Many Beliefs – One World is an overview of modern Paganism for chaplains, chaplains assistants, religious programs specialists, and others serving the armed forces of the United States.
No one knows how many Pagans are serving in the military, among veterans or as reserves. A look at the number of Pagans in this country compared to other religions and denominations can help give us an idea, however. The 2008 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) does not give numbers for Pagans, but counts them in the New Religious Movements category. That total is more than 2.8 million. The ARIS report includes this comment on page 7: “The 2008 survey revealed marked increase in Preferences for personalized and idiosyncratic responses as well as increases in the Neo-Pagan groups.” (1) ReligionLink .com, a source for journalists, states: &quot;Specifically, the number of Wiccans more than doubled from 2001 to 2008, from 134,000 to 342,000, and the same held true for neo-pagans, who went from 140,000 in 2001 to 340,000 in 2008.“ (2) Sociologist Helen Berger in 2009 estimated the number of U.S. Pagans to be between 500,000 and one million. Since many individuals do not respond to surveys, or still refrain from admitting a Pagan affiliation, all such estimates are considered to be very conservative. (3) _______________________________________________________________ (1) 2008 American Religious Identification Survey, http://www.scribd.com/doc/17136871/American-Religious-Identification-Survey-ARIS-2008-Summary-Report (2) http://www.religionlink.com/tip_091020.php (3) http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/31/us/31religion.html Sources for numbers given in slide: 1 million Pagans , Discussed in narrative above. 4.7 million Presbyterians USA , 2008 ARIS 8.6 million Lutherans , 2008 ARIS 2.5 million AME (African Methodist Episcopal) , World Council of Churches, http://www.oikoumene.org/gr/member-churches/regions/north-america/united-states-of-america/african-methodist-episcopal-church.html, also 2011 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches, posted at http://hirr.hartsem.edu/research/fastfacts/fast_facts.html 16 million Southern Baptists , 2011 Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches, posted at http://hirr.hartsem.edu/research/fastfacts/fast_facts.html 2.7 million Jews , 2008 ARIS 1.3 million Muslims , 2008 ARIS 34 million “Nones” , those who selected as their religion a box labeled “None” in the 2008 ARIS 32 thousand Quakers , World Council of Churches, http://www.oikoumene.org/gr/member-churches/regions/north-america/united-states-of-america/african-methodist-episcopal-church.html 2.4 million Episcopalians , 2008 ARIS
Although modern Paganism is at least 50+ years old, many people are still unaware that such a religious grouping exists. In fact, the word “pagan” is often still used as a derogatory term for someone who is not Christian, Muslim or Jewish. But the million or more Americans who describe their religion or spirituality as Pagan feel they have reclaimed a word that in the classical world simply referred to the common or country people (Latin paganus ). Did you know that Pagan scholars have been formally involved with the American Academy of Religion since the late 90s? (1) Did you know that Pagans hold or have held leadership positions on the board of directors of the Council for a Parliament of the World’s Religions in Chicago, the North American Interfaith Network, and the United Religions Initiaitive? Pagans across the U.S. are active in numerous community interfaith organizations? Paganism is thought to be the fastest-growing religion in America? (2) ________________________________________________________ http://www.aarweb.org/Meetings/Annual_Meeting/Program_Units/PUCS/Website/page.asp?FileName=AARPU139-8 2008 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) summary found at http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_prac2a.htm
Pagans are found in all walks of life, in many professions, including the military. Most have previously been part of another religion, though some had no former religious affiliation. These former religions are numerous and varied. Time and again, Pagans describe their discovery of Paganism as “coming home.” ______________________________________________________________ Data given is from Berger, Helen, Voices From The Pagan Census (University of South Carolina Press, Columbia: 2003).
So where does the Pagan religion come from? Scholar Michael York says that all humans are born Pagan and must be taught religion. This is an idea with roots in our western concept of nature as a pure reflection of whatever is divine. Let’s find out more about the old-but-new religion.
It’s an old story: the earth as the Great Mother, loved by the sky god. In Greece her name was Gaia, and she gave birth to a world of living things. Wherever humans lived, they recognized that the earth was the source of their livelihood, their food, their shelter, their very existence. Around the world, even today, you can visit thousands of sacred springs, wells, rocks, hills, trees, mountains and other land features. Thus it is said that Paganism is an embodied religion, not one ruled by a deity who is separate from his creation, but a way of seeing the world as an ongoing act of creation.
There is at least as much variety within Paganism as one finds in other religions, and since Pagans resist dogma, there is no “official” set of beliefs or practices. But most modern Pagans share these basic beliefs: Pagans see nature, all of creation including humanity, as a manifestation of the divine. For that reason, all of life is sacred, worthy of respect. While Pagans may reverence individual deities found in antiquity or indigenous cultures, there is a basic understanding of the divine as beyond human definitions of male or female. Pagans believe in personal responsibility, in the right of each individual to pursue spirituality in their own way – or not, and that they should live without harming others.
Again, not all of these practices are uniform to all Pagans, but they are very typical of most. But maybe you have the impression that Paganism is something different. If so, you are like most Americans whose only conscious exposure to Paganism has been through bad Hollywood treatments of the subject, or discounted urban myths. So, let’s take a moment to clarify what Pagans are not.
Most of the common myths about Pagans, including people who call themselves witches, actually come from a book called Malleus Maleficarum , The Witches’ Hammer, written by monks during the Middle Ages as a sort of handbook for Inquisitors. Pagans will tell you that not only do they not worship Satan, they actually don’t believe in this figure from the Christian religion.
Pagans serving in the military are given just a few options for choice or religious designation: Gardnerian Wicca, Dianic Wicca, Seax Wicca, Druid, Shaman or Pagan. In reality, Paganism is the term for the overall group of Pagan religions. Wicca is one of many types of Paganism, and within Wicca there are perhaps now hundreds of what Pagans call “traditions.” One way to think about it is this: Being Pagan is like being Christian Being Wiccan is like being Lutheran Being Gardnerian Wiccan is like being ELCA or Missouri Synod And the photo reminds us that a sense of humor is a good thing. Let’s look at some more of the variety found in the Pagan religious family.
As you can see, there is a tremendous variety found in Paganism! Actually, because Paganism is a modern phenomenon, there are still many people who do not use the term “Pagan” to describe themselves, however, that is the term in common use by scholars and by most current Pagan leaders. Without going fully in to these various belief systems, a few definitions will be helpful: Dianic refers to witchcraft based on women’s mysteries. Many Dianic groups are women-only. Radical Faery is a gay men’s spirituality movement. There are other men’s movements, e.g., the Minoan Brotherhood. Heathen was originally an adjective meaning someone from the heath. Again, it grew into a derogatory term, but is being reclaimed by practitioners who draw from the pre-Christian traditions of eastern Europe and Scandinavia. Some African Diaspora and Latin American religions are based primarily on their African tribal origins, for example, Ife, but some others are actually a blend of tribal animism and Catholicism, for example, vodoun [pronounced voh-doon]. Reconstructionists are Pagans who use the records of ancient religions to revive the same practice. The most common examples are Greek reconstructionists and Kemetics. Kemeticism is a modern reconstruction of ancient Egyptian religious practices. Shamanism is a spiritual and healing practice found among indigenous peoples the world over. Many modern Pagans blend the use of shamanism with their chosen tradition, or some simply call their spirituality shamanism. The terms wicca and witchcraft, or sometimes “the Craft,” have come to be used interchangeably by Pagans in the past ten to twenty years. For some, Wicca is a distinct tradition. For others, the word “wicca” seemed a more palatable word than witchcraft and so came into common usage. Lastly, while scholars and Pagan leaders have begun to drop its use, it is still common to encounter the word “NeoPagan” as a way to distinguish modern practice. Many now promote the use of Pagan with a capital P for modern Paganism, and lower case p to denote ancient and indigenous paganism.
Some aspects of Paganism are not as strange as one might initially think. Because of urban myths about Pagans, it’s common for some people to jump to lurid thoughts of animal sacrifice. And yet only a few decades ago, most Americans still killed and prepared their own table meat. Actually, many Pagans are vegetarian, and virtually no modern Pagans practice animal sacrifice (the exception being some African Diaspora traditions like Santeria [pronounced San’-tuh-ree’-uh]).
Of course, many agrarian cultures still practice animal sacrifice, preparing the meat for consumption after offering it in ceremony. Some will remember the Hmong tribe of northern Laos, who fought to interrupt the Viet Cong supply lines on the Ho Chi Minh trail during the Vietnam conflict, as well as rescuing hundreds of U.S. pilots downed behind enemy lines. Today around a quarter million Hmong live in this country, and thousands of shamans are still the health practitioner of choice when a Hmong family member is ill. Hmong shamans typically perform sacrifice of a pigeon, chicken, pig or cow for life passages such as weddings, or illness or other situations in which spiritual intervention is sought, and the meat is always consumed afterwards. Although modern Pagans may not practice animal sacrifice, they have much in common with indigenous practitioners such as this shaman, including shamanic healing, use of amulets, divinatory practice, and rituals.
But back to the modern Pagan movement in America. If you attend one of the thousands of Pagan festivals held each year, you might ask yourself, why do Pagans dress funny?
And just what are they doing?! The short answer is – they dress funny because they can! Pagans tend to be cultural creatives, educated, imaginative and resourceful. With no ecclesiastical hierarchy to dictate what is appropriate attire or ritual garb, some Pagans adopt costumes which help them feel they have entered sacred space and time. Sometimes Pagans may satirize themselves by appearing in public parades or festivals wearing a Margaret Hamilton-style pointy hat (1) or Morticia-style (2) black gown. And yes, some do hold private rituals in the nude, referred to as “skyclad.” Nudity is generally not frowned on in Pagan circles since the body is regarded as sacred, and sexuality healthy. Skyclad ritual was popularized by Gardnerian and other traditional witchcraft traditions, but seems to be in decline as Paganism becomes a more open mainstream religion. ________________________________________________________________ Margaret Hamilton played the Wicked Witch of the West in The Wizard of Oz movie. Morticia was the mother character in the 1960s television series.
What does it mean when someone claims to be a witch? This is another word which sends very mixed messages. In the 2000 movie “The Gift” Cate Blanchett plays a widowed mother of three who makes ends meet by using her psychic gift to advise locals who come to her for help. Although she is apparently a devout church-goer, Blanchett’s character is called a witch by some in the small town. In some countries where the U.S. has a military presence, the word “witch” can mean someone evil and depraved. As recently as 2011, a Saudi woman was imprisoned by the Saudi government and eventually executed on charges of witchcraft. An alarming trend of violence has shaken several African countries in recent years, with even small children being accused of witchcraft and ostracized or even lynched. American Pagans who practice Wicca or some variety of witchcraft cast the term witch in a light more in keeping with the Cate Blanchett movie character.
For modern Pagans, being a witch means being a healer and wise one. Often a witch has studied herbal lore and has usually become skilled in one or more forms of divination. A witch is in harmony with nature, the seasons, the movement of the sun, moon and stars. A witch *only* uses power of any kind for good, never to harm.
Throughout time and around the world, certain individuals find themselves serving the role of healer, witch, shaman, medicine man or curandera. The community normally considers this a sacred calling, supporting the healer in her or his training and work, because they know the healer will serve the community for the rest of her life.
Another thing we find worldwide and throughout history is that people have sought knowledge beyond the five senses. Methods of divination commonly used today are astrology, tarot, meditation, palmistry, throwing the bones, I Ching and numerology. All of these are simply ways of tapping inner knowing, the subconscious, if you will.
Modern witchcraft in the U.S. is the culmination of several centuries of influences, including the Renaissance discovery and translation of ancient classical texts like the Hermetica, the rise of secret societies like the Rosicrucians and Freemasons, alchemy and ceremonial magic as allegories for the soul’s journey to God, and even the Victorian fascination with the “noble savage,” the tribal people being discovered around the then-global British Empire.
While her scholarship in the area of European pagan practice was questionable, many Americans were exposed to the ideas of an early 20 th century British archaeologist named Margaret Murray. Murray’s ideas about a continuous European witch cult reaching back to prehistory, though arguably erroneous, set the stage for the next developments in modern Paganism. In the 1950s a man named Gerald Gardner began to write and train individuals in what has come to be called Gardnerian witchcraft. Several other branches in this family tree resulted in the term “British Traditional Witchcraft” (and you may encounter individual who give this as the name of their tradition). Witchcraft was brought to American in the late 1950s and early 1960s from England and soon became intertwined with other powerful cultural forces emerging at that time: The rise of feminism and what is called the Goddess movement The environmental movement The counterculture of the 1960s and A general disillusionment with organized religion At that time virtually all Pagans were highly secretive, often not even revealing their given names to each other, so great was the fear of discrimination, harassment or worse. As with the gay rights movement, there are increasing calls for Pagans to “come out of the broom closet” in order to end the misconceptions furthered by secrecy.
Since Wiccans comprise such a large percentage of Pagans in the U.S., it is helpful to be aware of these basic characteristics: Wicca Is a specific sub-group of witchcraft Honors God and Goddess Uses a specific pattern for ritual Is an initiatory tradition, sometimes offering several “degrees” or levels of training and commitment A coven is a practicing community group, usually small, say 3 to 8 people Priesthood is usually shared among the group although there may be designated leaders, teachers, or elders referred to as High Priestess and High Priest Is said to be the fastest-growing religion in U.S.
And what about religious symbols. When is a star a pentacle? The pentacle has a long history in western mysticism, dating from the times when ancient Greeks developed some of our earliest modern mathematics. For them, geometry was an embodiment of the sacred, capable of symbolizing important steps in spiritual development. Notice that if you draw a straight line connecting the points of the pentagon, the result is a five-pointed star, worn proudly, of course, by every individual who has ever served in the U.S. Armed Forces.
Often the points of the pentacle are said to represent the four elements, earth, air, fire and water, plus spirit. Pagan holidays are nearly all based on the seasons, and are frequently referred to as the “wheel of the year.” In witchcraft, the holidays are referred to as sabbats. Lunar-based rituals, such as full moon or new moon ceremonies, may be called esbats.
The beginning of the Pagan religious year is the sabbat, or holiday, called Samhain [sow-wen]. It is a time for solemn self-reflection and remembering of ancestors and others who have died. All of these sabbats are based on astronomical markings of the calendar, including the solstices, equinoxes, and four sabbats directly between those four dates. This is a list of Wiccan holidays. They are also celebrated by many other Pagan traditions, but not all. Some groups have their own distinctive observances.
Why do people continue to hate and fear Paganism, especially witchcraft? Generally, the witch has become a sort of cultural icon for evil. Feminist scholars link stereotypes about witches to our history of misogyny. But there is more going on here.
[Read some or all of headlines given in slide] Each of these was an actual headline in a newspaper somewhere in the U.S. in recent years. It appears that when all other explanations fail, that’s the time to call it witchcraft or satanic.
During the 1980s a very harmful phenomenon swept the U.S. Now referred to as “the satanic panic,” unfounded allegations of “satanic ritual abuse” resulted in many misprisions of justice.
Unfortunately, there are unscrupulous people who have garnered fame and even fortune by riding the speaking circuit of gullible Americans, telling their bizarre false stories of, among other things: Being trained to take over the world as the next Illuminati leader (Mike Warnke) Serving as a baby breeder for satanic rituals (Lauren Stratford) When the rape, etc., scenario is questioned, switch to claiming to be a Holocaust survivor (Lauren Stratford, now calling herself Lauren Grabowski) A doctor who claims to have treated the bride of Satan and then herself encountered Satan (Rebecca Brown) American law enforcement authorities have had a particularly rough time with claims of “satanic ritual abuse” which ruined investigations and resulted in imprisonment of people now thought to be completely innocent.
The infamous McMartin Pre-School SRA scandal cost 7 years and millions of dollars, plus irreparable damage to children, families and the preschool. The FBI released a report in 1992 stating has never been able to substantiate a single case of satanic ritual abuse, despite more than 300 investigations around the country. (1) _________________________________________________ (1) Excellent discussion of the 1992 FBI report is posted at http://www.rickross.com/reference/satanism/satanism1.html
Pagans are often colorful, but normally quite benign. They are understandably reluctant to be public about their religion given the kind of slander created by the satanic ritual abuse scares. Here are some photos of Pagans which may help you have some idea of what to expect if you attend a Pagan gathering. Again, Pagans will usually worship outdoors, in a circle. Ceremonies often involve ritual robes and costumes, chanting, singing, drumming, incense, candles and bonfires, and a sort of communion, commonly referred to as “cakes and ale.”
And here are some photos of altars. At the bottom left is the altar for an Egyptian-themed Samhain ritual. You can see that there are photos of deceased family members placed on the altar. In the photo on the bottom right you can see that there is a different color candle placed in each cardinal direction, each representing an element, in this case, red for fire, blue for water, green for earth, and white for air.
These are photos of the dedication of the first Pagan cemetery in Wisconsin.
This is a group of Pagans who have just conducted a memorial for a fallen soldier. His family were one of the plaintiffs in the lawsuit against the Veterans Administration, and at this service his pentacle-engraved tombstone was finally placed on his grave.
At the top you see David Oringderff, retired US Army and founder of Sacred Well Congregation, presenting the folded flag during the ceremony to the mother of the deceased. Below, soldiers from all branches of the service, some active, some veterans, stand at attention as “Reveille” is played.
Here you see a Pagan priestess of Native American descent smudging those present with white sage, and touching them in blessing with an eagle feather. Pagans in uniform are still reluctant to come forward with their spiritual needs. Some may say that they are a “solitary” practitioner and don’t need a faith group or leader, and a chaplain should respect this. But too often, they assume that chaplains and CO’s will not respect their religious belief, or may attempt to evangelize them. It can be awkward for a small group of Pagans to figure out how to hold a ceremony where they are deployed. Imagine a group of Christians, one of them Methodist, one of them Disciples of Christ, one of them Catholic and one of them Mormon, attempting to create a worship service on their own while stationed in the Middle East. Just like with any religious group, Pagan soldiers may or may not have religious leadership experience. They may not even be very knowledgeable about their own religion. But just like any other soldier, they need support, and they will best receive it when the support respects and accepts the spiritual framework within which they find meaning and sustenance.
At a 2009 service in Arlington National Cemetery, Chaplain (Maj. Gen.) Douglas Carver thanked chaplains and chaplain assistants for their spiritual leadership, moral example and sacrificial service and love to soldiers, saying: &quot;It's humbling to stand here among these graves of our forefathers of military ministry,&quot; he said. &quot;Each one of these chaplains and chaplain assistants had something in common: they walked in faith, they found courage in their calling and they encouraged others to greatness. Most of all, our chaplains and chaplain assistants have loved their fellow Soldiers and their fellow ministry teams more than their own lives.“ By learning about the growing Pagan religion and supporting the many Pagan soldiers now serving our country, the chaplain corps may continue to demonstrate this more than 200 years of courage, honor and compassion.
Many Beliefs – One World Overview of Modern Paganism for Chaplains
<ul><li>1 million Pagans </li></ul><ul><li>4.7 million Presbyterians </li></ul><ul><li>8.6 million Lutherans </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 million AME </li></ul><ul><li>16 million Southern Baptists </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 million Jews </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 million Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>34 million “Nones” </li></ul><ul><li>32,000 Quakers </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 million Episcopalians </li></ul>Religious Diversity In America
<ul><li>Law enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing-health professions </li></ul><ul><li>Legal system </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprofits </li></ul><ul><li>Computer science </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Retail </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Business management </li></ul><ul><li>Food & entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Arts </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Armed Forces </li></ul>88% of Pagans are registered to vote 13% of Pagans have a military record Pagans come from all walks of life
Basic Beliefs <ul><li>Nature, including humanity, is a manifestation of the Divine </li></ul><ul><li>All life is sacred </li></ul><ul><li>Divine is neither male nor female </li></ul><ul><li>Gods and goddesses are part of Divine </li></ul><ul><li>We are responsible for our own lives </li></ul><ul><li>We should live without harming others </li></ul>
Basic Practices <ul><li>Hold most ceremonies in a circle </li></ul><ul><li>Call the four directions to begin ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge five elements: earth, air, fire, water and spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate seasons of the year </li></ul><ul><li>No formal clergy </li></ul><ul><li>No formal scripture </li></ul>
<ul><li>Worship Satan </li></ul><ul><li>Mutilate animals </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse children </li></ul><ul><li>Murder </li></ul>Pagans do not :
Current Military Religious Designations <ul><li>Gardnerian Wicca </li></ul><ul><li>Dianic Wicca </li></ul><ul><li>Seax Wicca </li></ul><ul><li>Wicca </li></ul><ul><li>Druid </li></ul><ul><li>Shaman </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan </li></ul>
NeoPagan Variety Paganism Druidry Wicca-Witchcraft Reconstructions African Diaspora Latin American Heathen: Norse, Slavic, East-Euro Shamanism Dianic, Radical Faery Indigenous Native American
Only a few decades ago, most Americans still killed their own table meat. Many cultures still practice animal sacrifice, preparing the meat for consumption after offering it in ceremony.
This Hmong shaman from Laos is the healer for her clan.
In “The Gift” Cate Blanchett plays a widowed mother of three who makes ends meet by using her psychic gift to advise townspeople.
Witch means: <ul><li>Healer </li></ul><ul><li>Wise one </li></ul><ul><li>Divination skills </li></ul><ul><li>Herbalist </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony with nature </li></ul><ul><li>Uses power for good </li></ul>
Healers : Witch Medicine Man Curandera Witch doctor Shaman Bruja Tamsin Blight 1798-1856. Famous English witch healer and a person able to remove curses or spells from a person. Many of Blight's customers were farmers who came to see her about sick cattle, others were young women anxious about their marriage prospects.
Throughout time, people have sought knowledge beyond the five senses. <ul><li>Astrology </li></ul><ul><li>Tarot </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Palmistry </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing bones </li></ul><ul><li>I Ching </li></ul><ul><li>Numerology </li></ul>All of these are simply ways of tapping inner knowing.
Key Historical Influences <ul><li>Renaissance discoveries of ancient classical texts </li></ul><ul><li>Secret societies </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy and ceremonial magic </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian fascination with “noble savage” </li></ul>Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? --By Paul Gauguin
Roots of Modern Witchcraft <ul><li>Gerald Gardner </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret Murray </li></ul><ul><li>British Traditional Witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of feminism & Goddess movement </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental movement </li></ul><ul><li>Counterculture of 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusionment with organized religion </li></ul>
What about Wicca? <ul><li>Specific sub-group of witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>Honors God and Goddess </li></ul><ul><li>Specific pattern for ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Initiatory degrees tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Coven is practicing community group </li></ul><ul><li>Priesthood shared among group </li></ul><ul><li>Fastest-growing religion in US </li></ul><ul><li>Small group called a coven </li></ul>
Common Pagan Holidays Oct 31-Nov 1 Samhain Start of new year, honor ancestors Dec 21 Yule Winter solstice, welcome return of the sun Feb 2 Imbolc Community ties, signs of spring & returning light Apr 21 Oestara Spring equinox, new life May 1 Beltane Fertility celebration Jun 21 Litha Summer solstice, anticipate shorter days Aug 1 Lammas First harvest Sep 21 Mabon Autumn equinox
Witches and the Media Satanic link seen in killing of goat Witchcraft Blamed in Murder of Sioux City Girls Cat beheaded as part of a satanic ritual Satanic rites in Arico cemetery Mayor Resigns Over 'Satanic Abduction‘ Witchcraft made me steal beer, man tells deputy
The problem with misunderstanding Gerald Amirault spent 18 years in prison for allegedly raping 8 children while dressed as a clown.
Religious Flim-Flam <ul><li>“ Selling Satan: The Tragic History of Mike Warnke” (1992 Cornerstone Magazine) </li></ul><ul><li>Lauren Stratford: From Satanic Ritual Abuse to Jewish Holocaust Survivor (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>The Bizarre Case of Dr. Rebecca Brown, by John Baskette (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Innocence Lost in Landmark Child Abuse Case, by Gretchen Passantino (1995) </li></ul>
The infamous McMartin Pre-School SRA scandal cost 7 years and millions of dollars, plus irreparable damage to children, families and the preschool.