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  1. 1. Usually H R is a major function in any organization. As its name suggests, itsintervention in over all organizational functions where ever Human Resources areinvolved, its from recruiting any resource till the exit. Human resource Departmentactually bridges the gap between Employee and Management in terms of expectations,revenue ectThere will be following work flow chart for HR HR Policy Recruitment Manual Joining & Induction Training & Development PMS- Performance Management System Reward, Recognition And Employee Discipline Employee Counseling OR Grievance Management Managing Employee Exits, Termination ect.
  2. 2. HR POLICYLike Quality Policy, each organization must have its own HR Policy. It is the duty ofthe HR Managers to design HR Policy for their organization. Drafting a HR Policy isnot an easy job whereas it requires lot of inputs to be incorporated. The momentsomebody reads your HR Policy, he will come to know the values and culture of yourorganization.For outside agencies such as Banks, Quality Auditors, Foreign Collaborators and longassociated customers may want to verify your HR Policy before making any agreementwith your organization. For the employees also, they will tune their sub-culturesaccording to the requirement of the HR Policy. Actually the words in HR Policy willspeak about the culture, values, vision and enjoy working and how these are practicedand proved by all employees in the organization in the same uniform and consistentwave length. After all, business is run by People only. Hence to get strong and longsurvival in the competitive markets, HR Policy is a Must and it should be practised.In many organizations, they do not have HR Policy and even if they have, it is out-datedone. In real spirit it is not followed and evidenced. It is the prime duty of the HRManagers to supply data to the top management periodically as to how HR Policy ispracticed consistently in the organization. Quantify it and supply with data. Forexample, if the word “Culture” is mentioned in the Policy, HR Manager must collect thedata on sub-culture practices of the departments and co-relate it with core culture of theorganization. If “Employee Satisfaction or Development” is added in the HR Policy,then data must be collected on Satisfaction or Development.WHO PREPARES HR POLICY:It is the initial duty of HR Manager to draft HR Policy. He must consult the Line Managers on variousinputs to be added in the Policy. Also he must consult the top Management on various important words tobe incorporated such as culture, values, development, vision etc. Highly experienced and matured HRManager will spell immediately the expectations of the top Management on all these areas. It is alwaysbetter to frame HR Policy by their own employees instead of hiring a Consultant for this purpose. HenceHR Manager must collect inputs from the following: - Top Management (Last Step will be MD) - Line Managers - Sub-ordinates - Regular Customers and VendorsWHO APPROVES THE HR POLICY:Final Draft of HR Policy will be vetted and approved by Board of Directors andultimately MD/Chairman of the organization. HR Policy Practices must be percolateddownwards and in the same wave length it moves in any direction. HR Practices must
  3. 3. not be deviated or disturbed at any cost for someone’s whims and fancies. HR Policy isfor the Organisation and it views from top to bottom in the same density without anyiota of slight bend.…………2HR POLICY FRAMING/MONITORING COMMITTEEA Committee must be formed representing Members from all Sections of Employees.The Duty of the Committee is to - Frame new Policy - Amend the existing Policy if required - Review its effectiveness - Training the employees to mould - Quantification - To find out the deviation and reasons thereofOnce a while you may include your regular Customers/Vendors/Well-wishers to givefeed-back on your HR Policy. Particular attention must be given to the new employeeswho join the organization with different set of cultures. Also the Freshers.Inputs required for preparing HR Policy: - MD’s Vision (Business Growth thro People) - Organisation Values - Culture Practices - Business Ethics - Importance of Employee Role - How organization taking care in employees - Enjoy Working conditions - Confidence from both Management and Employees - How one grows with the Organisation - How employee satisfaction is converted into end product/service - How Customer/vendors feel employee satisfaction thro product/service - How the Society values the organization thro employees - Data on Motivational/Communication practices - Any other data relevant as per your organization requirementCollect all data and statements from all the levels and match it with MD’s vision. Findthe differences. Fill up the gaps with Training/Induction/Counselling. Monitor thelevels of HR Policy level which should be uniform and also in the same direction. It islike a lead bird flying with group of birds in the sky in the same direction and samespeed to achieve one goal. Work under the work culture of “One Team One Goal”
  4. 4. ………..3INDUCTION AND TRAINING ON HR POLICYHR Policy is an Open Statement. It must be displayed at important places like QualityPolicy of your organization. Training/Re-training/Induction Programmes must beconducted time and again to monitor the consistency of HR Policy. For this first-of-all,HR Manager must be a role model for the HR Policy Statement and also the LineManagers. Effectiveness of the Policy must be reviewed of and on at the level of seniorlevel and middle level. They are the important Managers who represents PolicyStatement thro their words and action. HR Manager must design an InductionProgramme for new employees/Freshers. He must train thoroughly on the words andpurpose of it as said in HR policy. Check list must be prepared for monitoring thestatement as stipulated in HR Policy.PERIODIC REPORTHR Manager must send Report on HR Practices with evidences to the Management, maybe month-wise. All data must have the evidences. Nowhere it is manipulated to satisfythe Top Management. It is better to submit the facts rather to satisfy the seniors withfalse data. It is a good feedback for top management to correct HR Policy as per need ofthe present trend.OBJECTIVES:Once Policy is approved, HR Manager must prepare the objectives of the HR Policy.He must evolve Procedures as to how to achieve the goals of HR Policy thro action andwords. It is identical to Quality Policy as signed by MD and monitored thro Systems,Procedures and Work Instructions. Quality Audit is there and like-wise, during HRAudit, effectiveness of HR Policy must also be measured.Sub-Culture Practices:HR must help the Line Managers to frame sub-culture (Department’s) without deviatingthe core culture of the organization. For example, maximum house-keeping is one of thesub-cultures in Production and Maintenance Department whereas Service-orientedapproach is a sub-culture in HR, Accounts, Maintenance and Materials. Transparency incommunication is the core culture whereas sharing knowledge is sub-culture in theDepartments. Hence HR Manager must understand to spell the sub-cultures of theDepartments/employees at various levels and match it with core culture of the
  5. 5. Organisation/Top Management. Weightage may vary on sub-culture practices, but whenit is added to the core culture, weightage gets neutralized.Recruitment & Selection Policy4.1 Introduction4.2 Objectives4.3 Recruitment Authorization4.4 Policy4.5 Sources of Hiring4.6 Screening of CV’s4.7 Administering Tests4.8 Conducting Interviews4.9 Reference Checks4.10 Offer4.11 Joining Formalities4.12 Induction4.13 Probation & Confirmation4.14 Transfer4.15 Candidate Referral SchemeRecruitment Policy4.1 IntroductionRecruitment and Selection process aims to search and hire suitable candidate to fill vacancies inXYZ. The search may be internal and/or external.Any position within XYZ. that becomes vacant will be filled, on completion of a ResourceRequisition Form (RRF) by the concerned department / functional head.The success and adaptability of a Company depends upon the recruitment of employees whoare flexible, adaptable and committed to the success of the XYZ.4.2 ObjectivesThis section aims to promote and maintain high standards of professional recruitment practiceby encouraging recruiters to adhere to best practices.Its purposes are to: a) Ensure that recruitment is considered an essential part of the human resource.
  6. 6. b) Strategy and consequently an integral part of the overall business strategy. c) Ensure and explain best practice for all types of recruitment. d) Maintain professional standards whether candidates are easy or difficult to find. e) Ensure that equality of opportunity is considered an integral part of good recruitment practices and procedure.4.3 Recruitment AuthorizationAll authorization procedure detailed below must be completed prior to the commencement onany recruitment procedure. a) Prior to the employment of any employee the Resource Requisition Form must be filled and sent to HR department. b) The employment of all individuals for budgeted positions within XYZ must be authorized by the Department Head and CFO/COO/CEO.4.4 PolicyThe Department Head will provide the Human Resources Officer (HRO) with ResourceRequisition Form authorized by COO/CEO and instruct commencement of Recruitment.The HRO will ensure that the required approval has been obtained. The sourcing of suitableprofile may start simultaneously but the offer letter will be issued only after necessary approvalfrom all concerned as per RRF.XYZ has a policy of not recruiting two people from the same family.4.5 Sources of HiringRecruitment Sources CV’s from various sources like:Database: Resumes which are live and active will be stored in a central place. And which isaccessible to HR team.Head Hunt: Recruiters do the headhunting based on the requirements. Comprehensive databeen made and stored which states each companies core competency skills. Theseheadhunting calls are tracked too.Search Engines: Recruiters source the resume for leading job portals and different networkingand professional sites.Consultants: If there are bulk requirements or niche requirements we tend to use consultants.Employee Referral: Employee refers his or her friends to the company. And based upon theselection, the referred employee is entitled for the referral amount. (Details are below)
  7. 7. 4.6 Screening of CV’sRecruitment team screens the CV according to the requirement given and does theprescreening and passes over to the technical team for further short listing4.7 Administering TestsCandidates who have less than 1 year of experience will undergo technical test and aptitudetest. Technical test is purely based on the skills or core competency of the candidate. Those whoqualify will undergo for the interviews. (All these tests papers will be reviewed every 6 months)4.8 Conducting interviews:The HRO shall schedule the interview of the candidates who are short listed by the HOD. (Note– Arrange personal interviews for local candidates and arrange either Telephonic or VideoConferencing interview for outstation candidates.). It is must to schedule either personalinterview OR video conference interview before finalizing the offer so as to ensure processhygiene.XYZ shall bear traveling and accommodation cost for the senior resources visiting at HO forpersonal interview purpose. Travel policy will be applicable for mode of travel entitlement. Asummary of the interviews shall be prepared by the HRO and kept for record purposes.Maximum 2 Technical interviews per candidate up to Sr. Software Engineer.Multiple interviewers in an interview.Suitable experience gap between interviewer and interviewee.4.9 Reference ChecksReference checks are mandatory for all the level of hiring except for fresher. This is done thruemail or phone. The outcome is captured and attached to the incumbent’s personal file.4.10 OfferThe Selected candidate is made an offer after his/her reference check is done.4.11 Joining Formalities:The HRO decides sitting place for the resources joining in consultation with department headand sends mailer to system team for the desktop/Laptop, creating domain ID and sends mail toadmin for their joining kit and their swipe card a day before the joining of the candidate.On the day of joining HRO gets the Employee Form filled by new joiners and collects all theeducational and previous employment letters. All new employees are required to submit theirprevious experience letters and xerox copies of their education certificates on the first day ofjoining. New employees who fail to submit all the previous employment details and educationcertificates would not be given appointment letter until they submit the required documents.Every new employee gets a joining kit on the first day of their joining which contains T-shirt, XYZand its Product brochures, ICICI Bank salary account form and attendance swipe card. XYZprovides first days lunch to all new joinees in Canteen.
  8. 8. XYZ has a salary account with ICICI Bank and all new employees are required to open a salaryaccount with ICICI Bank and for this they need to get in touch with the admin executive takingcare of front office reception.Appointment letter will be issued to all new joinees within 2 days of their joining with thecondition that they have produced all the necessary joining document.New employee shall submit the traveling expense bills and relocation expense bills, (Ifcommitted at the time of joining) to the HR department within a week of joiningOnce the joining formalities are over HRO will inform new joiners about their sitting place,introduce the new joiners to the concerned PL, and explain them about the intranet and theirlogin ID and password.4.12 InductionAll new staff shall undergo induction training to assist them in the process of becomingintegrated to the organization within the shortest time possible. The respective immediatesupervisor in collaboration with the HR Officer shall conduct induction training.The objective of the induction policy is to familiarize the employee with the company, their job,the industry, colleagues, company systems, processes and policies with a view to ensuring theycan make a contribution to business outcomes as quickly as possible.The induction should be a combination of standard components as well as learning specificallytailored to the role.The HRO shall send the Induction feedback form to all new joinees within one month of theirjoining and taking their feedback on regular basis to check the new employee is comfortableand settled within the system.4.13 Probation ConfirmationObjectiveThe probation period is intended to give new employees the opportunity to demonstrate theirability to achieve a satisfactory level of performance and to determine whether the new positionmeets their expectations. XYZ use this period to evaluate employee’s capability, work habits,and overall performance.ProcedurePeriodic review (initially on monthly basis up to first 3 months) will be undertaken by concerneddepartment head and HRO shall facilitate this process to ensure that the resource getsproductive in the system.On successful completion of 6 months probation period, HRO shall send the ConfirmationReview Form to the concerned department head for the eligible resource.On receiving the dully filled up form, HRO will initiate appropriate action i.e. Conformation letter/ Extension letter / Termination letter The communication needs to be ensured with theresources in any of the stated action. If any revision in salary is committed that can be taken upin the month of April or October.
  9. 9. 4.14 Transfer Policy:XYZ business in a way is very dynamic that will require the employees often to work away fromthe base location, mostly on the client side. An employee may be transferred, assigned orseconded from one department, location and branch, in India or abroad. He may also berequired to undertake additional duties apart from the normal duties of the post to which they areappointed.An employee may request for transfer from one working place to another, however, transfer ofemployees shall be the prerogative of the Management and shall not be disputed. An employeemay be reassigned, subject to performance of his/her duties and on the recommendation by his/her superior and/or departmental manager. All recommendations for reassignment shall bedetermined by the Management as and when required.Section 5 Candidate Referral Scheme 5.1 Objectives To encourage Employees to refer individuals and build human capital in the company.5.2 Guidelines • All employees (including those on probation) below the level of PL can refer a candidate. However HR employees will not be entitled to participate in the scheme. • An employee who refers a candidate cannot be part of the selection process or in anyway influence the decision making process for that candidate. To be eligible for a financial reward under this scheme, the employee who referred the candidate cannot be in direct reporting relationship with the referred candidate. • An employee who is in direct relation of the referred, viz., spouse/brother/sister/parent/in-law will not be eligible for a financial reward. • The Referred candidate will have to undergo the required tests, interviews as per the normal recruitment process of the company. • If a referred candidate is selected, HR would inform the employee after issuing the Offer letter to the referred candidate. • In cases where a CV is received from more than one source, viz., employee referral, placement agencies, job portal etc, the reward will be given to the source from which the CV was first received. • Fresher (1 year from passing out month) referred by employees under the Scheme and recruited through Campus Interviews will not be considered as a referral under this scheme • Similarly fresher referred from Institutes where XYZ frequents for Campus placements would not be considered as a referral under this scheme • The validity of the resume that an employee refers will be one year from the date of receiving the resume. • The company reserves the right to withdraw or amend the scheme as appropriate at any point in time by an appropriate notification.
  10. 10. 5.3 Procedures: • HR to publish the list of vacancies considered for referral programme on monthly basis. This is displayed on “Career” section in Human Resources part of Intranet. • Employee can refer detail job description / profile requirement of published vacancies and forward / refer the same to his / her friend. • Employees need to send the referred CV on given Mail ID. • A separate databank will be maintained by HR to track the referred candidates • The candidate referred will be put through the normal recruitment process and final outcome of the same will be informed to the employee who has referred the candidate.5.4 Rewards • In the event, XYZ recruits the referred candidate; the employee who referred the candidate will be eligible for a monetary reward subject to being on rolls at the time of payout. • The reward money will be paid to the employee along with his salary as soon as the referred candidate completes six months with the organization provided the referred employee has not resigned or left before the reward payout is made. • Following amount is proposed as reward for reference programme. Level of the candidate recruited Amount (Rs.) Jr. Software Engineer / Software Engineer / Executive 4000/- Sr. Software Engineer / Sr. Executive 7500/- Asst. Manager / Manager / Technical Lead / Project Leader 10,000/- Sr. Manager & above 12,500/- • The employee who has maximum no. of reference joiners to his credit will be given a special reward at the end of each financial year. • All rewards paid under this scheme would be subjected to Income Tax rules as applicable.
  11. 11. JOINING REPORT & EMPLOYEE INFORMATION SHEET Name : ___________________________________________ Father’s Name : ___________________________________________ Designation : ___________________________________________ Address : ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Date of Joining : ___________________________________________ Signature of Employee : ___________________________________________
  12. 12. HR DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENTHEADEmployee No. ________________ RECENT PHOTOPERSONAL DATA FORMNAME : ____________________________________________POST APPLIED FOR : ____________________________________________FOR OFFICE USE ONLYPRELIMINARY INTERVIEW BY DATE______________Name ___________________________Designation ___________________Signature___________Name ___________________________Designation ___________________Signature___________Name ___________________________Designation ___________________Signature___________Remarks_____________________________________________________________________________
  13. 13. ____________________________________________________________________________________ FINAL INTERVIEW BY DECISIONName Designation Signature Approved/Not Approved for appointment Designation ______________ Grade _________Recommended/Not Recommended for Appointment Salary _____________ Location_____________As __________ on Salary of Rs.________PM Appointing AuthorityDate ____________ Signature ____________ Name______________________________ ____ Designation ______________________________FULL NAME_________________________________________________________________________DATE OF BIRTH ___________________ WEIGHT __________________ HEIGHT_____________POSTAL ADDRESS______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  14. 14. PERMANENT ADDRESS_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________CONTACT # ___________________________CONTACT #__________________________________FAMILY DETAILSNAME AGE / RELATION OCCUPATION SEXEDUCATION QUALIFICATION (Start with School Leaving Certificate or Equivalent) YEAR % MAJORQUALIFICATION UNIVERSITY / OF MARKS SUBJECT INSTITUTE PASSING
  16. 16. LAST POSITION HELDDESIGNATION:__________________ORGANISATION_______________________DOJ________DESIGNATION AT THE TIME OF JOINING: ___________________ No. OfEmployees______ADDRESS:___________________________________________________________________________BUSINESS: ___________________________________ANNUALTURNOVER__________________JOB RESPONSIBILITY:______________________________________________________________REPORTING TO: NAME_________________________DESIGNATION_______________________TOTAL GROSS SALARY PER MONTH_________________________________________________CASH BENEFITSBASIC___________DA____________HRA____________LTA____________MEDICAL____________CONVEYANCE ____________________OTHERS____________________TOTAL_______________NON-CASH BENEFITSPROVIDENTFUND_______S.A._______GRATUITY_________OTHERS________TOTAL_______
  17. 17. REFERENCE: NAME & ADDRESS OF ATLEAST TWO REFERENCES NOTRELATED TO YOU 1. _________________________________________________________________ ______________ 2. _________________________________________________________________ ______________ADDITIONAL INFORMATION  Have You: (I) Physical Disabilities __________________________________________________ (II) Marital Indebtness ___________________________________________________ (III) Been involved in Court Proceeding _______________________________________ (Give detail on a separate sheet of paper if answer is yes)  HAVE YOU EVER BEEN INTERVIEWED BEFORE IN XYZ LTD.. IF yes, Give Details Date: _______________ Position:______________________ Location: ____________ Outcome:_____________________  Languages Known: ______________________________________________________________  Your Hobbies: _________________________________________________________________ _  Your Interests: _________________________________________________________________ _
  18. 18.  Your Goal / Aim in Life: __________________________________________________________  Three Principles / Ideals which have guided you in Life: 1. 2. 3.  List down three of: Your Strengths Your Weaknesses 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3.  Are you willing to travel: In India: ____________________ In Abroad: ____________________ State Restrictions/Problems if any:___________________________________________  Places/Countries of your choice where you’d like to travel: ________________________ ________________________________________________________________________  Passport No. _________________ Valid Up to: __________________________
  19. 19.  Are you related to any of our employees? If Yes his/her Name: _____________________  Membership of any Professional Institution/Association: __________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________  Publication if any (list with specimen copy): ___________________________________________  Any Specialized Training/Training Program attended: ___________________________________  Would like to attend any specific training: ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________  Any Other information/Suggestion: __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________EMERGENCY DETAILS  Blood Group: ________________  Allergic To: _________________________  Blood Pressure: ______________  Sugar: ______________________________  Eye Sight: Left: ________ Right: ______________  Any Major Illness: _______________________________________________________________________________
  20. 20.  Contact Person in case of Emergency: _______________________________________________________  Address: _________________________________________________________________ ______________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _____________  Phone #: ________________________ATTACHMENTSPlease attach:1.Photocopies of all relevant certificates / degree mark sheets etc.2.Proof of Birth3.Experience Certificate from Previous employer.4.Relieving letter from Previous employer.5.Photocopy of Passport6. PAN No. No Documents Submitted Will submit on 1 2 3
  21. 21. 4 5 6DECLARATIONI DECLARE THAT THE INFORMATION GIVEN, HEREIN ABOVE, IS TRUE &CORRECT TO THE BEST OF MY KNOWLEDGE & BELIEF & NOTHINGMATERIAL HAS BEEN CONCEALED. I UNDERSTAND THAT THE ABOVEINFORMATION IN FOUND FALSE OR INCORRECT, AT ANY TIME DURINGTHE COURSE OF MY EMPLOYMENT, MY SERVICES WILL BE TERMINATEDFORTHWITH WITHOUT ANY NOTICE OR COMPENSATION.DATE: _______________________ _________________________________PLACE: _______________________ SIGNATURE OFAPPLICANTThe University of ManchesterOffice of the Registrar and SecretaryLOCAL INDUCTIONInduction: Staff feedback (1 month)Section/Unit: _______________________ Office:_________________________1. Were you personally introduced to your new colleagues, managers and otherappropriate people during your first few days in post?Yes ! No !Any additional comments:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. Has your Induction helped you understand your job, responsibilities, work standards?Yes ! No !
  22. 22. Any additional comments:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. Have appropriate policies and procedures, important to your job (health and safety,regulations, work processes), been shown to you and explained to you?Yes ! No !Any additional comments:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. Have the materials/sections in the Induction Pack been of use to you?Yes ! No !Any additional comments:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________LOCAL INDUCTION5. Have you discussed/completed an Induction Training and Development Plan?Yes ! No !Any additional comments:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. If there was one aspect of your Induction that could be improved what would it be,and how might we improve it?Aspect:Suggestions for improvement
  23. 23. When completed, please return this review form to:HR Department/HR Manager INDUCTION TRAININGOne of the most important initial steps in the training process is the induction course. Ithas long been recognized that new employees often experience an induction crisis. Thenew work environment is often perceived by the new recruit as preparing and evenfrightening. An unwelcoming or different reception can ferment the view that it was amistake to begin work there not surprisingly traits off with increased service with theorganization. Many organization try to reduce uncertainly in the employees by presentingthem with lots of information concerning.  The history of the organization.  The mission statement and organization objectives.  Company ethics.  The structure of the organization.  Personnel policies.  Terms of employment.  Payment system and benefits.  Holydays and sickness arrangement.  Rules and regulations of the organization.  Discipline and grievance procedures.
  24. 24.  Trade unions.  Welfare and social facilities.  Health and safety measures.  Job description. This is a necessary for the new employee to know to the given all this information on the first day or even within the first week is over whelming. Sometimes well meaning initiatives can have the opposite effect to the one in tended. Therefore the induction programme should be around the needs of the employee and imparting of information should be given at the appropriate moments. The information is more likely to be remembered by the inductee. Inductee wants to have a go at job to see if they can do it. Therefore the programme needs to be spread overtime to give variety. FRESH TRAINING MODULE The method employed for training of operatives may be described as under:- 1. On the job training: - In this method, the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform it. The trainee learns under the guidance and supervision of the superior or an instruction. The trainee learns by observing and handling the job. Therefore, it is called learning by doing. Several methods are used to provide on-the-job training, e.g. coaching, jobrotation committee assignments, etc. A popular form of on-the-job training is JobInstruction Training (JIT) or step by step learning it widely. It is widely used in the
  25. 25. United States to prepare supervisors. It is appropriate for acquisition or improvement ofmotor skills and routine and repetitive operations. The JIT involves the following steps:- A. Preparing the trainee for instruction. This involves putting the trainee at ease, securing his interest and attention, stressing the importance the job etc. B. Presenting the job operations or instructions in terms of what the trainee is required to do. The trainee is put at work site and each step of the job is explained to him clearly. C. Applying and trying out instructions to judge how for the trainee has understood the instructions. D. Following up the training to identify and correct the deficiencies. JIT method provides immediate feedback. Permits quick correction of errors and provides extra practice when required. But it needs skilled trainers and preparation in advance. 2. Vestibule Training:-In this method, a training is called vestibule is setup and actual job conditions are duplicated or simulated in it. Expert trainers are employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with those in use at the workplace. 3. Apprenticeship Training:-In this method, theoretical instruction and practical learning are provided to trainees in training institutes. In India, the Government has established Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) for this purpose. Under the Apprenticeship act, 1962 employers in specified industries are required to train the prescribed number of persons in ‘Designated Trades’. The aim is to develop all-round craftsmen. Generally, a stipend is paid during the training period. Thus, it is an “Earn when you learn” scheme.
  26. 26. Apprenticeship training is the oldest method of training. It is particularly suitable for scanning crafts and technical trades wherever job proficiency is the result of a relatively long training period. Draughtsman, machinist, printer, tool maker, pattern designer, mechanic, carpenter, weaver, fitter, jeweler, engraver, electrician etc. are examples of such areas.4. Classroom Training: - Under, this method training is provided in company classrooms or in educational institutions, Lectures, case studies, group discussions, and audio Visual aids are used to explain knowledge and this is to the trainees. Classroom training is suitable for teaching concepts and problem solving skills. It is also useful for orientations and safety training programmers. Some companies maintain their own training institutes or schools. Special training course are designed, e.g. management course for foremen, computer course for typists. etc. course in retraining and upgrading may also be conducted. Small firms depend on outside schools and course.5. Internship Training: - it is a joint programme of training in which educational institutions and business firms cooperate; selected candidates carry on regular studies for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical knowledge and skills. This method helps to provide a good balance between theory and practice. But it involves a long-time period due to show process. This method of training is used in professional work, e.g. MBBS, CA, ICWA, and Company Secretaries. Etc. Importance of Training
  27. 27. A well-planned and well-executed training programme can provide the following advantages:-1. Higher Productivity: - Training helps to improve the level of performance;trained employees perform between by using betting method of work. Improvements inmanpower productivity in developed nations can be attributed in no small measure totheir educational and industrial training programmers.2. Better Quality of Work: - In formal training the best methods are standardizedand taught to employees. Uniformity of work methods and procedures helps to improvethe quality of product or service: Trained employees are less likely to make operationalmistakes.3. Less Learning Period: - A systematic training programme helps to reduce thetime and cost involved in learning. Employees can more quickly reach the acceptablelevel of performance. They need not waste their time and efforts in learning through trialand error.4. Cost Reduction: - Trained employees make more economical use of materialsand machinery. Reduction is wastage and spillage together with increase in productivityhelp to minimize cost of operations per unit. Maintenance cost is also reduced due tofewer machine breakdown and better handling of equipments. Plant capacity can be putto the optimum use.5. Reduced Supervision: - Well-trained employees tend to be self reliant andmotivated. They need less guidance and control Therefore, Supervisory burden is reducedand the span of supervision can be enlarged
  28. 28. 6. Low Accident Rate: - Trained personnel adopt the right work methods andlack use of the prescribed safety devices. Therefore, the frequency of accidents reducedhealth and safely of employees can be improved.7. High Morale: - Proper training can develop positive attitudes among employees.Job satisfaction and morale are improved due to rise in the earnings and job security ofemployees. Training reduces employee grievances because opportunities for internalpromotion are available to well-trained personnel.8. Personal Growth: - Training enlarges the knowledge and skills of theparticipants. Therefore, well trained personnel can grow faster in their career. Trainingprevents obsolescence of knowledge and skills. Trained employees are a more valuable etto any organization training helps to develop people for promotion to higher post and todevelop future managers.9. Organizational Climate: - A sound training programme helps to improve theclimate of an organization. Industrial relations and discipline are improved. Thereforedecentralization of authority and participative management can be introduced.Resistance to change is reduced. Organizations having regular training programmers canfulfill their needs for personnel from internal sources .Organizational enhanced becausetraining helps to reduce employee systematic training is a sound business investment. Infact, "no organization can choose whether or not to train employees. The only choice leftto management is shall be made a carefully planned part of an integrated programme ofhuman resource administration. " Types of Training
  29. 29. Training is required for several purposes. Accordingly, programmes may be of thefollowing types:1. Orientation Training: - Induction or orientation training seeks to adjust newlyappointed employees to the work environment. Every new employee needs to be madefully familiar with the job. His superiors and subordinates and with the rules andregulations of the organization. Induction training creates self-confidence in theemployees. It is known as pre-job training. It is brief and informative2. Job training: - It refers to the training provided with a view to increase theknowledge and skills of an employee for improving performance on the job. Employeesmay be taught the correct methods of handling equipment and machines used in a job.Such training helps it reduce accidents, waste and inefficiency in the performance of thejob.3. Safety Training: - Training provided to minimize accidents and damage tomachinery is safety training It involves instruction in the use of safety devices and insafety consciousness.4. Promotional Training: - It involves training of existing employees to enablethem to perform higher level jobs, employees with potential are selected and they aregiven training before their promotion, so that they do not find it difficult to shoulder thehigher responsibilities of the new positions to which they are promoted.5. Refresher Training: - When existing techniques become obsolete due to thedevelopment of better techniques, employees have to be trained in the use of newmethods and techniques. With the passage of time employees may forget some of the
  30. 30. methods of doing work. Refresher training is designed to revive and refresh theknowledge and to update the skills of the existing employees.6. Remedial Training: - such training arranged to overcome the shortcomings inthe behavior and performance of old employees. Some of the experienced employeesmight have picked up appropriate methods and styles of working. Such employees areidentified and correct work methods and procedures are taught to them. Identifying Training Needs All training activities must be related to the specific needs of the organization andthe individual employees. A training programme should be la only after thetraining needs are assessed clearly and specifically. The effectiveness of a trainingprogramme can be judged only with the help of training needs identified in advance. Inorder to identify training needs, the gap between the existing and required levels ofknowledge, skills, performance and aptitudes should be specified, the problem areas thatcan be resolved though training should also be identified. 1. Organizational Analysis: - It involves a study of the entire organization; growth potential and its environment. Its purpose is to determine where training emphasis should be place within the organization, organizational analysis consists of the following elements :(a) Analysis of Objectives: - The long-term and short-term objectives and theirrelative priorities are analyzed. Specific goals and strategies for various departments andsections should be stated as a means for achieving the overall organizational objectives.General objectives need to be translated into specific and detailed operational targets. It isalso necessary to be translated into specific and detailed operational targets. It is alsonecessary to be translated into specific and detailed operational targets. It is also
  31. 31. necessary to continuously review and revise the Objectives in the light of the changingenvironment.(b) Resource Utilization Analysis: - The allocation of human and physicalresources and their efficient utilization in meeting the operational targets are analyzed. Inorder to exiling in detail the inputs and outputs of the organization. Efficiency indicesmay be developed. These indices will help to determine the adequacy of specific workflows as well as the contribution of human resources.(c) Organization Climate Analysis: - The prevailing climate of an organizationreflects the member’s attitudes. It also represents management’s attitude towardsemployee development. Without adequate management support and appropriatesupervisory styles, a training programme cannot be successful. Analysis of organizationclimate can reveal the strengths and weaknesses also.(d) Environmental Scanning: - The economic, political, technological andsociocultural environments of the organization are examined This is necessary to identifythe environmental factors which the organization can influence and the constraints whichit cannot control. 2. Task or Role Analysis: - It is a systematic and detailed analysis of jobs to identify job contents, the knowledge, skills and aptitudes required and the work behavior. On the part of the job holder, particular attention should be paid to the tasks to be performed, the methods to be used, the way employees have learnt these methods and the performance standards required of employees. Also called operations analysis, its purpose is to decide what should be taught. Questionnaire, interviews, human resource records, reports, tests, observation and other methods can be used to collect information’s about jobs in the organization.
  32. 32. 3. Manpower analysis: - In this analysis. The persons to be trained and the changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employee are determined. First of all, it is necessary to decide whether performance of an individual is sub-standard and training is needed. Secondly, it is determined whether the employee is capable of being trained. Thirdly, the specific areas in which the individual requires training are determined. Lastly, whether training will improve the employees performance or not is determined. Other alternatives to training. E.g. modifications in the job, new equipments or process, etc. Should also be considered. Personal observation, supervisory, evaluation, work samples. Diagnostic tests and performance reports provide the information needed to choose from these alternatives. Training can be relevant and viable if the three types of analysis above are carried on continuously. Moreover these analyses should be integrated in a carefully designed and executed programme. Designing a Training Programme In order to achieve the training objectives an appropriate training policy isnecessary. A training policy represents the commitment of top management to employeetraining. It consists. to roles and procedures concerning training. A training policy isrequired. (a) To indicate the companys intention to develop its employees; (b) To guide the design and implementation of training programmes; (c) To identify the critical areas where training is to be given on a priority basis; and (d) To provide appropriate opportunities to employees for their own betterment.A sound training policy clearly defined the following issues:
  33. 33. (i) The results expected to be achieved through training. (ii) The responsibility for the training function. (iii) The priorities for training. (iv) The type of training required. (v) The time and place of training. (vi) The payments to be made to employees during the training period. (vii) The outside agencies to be associated with the training. (viii) Relationship of training to the companys labor policy. Once training objectives and policy are decided, and appropriated training programme can be designed and conducted. Decisions on the following items are required for this purpose. A sound training policy defines the following items are required for this purpose.1. Responsibility for Training: - Training is quite a strenuous task which cannot be undertaken by one Single department. The responsibility for training has to be shared among: (a) The top management who should frame and authorize the basic training policy, review and approve the training plans and programmes, and approve training budgets. (b) The human resource department which should plan establishes and evaluates instructional programmes. (c) The line supervisor who should provide feedback, revision and suggestion for improvements in the programme.
  34. 34. (d) The employees who should provide feedback, revision and suggestion for improvements in the program me.To be effective, a training programme should be properly organized. But goodorganization alone is not adequate, proper planning and training is equally important. 2. Selecting and Motivating the Target Group: - It is necessarydecide which is to be trained-new or old employee; unskilled or semiskilled workerssupervisors or executives. The type and methods to be used will depend upon the type ofpersons to be trained. It is also necessary to create a desire for learning. The employeeswill be interested in training if they believe that it will benefit them personally. Traineeswill change their behavior if they become aware of better way of performing and gainexperience in the new pattern of behavior so that it become their normal manner ofoperation. A climate conducive to leaving can also be creating through physical andpsychological environment. Psychological environment consists of involvement areparticipation. Freedom of social interaction. Open communication. Friendly and helptrainers. Provision for measuring learners progress, etc. 2. Preparing the trainers: - The success of a training programme depends to a great extent upon the instructors or the resource persons. The trainer must know the job to be taught and how to teach it. He should have an aptitude for teaching and should employ the right training techniques. 4. Developing Training Package: - This step involves deciding the content of training, designing support material for training and choosing the appropriate training methods. Training courses may involve specific instructions in the procedures of dong a job. A training course may cover time periods ranging from one week to few months. Such a training package should also contain a detailed syllabus with proper sequencing of contents, and an appropriate mix of
  35. 35. training methods. Support material for training may include study notes, casestudies, pamphlets, charts brochures, manuals, movie slides etc.5. Presentation: - This is action phase of training. Here the trainer tells,demonstrates and illustrates in order to put over the new knowledge andoperations. However, before it, the learner should be put at ease. It is necessary toexplain why he is being taught to develop his interest in training. The learnershould be told of the sequence of the entire job, the need for each step in the job,the relationship of his job to the total workflow, etc .instructions should be clearand complete. Key points should be stressed upon and one point should beexplained at a time. Audio-visual aids should be used to demonstrate and illustrateand the trainee should be asked to repeat the operations. He should also beencouraged to ask questions in order to ensure that the really knows andunderstands the job.6. Performance Tryout: - The trainee is asked to do the job several timesslowly. His mistakes are corrected and if necessary the steps are explained again.As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job slightly, he is put on hisown and training is over.7. Follow-up:- In this step, the effectiveness of the training program is assessed. The feedback generated through floow-up will help to reveal weaknesses or errors if any. Necessary corrective action can be taken. If necessary instruction may be repeated, until the trainee learns whatever has been taught to him. Follow-up action reinforces the learning process. It also helps in designing future training programmes. TRAINING ATTENDANCE RECORD (CLASS ROOM TRAINING)
  36. 36. PREFRAME TITLE ………………………………………..…………DATE FROM ………….…. TO……………..………….TIMING ……………………………………….…..HOURSVENUE ……………………………………………………FACULTY (EXT. /INT) …………………………………………………….PROGRAM COORDINATOR ……………………………………………………. LEARNING /ATTEDANCE FORMAT.S.NO. NAME DESIGNATION DEPTT. / EMPLOYEES LOCATION SIGNATURE ERALUATION OF TAAINING EFFCTIVENESS1. Background Evaluation of Training Effectiveness is necessarybecause It generates seriousness It gives credibility to training effort. It serves as the basis for further action.
  37. 37. Guidelines A. IDENTIFACATION OF TRAINING NEEDS:Effectiveness of Training depends on the quality of process adopted for identification oftraining needs. It is suggested that the following points should be taken care of whileidentifying training needs. Other methods apart from those mentioned bellow should alsobe considered for the purpose depending on the unit (s) requirements:-INVEL METHODINDIVIDUAL -task analysis  Knowledge, skill & attitude (KSA) AnalysisGROUP/DEPT - Group/Deptt. Performance Parameters  The gap between desired and actual levelORGANISATION - Strategic Business plan Analysis. B. OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES :
  38. 38. Next step is for HRD Dept. to clearly and concisely lay down the objectives ofeach training programs. Objectives should focus on identified training needs and or onsolution to problem. This objective must focus on:  Gain to the company  Gains to the individual C. ORGANISISNG TRAINING PROGRAMMES: Effectiveness of training programme also depends on the organization of the programme. For the programme to be effective, proper care should be taken regarding:  Faculty  Time & Proper timing. Examples of proper timing; training programmes should, as far as possible, be avoided during peak production periods.  Interaction between faculty & participants (level of interaction should be high.)  Venue and arrangements e.g. ambience etc.  Methodology used by trainer for imparting training.
  39. 39.  Involvement of the managers & senior management, wherever required in the whole process. This helps participant in transferring learning of the programme of job.  Quality of action plan being chalked out by the participants. D. FEEDBACK FROM, PARTICIPANT The format of this purpose is at annexure-I 1. Feedback of the participants may be taken in case of:  Training programme organized in response to identified training need and,  External training programme ( provide feedback format to the participant before leaving for external programme so that he she the parameters for feedback, ) 1. In case of unscheduled training programme, feedback is optional 2. E. ACTION PLAN BY THE PARTICIPANT:ACTION PLAN-  Action plans need to be made based on ideas/learnings that have meerged form the programme.  Action plan need to be specific.
  40. 40.  The implementation of action plan should be within the capacity and scope of responsibilities of the participants.QUANTIFIED / MEASURABLE TARGET (S)  In order to measure / evaluate the success of participants action plan targets should be set in quantified terms such as percentage / Hours / Rupees / Nos. etc. s  The target set by participants should possibly be completed and evaluated for the results within 3-6 months from the end of the programme.ACTION (S)Participants should 1. Write down action (s) which they will carry out for achievement of the target. 2. Specify exactly what they will do in each of these actions and therefore write in the form "I will…………………………" for each action. 3. Make sure each activity that he or she writes down is specific. 4. Avoid writing down actions which are mere statements of wishful thinking.SAVINGS OR GAINS  Each target in the action plan must clearly indicate the savings/ gains expected certain targets may not directly end in such savings gains in such cases. The possibility of indirect savings gains may be indicated.SUPPORT REQUIRED  Participants should mention the kind of resources in terms of money manpower equipment machines etc. for the achievement of the target.
  41. 41. EXPECTED DATE OF REACHING THE TARGER (S)  Participant should indicate the date by which the quantified target set is expected to be achieved.REVIEW DATE  First date of review should be within 3 months of the scheduled start date of fires action as indicated in the action plan. HRD department should coordinate with the participants & the HODs for the purpose. F. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVIENESS OF TRAINING PROGRAMME AND CORRECTIVE ACTIONS:  Analysis of the feedback received from the participants i.e. both the initial reaction of participants about the programme & after the first review of action plan should be carried out and shared among all concerned, thereby helping in initiation of corrective / improvement action (s) necessary support should be provided by HRD Dept. in the matter. G. MEASURING THE GAINS FROM TRAINING
  42. 42. Training is provided to employees with multiple objectives of creating awarenessskill & knowledge improvement bringing attitudinal changes. Collaboration etc. allstrategies and efforts made in an organization should ultimately lead to improvedefficiency higher productivity optimum bottom line. Training alone will not be able toachieve all these. Apart from training or more than training in some cases) bettersupervision inter/intra departmental coordination management thrust monitoring &review technology improvement & many other factors have their significant impacttherefore it may not be practical to identify a particular gain as an exclusive result oftraining. However to gains without disregard to contribution of other factors.  Measuring direct savings/ Gains. The process of evaluation a enumerated in the guidelines (D) . (E) and (F) above must be completed in each and every case to see the effectiveness of the training imparted next stage is to identify and measure the savings/ gains. It savings / gains are possible to be measured and reported in the following cases. I. The saving/gains resulting from elimination of a specific problem where training was imparted as a solution. II. Savings/gains resulting from implementation of action plan (S) drawn by each participant consequent upon completion of a specific training. III. Reporting by HOD superior / Participant regarding any further savings gains not envisaged in the action plan) perceived to be the result of the training and post training effort (s).
  43. 43. H. DOCUMENTING THE GAINS FROM TRAININGIt is recommended that these gains should be properly documented & complied on anannual basis such an exercise also helps in:  Motivation the personnel in training department.  Creating a climate for greater faith of the user in training and  Providing an input for continuous mirroring learning and improving. Such compilations should be forwarded by HRD department to senior management seeking guidance for improvement in the future. Retraining Retraining is the process of providing training to persons who underwent trainingearlier in their job. Retraining programme are generally arranged for employees whohave long been in the service of an organization. Such programmes are designed to avoidobsolescence of a person in terms of jobs requirements. Retraining is required on accountof the following factors: (a) Some employees concentrate of a narrow task and lack all round knowledge and skills training are required to widen their knowledge and attitudes. (b) Employees who are called back to work after layoff are given training so as to handle highly skilled jobs.
  44. 44. (c) Due to technological changes some jobs may become unnecessary. Employees working on such jobs are retrained for other jobs. (d) Retraining is necessary to develop a versa we work force capable of performing more than one job. (e) Retraining becomes necessary when the knowledge and skills of employees become obsolete due to rapid changes in technology. With automation and computerization, new skills become necessary. (f) Due to changes in demand for goods and service, some new jobs are created:Retraining of existing staff is needed to handle new jobs. Retraining may be required at all levels. But it is more common for rank and fileworkers. This is so because technological changes make an immediate impact on thesepeople. Moreover, they are less equipped to for see their personal needs and therefore,require greater assistance than other. Workers need refresher courses to help them recallwhat they have forgotten. They require retraining when work tools and methods changedue to technological progress.