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Relative Clauses


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A Brief Overview of Relative Clauses for Middle School Students

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Relative Clauses

  1. 1. Relative Clausesa clause introduced by a relativepronoun/adverb
  2. 2. Can you find them?• Jack: Where are the books?• John: Which books?• Jack: The books that were lying on this table?• John: Your friend has taken them.• Jack: But I don’t remember lending them toanyone.• John: Your friend who visited us yesterday borrowthem from you.• Jack: How forgetful of me!
  3. 3. What is a Clause?Consequently, What is a RelativeClause?A clause is a group of words containing a(finite) verb. A clause may be part of asentence. An adjective clause is one thatdescribes a noun or a pronoun. We alsocall it a relative clause.
  4. 4. Its Entry in a SentenceThe books aremissing.• Your friendborrowed them.• Relative clause is usually introduced byrelative pronouns such as who, which, that,whose, whom, where and when.
  5. 5. Its Entry in a SentenceRelative clauses are introduced just afterthe antecedent and are introduced by apronoun or a relative adverb. The mostfrequent ones are:; ; ; (only in definingrelative clauses), and relative adverbs:; ; .
  6. 6. Provides (Important/Additional)InformationA relative clause (adjective clause) is asubordinate (supporting) clause that givesinformation about a noun (subject or object)in the main clause.
  7. 7. No Useless RepetitionSubordinate clauses are clauses whichallow us to add information about people orthings we are talking to, without a need torepeat the name, e.g.:
  8. 8. Types of Relative Clause• Relative clauses are usually divided intotwo types:• A. Non-Defining Relative Clauses• B. Defining Relative Clauses
  9. 9. Non-Defining Relative ClausesLook at this sentence:is a .It adds extra information to the sentence.If we take the clause out of the sentence,the sentence still has the same meaning.
  10. 10. Examples of Non-Defining RelativeClause1.2.• 3.
  11. 11. Main Features of Non-DefiningRelative Clauses- 1. Between commas- 2. ‘That’ is not allowed- 3. The relative pronoun can’t be omitted- 4. It’s less frequent than defining relativeclauses. It is more formal and usuallyused in written texts- 5. Add extra information to sentences.
  12. 12. Defining Relative ClausesDefining Relative Clauses are used to addimportant information to a sentence. The sentencewould have a different meaning without a definingrelative clause.They give essential information about theirantecedent and without them, the meaning will beincompleted. That is why you write them withoutcommas.
  13. 13. Comparing Defining & Non-Defining Relative ClausesThe defining relative clause tells uswhich skirt.The non-defining relative clause doesn’ttell us which skirt – it gives us moreinformation about the skirt.
  14. 14. Important FactsNon-defining relative clauses can use mostrelative pronouns (which, whose etc,) butthey CAN’T use ‘that’ and the relative pronouncan never be omitted.Non-defining relative clauses are more oftenused in written English than in spokenEnglish. You can tell that a clause is non-defining because it is separated by commas ateach end of the clause.
  15. 15. Examples of ‘Where’ as theRelative AdverbThe relative adverb where is used after nounsreferring to places:(defining relative clause)(non-defining relativeclause)
  16. 16. Examples of ‘When’ as theRelative AdverbThe relative adverb when is used after nounsreferring to times and dates:(defining relative clause)(non-defining relative clause)
  17. 17. Examples of ‘Why’ as the RelativeAdverbThe relative adverb why is usedafter reason:(only indefining relative clauses)
  18. 18. Examples of ‘Whose’ as theRelative Pronoun(defining relativeclause)(non-defining relative clause)
  19. 19. Relative ClausesDefining Non-DefiningPronounsWho/ThatWhich/ThatWhoseWhereWhen/ThatWhomThey give us essentialinformationThe information given is notessential,it can be omitted.PronounsWho WhichWhose WhenWhere
  20. 20. All right, Bye Now