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STAIRS 
1
Stair 
2 
OVERVIEW 
• Introduction 
• Functional requirements 
• Basic elements of stairs 
• Type of stairs
Stair 
3 
INTRODUCTION 
What is vertical movement or vertical circulation? 
• Circulation is a movement of human and goods...
Stair 
4 
INTRODUCTION (cont.)
Stair 
5 
INTRODUCTION (cont.) 
STAIRS/STAIRWAY 
• A set of steps formed to make it possible to pass to another 
level on ...
Stair 
6 
INTRODUCTION (cont.) 
LADDER 
• A series of narrow horizontal steps fixed between two upright of 
wood or metal,...
Stair 
7 
INTRODUCTION (cont.) 
STEPLADDER 
• A series of comparatively narrow, flat, horizontal steps, fixed 
between two...
Stair 
8 
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 
STRENGHT 
• Able to support for movement between floors, including dead 
and imposed lo...
Stair 
9 
PRIMARY FUNCTIONS 
• Provide an access from one floor to another. 
• Provide a safe means of travel between floo...
Stair 
STAIR TERMINALOGY 
10
Stair 
11 
STAIR TERMINALOGY 
STEPS 
• A series of horizontal open 
treads with a space between 
the treads with a space 
...
Stair 
12 
STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) 
FLIGHT 
• Uninterrupted series of steps between floor and landing, or 
between landi...
Stair 
13 
STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) 
FLIGHT (cont.) 
• The dimensions will depends on the 
function of the building and s...
Stair 
14 
STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) 
HEAD ROOM 
• A clearance height 
between the pitch line of 
the stair and the unders...
Stair 
15 
STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) 
Baluster 
• Vertical stand that supports 
handrails for security purposes. 
• Can be...
Stair 
STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) 
Closed railing 
Open railing
Stair 
17 
TYPE OF STAIRS 
• Type of stairs: 
o Straight flight/straight run 
o Quarter turn/L-shaped 
o Half turn (dog le...
Stair 
18 
TYPE OF STAIRS 
Straight Flight Stair 
• Rises from the floor to floor in 
one direction with or without 
an in...
Stair 
19 
TYPE OF STAIRS (cont.) 
Quarter Turn Stair/ 
L-shaped 
• Rises to a landing between 
two floors, turns through ...
Stair 
20 
Half Turn (Dog Leg) Stair 
• Rises to a landing between floors, 
turns through 180˚, then rises 
parallel to th...
Stair 
21 
Spiral & Elliptical Stair 
• Constructed as either a 
spiral(helical) stair or an ellipse 
stair. 
• The most e...
TYPE OF STAIRS (cont.) 
Winder Stair 
• Triangular treads/tapered treads that 
wind around quarter of half turn in place 
...
Stairs can be made of : 
• Timber 
• Concrete – precast & cast-insitu 
• Metal 
• Stone
Timber Staircase 
• Constructed from timber board 
• Common use in domestic work. 
• The design of stairs flight landings ...
Stair 
25
Stair 
26 
Timber Stair (cont.) 
Tapered stairs/winder 
• Frequently used because 
can use space 
economically 
Open tread...
Timber Stair (cont.)
Timber Stair (cont.) 
Open riser stairs Closed riser stairs with housed stringer
Alternating trade stairs 
• Application – access to domestic loft 
conversion only 
• Very steep pitch – very economic 
us...
Reinforced Concrete Staircase 
• Can be cast in-situ, precast or combination of both. 
• Better fire resistant from timber...
TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) 
In-situ RC stair 
• Variety of stair types and arrangements are possible, which of 
having its own ...
TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) 
Inclined slab stair 
• Constructed when there are 
LB wall around the stair. 
• The landing is buil...
TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) 
Cranked slab stair 
• The stair is constructed as a 
cranked (bent) slab spanning 
from landing to ...
TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) 
String and trimmer stair/String beam stair 
• The landing beams are 
supported by side walls (LB) o...
TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) 
Cantilevered stair/cantilevered spine wall 
• Constructed to cantilever 
from the spine wall, or ca...
TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) 
Precast Concrete Stair 
• Can be produced to most of the formats used for insitu RC stair. 
• Seldo...
TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) 
Stone Stair 
• Traditionally constructed using natural stone as the steps. 
• Can be formed as: 
o ...
TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) 
Stone Stair (cont.) 
Stone steps with stepped soffit Stone steps with flush soffit
Metal Stair 
• Can be produced in cast iron, mild steel or aluminium alloy for 
both external and internal used. 
• Usuall...
Metal Stair (cont.)
Simple Reinforced 
Concrete Stairs 
Formwork 
Reinforcement
Metal stairs
Timber Spiral Stair
Precast Stairs – hoisting and assembling
Precast Stair
REFERENCES 
1) R.Barry,1992, The Construction of Building,Vol. 2, 5th ed, 
Blackwell Science Ltd. 
2) Frederick S. Merritt...
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Stairs

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Stairs

  1. 1. STAIRS 1
  2. 2. Stair 2 OVERVIEW • Introduction • Functional requirements • Basic elements of stairs • Type of stairs
  3. 3. Stair 3 INTRODUCTION What is vertical movement or vertical circulation? • Circulation is a movement of human and goods between interior spaces in the building to the entrance or exit. • Can be channeled through several types – passageway, corridor, stairs, ramps, etc. • Vertical circulation is movement of human and goods between stories of a building. • Classified into 2 classes; • Class 1 system – ramps, staircase, elevators, escalators. • Class 2 system – mainly not for human, e.g. dumbwaiters.
  4. 4. Stair 4 INTRODUCTION (cont.)
  5. 5. Stair 5 INTRODUCTION (cont.) STAIRS/STAIRWAY • A set of steps formed to make it possible to pass to another level on foot by putting one foot after the other on alternate steps to climb up or down the stair. • Stairs can be made of concrete, stone, wood, steel or combination of any of these.
  6. 6. Stair 6 INTRODUCTION (cont.) LADDER • A series of narrow horizontal steps fixed between two upright of wood or metal, on which a person usually climbs up or climbs down facing the ladder. • Usually fixed in an upright, near vertical position or more at a shallow slope for ease of use. Therefore, it only occupy the least floor area. • Not suitable for elderly and handicapped and as a mean of escape in case of fire. • Should only be used for access to loft conversion of one room, where there is not enough space for a stair, and that should be fixed in position and fitted with handrails both sides.
  7. 7. Stair 7 INTRODUCTION (cont.) STEPLADDER • A series of comparatively narrow, flat, horizontal steps, fixed between two vertical upright, which provide more comfortable and secure support for the foot than the slim. RAMP • A ramp is a surface, sloping uniformly as an inclined plane up and down which a person may pass on foot between levels. • Formed at a slope of at least 1:20. Thus, it occupies a considerable area, usually adjacent to a long, low building.
  8. 8. Stair 8 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS STRENGHT • Able to support for movement between floors, including dead and imposed load. SAFETY IN USE • Comply with the Building Regulation in determining the rise, thread, headroom and dimensions of the handrails and guarding. • Should be constructed of materials that are capable of maintaining strength and stability for a period of time sufficient to escape to the outside. FIRE SAFETY • The steps and the width should be adequate for the safe escape to the outside.
  9. 9. Stair 9 PRIMARY FUNCTIONS • Provide an access from one floor to another. • Provide a safe means of travel between floors. • Provide a degree of insulation where part of a separating element between compartments in a building. • Provide an easy mean of travel between floors. • Provide a suitable means of escape in case of fire. • Provide a mean of conveying fittings and furniture between floor levels.
  10. 10. Stair STAIR TERMINALOGY 10
  11. 11. Stair 11 STAIR TERMINALOGY STEPS • A series of horizontal open treads with a space between the treads with a space between the treads or as enclosed steps with a vertical face between the treads. • Tread – horizontal surface of a step • Riser – vertical surface or near vertical of a step
  12. 12. Stair 12 STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) FLIGHT • Uninterrupted series of steps between floor and landing, or between landing and landing. • A flight should have no fewer than 3 steps and no more than 16 risers. • The rise and tread in one flight and landings between floors should be equal. • The rise and tread should have the same size to avoid interruption in the rhythm of going up or down. • The dimension of the riser and thread will determine whether the stair is steep or shallow.
  13. 13. Stair 13 STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) FLIGHT (cont.) • The dimensions will depends on the function of the building and should comply with the Building Regulation (UBBL), e.g. Section 40. • The steeper stair will save more space and is accepted for houses because the occupants are more familiar with the stair. • The shallow stair requires more area but suitable for public building to minimise danger to the public escaping via stair during emergency.
  14. 14. Stair 14 STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) HEAD ROOM • A clearance height between the pitch line of the stair and the underside of the stairs, landings and floors above the stair. • Minimum 2 m clearance from the pitch line for a convenience of human and goods movement.
  15. 15. Stair 15 STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) Baluster • Vertical stand that supports handrails for security purposes. • Can be made from timber or steel. • Can be bolted to the sides of flights or through the material, grouted or set in mortices either cast or cut in the material. Handrail • Horizontal member fixed on the top of series of balusters. • Can be made from timber or steel. Balustrade • A series of baluster, capped by a handrail.
  16. 16. Stair STAIR TERMINALOGY (cont.) Closed railing Open railing
  17. 17. Stair 17 TYPE OF STAIRS • Type of stairs: o Straight flight/straight run o Quarter turn/L-shaped o Half turn (dog leg)/180 return o Spiral (helical) & elliptical o Winder
  18. 18. Stair 18 TYPE OF STAIRS Straight Flight Stair • Rises from the floor to floor in one direction with or without an intermediate landing. • Known as ‘cottage stair’ as well, commonly used in the traditional ‘two-up two-down’ cottage. • The most economical use of the straight flight is to locate the stair in the centre of the plan running for front to back.
  19. 19. Stair 19 TYPE OF STAIRS (cont.) Quarter Turn Stair/ L-shaped • Rises to a landing between two floors, turns through 90˚, then rises to the floor above. • Good in compact planning. • The quarter turn sometime will be replaced with winders for economic use of space.
  20. 20. Stair 20 Half Turn (Dog Leg) Stair • Rises to a landing between floors, turns through 180˚, then rises parallel to the lower flight to the floor above. • The most common arrangement of stairs. • Advantage – can be constructed within the confined vertical stair well.
  21. 21. Stair 21 Spiral & Elliptical Stair • Constructed as either a spiral(helical) stair or an ellipse stair. • The most economical way to save space, but difficult to use due to the sharp turns. Very dangerous for the very young and elderly. • Usually use where the space is very limited for access to an intermediate floor of one room. Spiral (helical) stair Elliptical stair
  22. 22. TYPE OF STAIRS (cont.) Winder Stair • Triangular treads/tapered treads that wind around quarter of half turn in place of landings. • To reduce the number of steps required in the rest of the stair and to economise in space. • Usually use in domestic stairs. • Can be hazardous as they only offer little foothold at the interior corner. • Not recommended for public buildings in the means of escape stairs especially for the very young and elders.
  23. 23. Stairs can be made of : • Timber • Concrete – precast & cast-insitu • Metal • Stone
  24. 24. Timber Staircase • Constructed from timber board • Common use in domestic work. • The design of stairs flight landings or tapered steps is depend on the space to accommodate it. • Handrail balustrading is important to provide visual and practical safety barrier to the side of stairs.
  25. 25. Stair 25
  26. 26. Stair 26 Timber Stair (cont.) Tapered stairs/winder • Frequently used because can use space economically Open tread stairs • Closed string • Cut strings or carriages • Mono-carriage • Alternating tread stairs
  27. 27. Timber Stair (cont.)
  28. 28. Timber Stair (cont.) Open riser stairs Closed riser stairs with housed stringer
  29. 29. Alternating trade stairs • Application – access to domestic loft conversion only • Very steep pitch – very economic use of space • Not very safe.
  30. 30. Reinforced Concrete Staircase • Can be cast in-situ, precast or combination of both. • Better fire resistant from timber staircase. • Common use in multi-storey building. • Can be formed as straight flight, quarter turn, half turn or geometrical. But, the usual form is half-turn. • The construction of the staircase depends on the structural of the building and the convenience in casting the stairs in situ or the use of reinforced concrete support and precast steps.
  31. 31. TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) In-situ RC stair • Variety of stair types and arrangements are possible, which of having its own appearance , characteristic and method of construction. • Common use as it is non-combustible, stronger and hardwearing. • Will maintain its strength and integrity for a reasonable period during an outbreak of fire. Therefore, it is more suitable than timber stair as an escape route. • Typical in-situ RC stairs are: o Inclined slab stair o Cranked slab stair o String beam stair o Cantilever stair
  32. 32. TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) Inclined slab stair • Constructed when there are LB wall around the stair. • The landing is built into the walls as one way span slab. • The flight span from floor to landing and landing to floor. • Disadvantage – wasteful cutting of brick or block to allow the flight built into the walls.
  33. 33. TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) Cranked slab stair • The stair is constructed as a cranked (bent) slab spanning from landing to flight and to landing with no side supports. • This type of construction only use when the landings can not gain support each side of stair. • Disadvantage – more costly
  34. 34. TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) String and trimmer stair/String beam stair • The landing beams are supported by side walls (LB) or the beams of the frame and in turn support inclined beams that support the flight. • Disadvantages - cause untidy soffit or underside of the stair. • Best suited for to the use of precast concrete steps and precast landing.
  35. 35. TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) Cantilevered stair/cantilevered spine wall • Constructed to cantilever from the spine wall, or can be partly cantilever from the spine wall and supported by the enclosing frame or walls.
  36. 36. TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) Precast Concrete Stair • Can be produced to most of the formats used for insitu RC stair. • Seldom used because of the majority using cast in-situ method. Common use for aesthetic reason. • Advantages – o good quality control of finished product o no formwork thus no storage required and save the site space o stair can be installed at any time, thus the stair shaft can be used for other purposes e.g. for lifting or hoisting space o Hoisting, positioning and fixing of stair can be carried out by semi-skilled worker.
  37. 37. TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) Stone Stair • Traditionally constructed using natural stone as the steps. • Can be formed as: o Rectangular/stepped soffit o Flush soffit • The end of the steps are built into the walls. The landings are constructed using one or more large slab of natural stone built into enclosing walls and bearing on the steps below.
  38. 38. TYPE OF STAIR (cont.) Stone Stair (cont.) Stone steps with stepped soffit Stone steps with flush soffit
  39. 39. Metal Stair • Can be produced in cast iron, mild steel or aluminium alloy for both external and internal used. • Usually is custom made, therefore is more expensive. • Steel channel section serves as stringer. • Treads can be in the form of steel pan filled with concrete, steel flat plate with textured top surface or bar grating. • Can be painted or covered with concrete for fire safety reason. • Advantage – no need formwork during construction. • Disadvantage – regular maintenance in the form of painting.
  40. 40. Metal Stair (cont.)
  41. 41. Simple Reinforced Concrete Stairs Formwork Reinforcement
  42. 42. Metal stairs
  43. 43. Timber Spiral Stair
  44. 44. Precast Stairs – hoisting and assembling
  45. 45. Precast Stair
  46. 46. REFERENCES 1) R.Barry,1992, The Construction of Building,Vol. 2, 5th ed, Blackwell Science Ltd. 2) Frederick S. Merritt et. al, 2001. Building Design and Construction Handbook, 6th ed., McGraw Hill. 3) Roy Chudley, et.al, 2005.Building Construction Handbook ,5th ed, Elsevier. 4) Francis D.K.Ching, 1991, Building Construction Illustrated, 2nd ed.,Van Nostrand Reinhold.

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