species products trade – visit www.phytotradeafrica.com – Propagation of indigenous species, especially veldt plants, is thus a potentially strong niche for economic growth in Botswana – Botswana is endowed with expanses of land on which indigenous species propagation of high-yielding and/or value trees, shrubs, leafy vegetables, rootcrops, etc. could be done – These raw materials can then be used to process value- added products Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources 6
  25. 25. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch – Propagation of Indigenous Species (cont’d…) Department of Forestry and Range Resources (DFRR) – has since embarked on a national propagation and cultivation project – tree seedlings are grown in 21 DFRR nurseries, with an average production of ½ a million indigenous tree seedlings, sold at subsidized prices – Mr. Joshua J. Moloi – jjmoloi@gov.bw Backyard gardens – the number of backyard tree nurseries is also growing – in 2012 a total of 173 backyard nursery and landscaping beneficiaries were mobilized as part of the Poverty Eradication Programme Millenium Seed/ Useful Plants Projects – Dr. Khola Mogotsi – Botswana College of Agriculture – kmogotsi@bca.bw Veld Products R&D – already demonstrated feasibility with some species, e.g. morula, mmilo, morojwa, etc. – Mr. Frank Taylor – Wild Foods – frank@wildfruitsofafrica.com Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources 7
  26. 26. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch – Word of Caution:  It is highly crucial for Botswana to balance the preceding possibilities of utilizing/exploiting her veldt/natural products, with considerations of protecting the country’s (plant) genetic resources from exploitation by third parties While it would be most undesirable to stifle trade by stringently controlling access to such biological resources (in the spirit of preventing erosion of Botswana’s rich biodiversity, and protecting the country’s economy), the country’s Phytosanitary-, as well as Customs border control systems have to be alert and strictly adhere to current regulations (as determined from time to time) governing the movement of-, and trade in such plants Instruments such as the Convention on Biodiversity, as well as the Swakopmund Protocol, provide guidelines through which Botswana can carve her own sui generis (unique; one-of-a-kind) system for the protection of such biological resources and the knowledge associated with them Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources 8
  27. 27. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch – Word of Caution (cont’d)….: The Philippines for example has, through a sui generis system, enacted legislation giving indigenous communities rights over their traditional knowledge (TK), which extend to controlling access to ancestral lands, access to biological and genetic resources and to indigenous knowledge related to these resources Under such a system, access by interested foreign parties is based on prior informed consent of the community in line with customary laws, applying the rule “no permit, no collection”, and with heavy fines for those in breach Any benefits arising from the genetic resources or TK will be shared, and the indigenous communities are entitled to participate at all levels of decision-making (Stenton, 2003) Issues to think about – sustainability of veldt- based plant raw material sources 9
  28. 28. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities Having painted the preceding landscape on raw material sustainability, the following food processing possibilities are relevant for Botswana’s food industry: Oil-pressing is a simple and appropriate processing technology that is available for exploitation Meat products such as biltong, smoked beef, sausages, polonies, pastrami, seswaa, serobe, dried soups, etc. also offer opportunities for business Dairy products such as yoghurt, madila, whey drinks and cheese may also be processed
  29. 29. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities 2 Besides using cultivated crops and domestic animals as sources of raw materials, long shelf-life canned-, pickled-, frozen-, dried-, smoked-, pasteurized-, etc. products may be processed using veldt/wild raw materials, such as:  mmilo (Vangueria infausta)  morula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra)  mmupudu (Mimusops zeyheri)  mowana (Adansonia digitata)  morojwa (Azanza garckeana)  mopennweeng/mothata (Pappea capensis)  moretlwa (Grewia flava)  mogwana (Grewia bicolor)  motsotsojane/mokgomphatha (Grewia flavescens Juss. var. flavescens)
  30. 30. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities 3  mokapane (Anthosicyos naudinianus/Citrullus naudinianus/ Cucumis naudinianus/Colocynthis naudinianus)  monyaku (Cucumis africanus var. zeyheri; Cucumis prophetarum subsp. zeyheri)  sesoswane (Citrullus ecrirrhosus)  mosukudu (Lippia scaberrima)  mosukujane (Lippia javanica)  lengana (Artemisia afra)
  31. 31. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities… 4 As well as… important sources of insect protein phane (Imbrasia belina) Lebitse/kakanatswii (Sternocera orissa Buq.)
  32. 32. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities 5 … important sources of insect protein monakamongwe (Agrius convolvuli L.) nato (Cirina forda)
  33. 33. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities 6 Game meat can also be processed accordingly – however, please remember – no more hunting in Botswana mmutla (Lepus saxatilis) phala (Aepyceros melampus melampus) ntšhe/mptshe/mmamptshe
  34. 34. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities 7 Name of Animal Local Name and Scientific Name Number Allowed on Special Game License (SGL) Bat-eared Fox Otocyon megalotis 50 Caracal Caracal caracal 10 Duiker Phuti Cephalophus monticola 30 Eland Phofu (dun) Taurotragus oryx 1 Gemsbok Oryx gazella 4 Genet (tologwani) Geneta geneta 50 Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus 4 Impala Phala (Aepyceros melampus) 2 Jackal (black backed) Phokoje (Canis mesomelas) 50 Jackal (side striped) Canis adustus 50 Table 1. Species and numbers of animals that before 2013 could be hunted per calendar year, as stated in the Special Game License
  35. 35. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities 8 Name of Animal Local Name and Scientific Name Number Allowed on Special Game License (SGL) Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros 1 Monitor Lizard (Leguaan) Varanus niloticus 10 Ostrich Struthio camelus 2 Silver fox Vulpes chama 10 Springbok Tshephe Antidorcus marsupialis 4 Steenbok Raphicerus campestris 30 Warthog Kolobe-ya-naga Phacochoerus aethiopicus 3 Wild cat Felis silvestris lybica 50 Wildebeest Kgokong Connachaetus taurinus 4 Totals 20 species 365 individual animals Table 1. The species and numbers of animals that can be hunted per calendar year, as stated in the Special Game License
  36. 36. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities 9 The following recipes, based on traditional dishes, may be developed, targeting mainly the tourism and hospitality industry e.g. restaurants, and for mass catering e.g. schools, hospitals, prisons, institutional cafeterias, etc.  mosutlhane – boiled dehulled/pearled sorghum  lesasaoka – boiled wholegrain sorghum  mptshaptsha – boiled and dried mature corn/maize-on-the-cob, slightly re-cooked before consumption  kabu – boiled salted mature maize, off the cob  legala/logala – porridge cooked with milk
  37. 37. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Food Processing Possibilities 10 bogobe ja lerotse/thophi – porridge cooked with Citrullus lanatus cooking melon seswaa – meat (typically beef, lamb or goat) that is boiled until soft, then pounded until the fibres separate roasted sweet potato thepe (Amaranthus spp.) – boiled wild leafy vegetable rothwe (Cleome gynandra L.) – boiled wild leafy vegetable etc.
  38. 38. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch NFTRC – Customer-focused approach NFTRC seeks to:  1.Add value to food materials through development and application of scientific and technological research 2.Generate and package commercial food-processing projects for potential SMMEs 3.Work directly with food and beverage companies to help solve problems and improve their production and products 4.Help the food industry meet new technical challenges 5.Provide technical assistance and support to entrepreneurs setting up and operating small and medium scale food processing enterprises 6.Provide technical support to relevant government departments or organizations (e.g. BOBS, MoA, MoH, etc.)
  39. 39. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch NFTRC’s Research and Development Areas Indigenous Foods (incl. veldt/natural products) Cereals and Root Crops  Pulses, Oilseeds  Fruits and Vegetables  Meat   Dairy  
  40. 40. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Product development and reformulation NFTRC offers technical service to food manufacturers and handlers in the areas of: Process design and optimization Value-added products Nutritional enhancement Convenience foods Process development, including use of food additives, colourings, flavourings and texture modifiers Good manufacturing practice and good hygiene practice Packaging and labelling
  41. 41. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Product testing and evaluation NFTRC offers technical service in: Sensory evaluation and consumer studies Shelf-life testing Textural and physico-chemical characterization of food products Food modeling and engineering Quality control and assurance
  42. 42. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Training – skills transfer in food processing and food safety  Training modules cover a wide range of topics on Food Processing and Preservation, as well as Food Safety  These include:  Food Legislation  Food processing using local raw materials  Good Hygiene Practice (GHP) & Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)  Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
  43. 43. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Supporting modules Product Realization and Marketing – from concept to a successful product Sensory Evaluation of Foods  Trained panel evaluation of food products (descriptive sensory evaluation)  Consumer acceptance of food products Importance of Intellectual Property in Food Processing Enterprises
  44. 44. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Technical Description Documents NFTRC produces technical description documents on different types of food processing, as well as food safety These documents form the product description part of the business plan, and include the following details:
  45. 45. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Technical Description Documents (cont’d) Zoning/location of business Overall space and allocation Storage Equipment  scale of production vs. size of equipment  type  capacity  layout
  46. 46. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Technical Description Documents (cont’d) Raw material selection  Sources  Average costs  Seasonality  Quality Cleaning and maintenance programme Pest management and waste disposal Processing Packaging and labelling Quality control
  47. 47. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch NFTRC Prototypes for Commercialization Nature of Product Product Description VELD PRODUCTS Mmilo fruit squares Mmilo fruit stew Mmilo in syrup These products are intended for the utilization of natural raw materials found in most parts of the country. To promote small business in rural communities aimed at the tourism industry Morama butter, oil, milk Sesoswane oil, composite flours (wheat-sorghum) These are found in remote areas. Morama and sesoswane contain essential micronutrients that could be used to correct some deficiencies in other foods such as cereals. Utilization of these products could alleviate micronutrient deficiency Moretlwa dairy mix Moretlwa fruit roll Mogorogorwana fruit roll For high fibre and energy content Morula cider, jam Morula is found in abundance in the eastern part of the country. NFTRC worked with Veldt Product Research and Development to develop products aimed at creating employment for income-generating activities Mosata atchar Mosata is a plant found in Tswapong area; it has a meaty taste & therefore can be used as a meat substitute Phane and vegetable soup dry mix Phane, onion and tomato mix Contains high protein content and it is also seasonal. Canning of phane can make it available throughout the year and for the export market
  48. 48. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch NFTRC Prototypes for Commercialization Nature of Product Product Description FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Watermelon jam, drink, juice blends, melon jam, melon and lemon marmalade, lemon curd, peaches in syrup, vegetable atchar, vegetable drink These are seasonal, but found in abundance when in season. Therefore NFTRC encourages entrepreneurship in such products Morogo wa dinawa Hygienic processing of traditional vegetables Tomato products – paste, dried tomatoes, juice, purée, salsa Developed to absorb the increasing supply of tomatoes in the saturated fresh produce market
  49. 49. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch NFTRC Prototypes for Commercialization Nature of Product Product Description CEREALS, PULSES AND ROOTCROP PRODUCTS Dried ting Encourages commercialization of dried fermented sorghum flour Tsabana weaning food, extruded sorghum and maize snacks, instant porridges Promotion of the utilization of sorghum and maize since they are readily available raw materials Peanut butter A popular product for entrepreneurs, readily available market as it is used in school-feeding programmes Sweet potato: •dehydrated mash •flour •jam •ketchup •puree with mixed fruit •puree with mixed vegetables •salads •desserts The development of these products was funded by the Southern African Root-crops Research Network (SARRNET), to promote utilization of sweet potato in Botswana
  50. 50. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch NFTRC Prototypes for Commercialization Nature of Product Product Description SOYFOODS Soya coffee Soyghurt (soy yoghurt) Soymilk Soy is a high protein source that can be used as substitute for meat PACKAGING OF LOCAL PRODUCE All local farm produce Entrepreneurs are trained on various aspects of food packaging, to create markets for local produce MEAT PRODUCTS Polony, pastrami, smoked meat, sausages, biltong, ham, patties and indigenous products Through training of small-, to medium scale entrepreneurs, the programme promotes commercial processing of beef, donkey, pork, game and poultry DAIRY PRODUCTS Yoghurts , madila Hygienic processing of madila and yoghurt; modified traditional processing of madila to reduce wastage
  51. 51. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Summary of Product Possibilities Fruit and Vegetable Products (dried fruits, fruit rolls, frozen vegetables, pickles, jams, juices, etc.) Cereal Products (snack foods, breakfast cereals, instant flours, malted and milled products, etc.) Products from Oilseeds, Pulses and Legumes (soy products, peanut snacks, peanut butter, morama products, etc.) Products from Root Crops (sweet potato products) Dairy Products (yoghurt, cheese, madila, etc.) Meat and Fish Products (sausages, biltong, salted and smoked products, etc.)
  52. 52. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Business Possibilities in Food Safety From a service provision perspective, individuals and companies can get trained in Food Safety so as to leverage themselves to become the preferred service provider under the following categories: Caterers Catering businesses such as restaurants, cafés and takeaways – compliance with food hygiene regulations – clean facilities and food handlers, proper storage and pest control, effective cleaning and maintenance programme, etc. Retailers Through compliance with food hygiene regulations, and generally having clean facilities and food handlers that customers can see , retail outlets such as shops typically known as small general dealers can give themselves a competitive edge over the competition
  53. 53. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Business Possibilities in Food Safety… 2 Schools and day-care centres Schools and day-care centres that adhere to food hygiene regulations and can demonstrate such competitive edge through a documented simple, straightforward food safety system that for example includes information on feeding babies and children, cooking, cleaning, chilling, how to look after a child with a food allergy, etc., will be preferred over those centres that have no system in place Residential care homes Residential care homes such as hospices, old age homes, orphanages, etc., whose caterers and staff can demonstrate their ability to prepare and cook safer food for their residents, will be preferred over those that cannot
  54. 54. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   The World as a Global Village International Markets With Botswana being a rather small market, entrepreneurs should be prudent and seek external/international markets International markets Vast opportunities – size, volume – consider Angola, Moçambique, Zambia, DRC, South Sudan and other emerging markets But also – many unique challenges to food manufacturers 54
  55. 55. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   The World as a Global Village Need for targeted market research on a variety of issues:  Consumer tastes & preferences  Foreign health regulations  Transportation logistics  Product reformulation  Packaging & labelling adjustments  International trade shows  Exporting and customs clearance  Market entry strategies 55
  56. 56. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   Electronic Business/E-commerceElectronic Business/E-commerce Electronic Commerce Strategies and Education E-commerce plays a valuable role at every level in the food industry Website development/design Training on internet marketing, web-based research, etc. On-line transactions using credit and debit cards, digital cash, smart cards, electronic cheques, etc. 56
  57. 57. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   So, which are the priority/winning products?So, which are the priority/winning products? Product Category Product(s) Meat and Meat Products • Frozen beef seswaa • Donkey meat seswaa • Canned beef stew • Mokungwana • Canned serobe • Canned fish • Smoked fish 57
  58. 58. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   So, which are the priority/winning products?So, which are the priority/winning products? Product Category Product(s) Milk and Milk Products • Madila • Whey drinks • Yoghurt • Ongondivi (cooked milk fat) 58
  59. 59. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   So, which are the priority/winning products?So, which are the priority/winning products? Product Category Product(s) Fruit and Vegetable Products • Morula, mmilo, lerotse (melon), watermelon, mokapane, moretlwa, mogwana – selection of products including puréed pulp (kgodu), fruit jam, juices, juice blends, dairy blends, dried fruits, fruit rolls, syrup pickles • Mowana yoghurt • Bogobe ja mokolwane (fruit pulp cooked in milk) • Morogo wa dinawa • Delele (blanched and dried) • Morogo o o tsentsweng manoko kgotsa moko wa morula • Vegetable atchar • Mahupu (Kgalagadi desert truffles) – dried truffles, vacuum-packed truffles, beef & truffle stir-fry, truffle oil 59
  60. 60. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   So, which are the priority/winning products?So, which are the priority/winning products? Product Category Product(s) Cereals and Root-crops • Sorghum mageu • Dried ting • Sorghum malt • Sorghum-lerotse flour for bogobe ja lerotse (thophi) • Lesasaoka and mosutlhane savoury salads and convenience foods • Pearl millet – senkgwana, sekome • Tswii & bones/bone broth • Sweet potato – puddings, weaning foods and dehydrated mash 60
  61. 61. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   So, which are the priority/winning products?So, which are the priority/winning products? Product Category Product(s) Pulses and oilseeds • Sunflower oil • Morama oil; morama milk; morama roasted nuts • Mungongo/mokongwa products (similar to morama products) • Dikgobe • Ditloo (jugo bean) convenience foods • Savoury bean- and roasted seed sauces • Sesoswane, pumpkin, watermelon, kgengwe & lerotse roasted seeds 61
  62. 62. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   So, which are the priority/winning products?So, which are the priority/winning products? Product Category Product(s) Insect Products • Fried/roasted dried insects e.g.: phane (Imbrasia belina) monakamongwe (Agrius convolvuli L.) nato (Cirina forda) lebitse/kakanatswii (Sternocera orissa Buq.) 62
  63. 63. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch   So, which are the priority/winning products?So, which are the priority/winning products? Product Category Product(s) Hot beverages • Mint teas – mosukudu, mosukujane, lengana tea – blanched and dried (cold liquid versions too, as ice tea) • Dikgose/mogose ‘coffee’ • Motlopi ‘coffee’ 63
  64. 64. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Background Generally classified as a thick porridge (20-30% solids) To produce ting, a slurry made from a meal of decorticated sorghum is fermented and processed to make porridge; viscocities differ (Sekwati-Monang &, Gänzle, 2011), thus soft or thick porridge Consumed as a soft porridge (breakfast) or thicker (lunch, dinner) Case Study: Dried Ting
  65. 65. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Background... 2 Traditionally it is obtained through natural fermentation of a 40-45% w/v sorghum meal in warm water slurry over about 2- 3 days in a warm place (30-37ºC) (Nyanzi & Jooste, 2012) The Bakgatla tribe is informally accepted as the standard for ting processing; the supernatant water is washed off daily to remove unwanted microorganism species from the surface, which organisms would otherwise spoil the flavour By the end of the fermentation the pH is between 3.5 and 4.0 (Sekwati-Monang, 2011) (pH 3.8; Hamaker, 2007) Case Study: Dried Ting
  66. 66. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Indigenous Knowledge Findings Findings were consistent with literature Current Technological Challenges include: Inconsistencies in inoculum concentration Hygiene Uncontrolled fermentation Compromised fermentation during winter when temperatures are lower Growth of undesired/spoilage organisms Fermentation takes long (no less than 2days) Case Study: Dried Ting
  67. 67. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch NFTRC Product Formulation Product = Dried Ting Formulation based on fermentation cultures as per research by Mpuchane (1987) Fermented ting culture is added to unfermented sorghum flour at 10-15% (FAO, 1995) The slurry is incubated in a sealed container at 30o C for 24hrs The surface is washed with water and the ting slurry thinly spread on trays and dried Dried ting is packaged in plastic bags Case Study: Dried Ting
  68. 68. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Sustainability Highly sustainable; sorghum is Botswana’s staple food, and grows under rain-fed conditions Further, alternative ting culture combinations have been developed by Sekwati-Monang and Gänzle (2011), all of which produce acceptable ting Case Study: Dried Ting
  69. 69. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Physical and Chemical Composition and Important Functional/ Nutraceutical Aspects Fermentation results in improved digestibility (Taylor & Taylor, 2002) Ting fermentation improves nutrient levels and reduces anti- nutritional factors, thus increasing nutrient availability in the body, as well as enhancing sensory attributes i.e. taste, aroma, texture, etc. (Sekwati-Monang and Gänzle, 2011) In turn, increased sensory attributes generally result in increased food intake, hence more nutrients available for the body Case Study: Dried Ting
  70. 70. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Market Prospects Dried ting has already proven to be an appealing product, based on consumer/public feedback at all events where NFTRC exhibits it There is currently a product branded dried ting on the market, but it has so far achieved rather limited consumer response, most likely because it is imported, and Batswana believe strongly that they hold the best indigenous knowledge on ting; it is also possible that the few consumers that have tried it did not like it Porridge made from dried ting produced through the NFTRC’s method has already passed the first consumer acceptance testing, and is expected to pass validation testing with large samples of consumers Case Study: Dried Ting
  71. 71. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch NFTRC Processing and Testing Facilities NFTRC Pilot PlantNFTRC Pilot Plant
  72. 72. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Equipment ExtruderExtruder • Toasted products are healthier than fried ones • Can be made from sorghum and maize • Studies show that extruded products have improved cholesterol-lowering effects over baked products http://www.foodproductdesign.com/articles/200 1/06/developments-and-trends------in- extruded-snac.aspx
  73. 73. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Equipment (cont’d) RetortRetort • Food first prepared, raw or semi-cooked, and then sealed into the retort pouch or can • Food inside is cooked; this is essentially pressure cooking • Long shelf-life • For meats (& other high- protein, low-acid foods, hence spoil easily), the pouch or can is then heated to 116-121°C for several minutes under high pressure, inside retort or autoclave machine; this process reliably kills all commonly occurring microorganisms (known as a botulinum cook, based on the highly resistant Clostridium botulinum – mokokomalo)
  74. 74. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Equipment (cont’d) Bowl cutter/chopperBowl cutter/chopper • Used extensively – meat industry – mince meat to a fine degree and to blend and emulsify proteins • Machine comprises a rotating bowl into which meat, protein and other ingredients are deposited • Ingredients are minced in the bowl by a multi-bladed revolving knife positioned at the rear of the bowl and revolving in the vertical plane. Most machines have a selected range of knife speeds • Manual removal of product is common on small machines but large machines are usually fitted with an uploading scraper which discharges the product from the bowl into a container via a chute • Can be used for rapid cutting of other raw materials such as vegetables
  75. 75. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Equipment (cont’d) Fruit and Vegetable PulperFruit and Vegetable Pulper • For extracting pulp from fruits and other pulpy material such as vegetables • Fruit enters machine through inlet and gets pulped by beater bar, liquid discharged through filter while solids retained
  76. 76. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Equipment (cont’d) SoyCowSoyCow Soybeans or morama beans Blanching Pressure-cooking in SoyCow Filtration Homogenisation Bottling/Pasteurisation • Vegetable milk can be further processed into value-added products such as curd and yogurt • The pulp that is produced as a by- product can be used in breads, spreads and many other foods
  77. 77. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Laboratory testing of foods Routine biochemical analysis of food samples for product safety and quality  Residues and Toxins  Vitamins and Minerals  Proteins and amino acids  Carbohydrates and sugars  Fats and oils Microbiological and DNA detection and identification of pathogens; allergens; toxins and GMOs Probiotics: Characterization and identification of probiotic species isolated from Botswana fermented products
  78. 78. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Some of NFTRC’s Food Technologies
  79. 79. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Take-home Message Batswana food industry entrepreneurs should take advantage of initiatives such as the Economic Diversification Drive, Poverty Eradication Initiative, CEDA Young Farmers Fund, Out-of-School Youth Grant, LEA Training and Incubation, etc. while these opportunities still exist Since human beings, like all other animals, will always have to eat, the food industry offers one sector of the economy that can always be relied upon to perform reasonably well, despite the occurrence of economic recessions or depressions
  80. 80. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Take-home Message 2 For a food item to grow from being just an idea, to being a successful product on the market, much effort and determination on the part of the entrepreneur, and the availability of technology transfer agents, are required to ensure that the idea progresses from concept all the way to commercialization 80
  81. 81. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch As a business strategy, agro-/food processing enterprises ought to identify attractive export markets, because despite the current gap in local supplies, it might still take a while to: balance out the trade disparity that for now seems to lean heavily in favour of South Africa change consumers’ mindsets and create awareness in terms of the potential and ability of Botswana’s entrepreneurs to produce good quality products that conform to international standards Take-home Message 3
  82. 82. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Once an entrepreneur is in the food business or indicates interest in it, technology transfer agents should make sure to backstop their activities so as to enable them to not only commercialize their products, but also to protect and exploit their intellectual property through: trademarks (branding) copyright (e.g. recipe books, websites, etc.) trade secrets utility models (petty patents) Entrepreneurs should be aware that they can effectively license other companies to produce the appealing products that their creative minds come up with, hence enabling the entrepreneur to generate income through royalties/payments coming from such technology licensing Take-home Message 4
  83. 83. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch The management of intellectual property (IP) and indigenous/traditional knowledge systems (IKS) has received increasing attention from government, and a policy has been drafted – players in agro- & food processing need to position themselves in ways that will enable them to fully utilize their IP rights, to encourage their food businesses to flourish and claim their rightful place in diversifying Botswana’s economy Take-home Message 5
  84. 84. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Entrepreneurs need to be aware of the concept of economies of scale – the fact that larger scales of production result in greater the profit margins. Cooperatives have in the past done quite well in Botswana, they do quite well in other countries, and there is no reason why they should not do well in Botswana today; therefore, only if farmers put together their agricultural production and raw material supplies, and if food processing enterprises pool resources in terms of equipment, expertise and product supply, can we expect our products to compete effectively with food imports The transfer of NFTRC’s technologies, when delivered and received systematically, will result in effective economic diversification and poverty alleviation Take-home Message 6
  85. 85. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Cognizant of the power and influence that you hold, we wish to implore you-, as Botswana’s political leadership, to: familiarise yourselves with the Food Control Act, so as to place yourselves in good stead with regard to advising and encouraging your electorate, for them to actively and meaningfully participate in Botswana’s potentially lucrative food industry make your electorate aware that you have facilitated easy entry into the market by ensuring that small and micro food businesses, including food catering, are exempted from licensing requirements, although conditions and guidelines apply refuse to tolerate Botswana’s rather high level of food imports, and urge your constituencies to be active in both primary and secondary production in agriculture Take-home Message 7
  86. 86. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch remind your communities that-, contrary to popular opinion, Batswana are naturally not a lazy nation, but they may instead possibly be succumbing to what is known as the resource curse, or paradox of plenty (which is about countries that are endowed with an abundance of natural resources, specifically non-renewable resources like minerals, tending to have less economic growth than countries with fewer resources); entrepreneurs interested in entering Botswana’s food industry need to borrow a leaf from the country’s thriving fashion design industry (see http://www.gazettebw.com/?p=5345), and embrace their own passion with commitment and enthusiasm Take-home Message 8
  87. 87. NationalFoodTechnologyResearchCentre Endlesspossibilitiesinfoodresearch Thank you very muchThank you very much for your attention,for your attention, Ladies and GentlemenLadies and Gentlemen
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