Week 3


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  • In the research possible causes of behaviour a framework assists, as the name says, in ‘framing’ the ideas, methods of research etc
  • How we think about our environment affects how we behave. Two different people in the same situation may behave differently, based on how they think about the situation
  • Schemas
  • We use schemas in selecting what to attend to, what information to retain in memory, and what information to retrieve in making social inferences.
  • The need for cognitive efficiency encourages the development of cognitive categories such as social schemas as a way of organising informationExamples (Woody Allen ‘type’)
  • Like building blocks - something plus something = somethingIs something always the sum of all its parts?
  • Point 2 – Created and endowed - Point 3 – like speaking the same language (metaphorically)
  • Ask what each could signifyA man kneeling in front of a woman (a proposal (in some cultures), honour (royalty), fear)Someone sitting while the other is standing –power, respect, may be related to gender or age
  • Two frameworks for understanding behaviour
  • Who am I?
  • The self is both active (the ‘I’ - initiates reflexive behaviour) and passive (the ‘me’ - the object toward which the reflexive behaviour is directed) Examples of reflexive behaviour:Self-control (stop eating, you are full; don’t cheat; go home now, you know you have a test in the morning)Self motivation (you can have a pizza if you don’t eat rubbish during the week; if I don’t drink all weekend you can use the money for a new outfit)
  • No clipart of female fire fighters – reinforced gender expectations/limitationsOthers view of our role identities may be generalisedSocietal expectations don’t strictly dictate the contents of our role identitiesOthers view of our role identities may be generalisedRoles can be nuanced
  • Refer back to ‘Who am I’ answersThree general types of self-descriptionRole Identities (would be generally agreed upon by all), personal qualities and self-evaluations are viewed subjective by othersIdentities = role-identities as members of occupational, educational, or family groups, religion, athletic teams, race, ethnicityPersonal qualities = interpersonal behaviour (introverted, cool), emotional or psychological styles (optimistic, moody), body imageSelf-evaluation = competence, self-determination, moral worth
  • The aspects of the self that enter our awareness and matter to us most depend on the situation- Self concepts most likely to enter the situated self are those distinctive in the setting and relevant to the ongoing activities (male in an all, or mostly, female profession, i.e. beautician)- Self concepts that are distinctive or peculiar in the social setting tend to enter into the situated self (a party could = body image)
  • Week 3

    1. 1. SCY2400-SCY3400Week 3 – The Self & Others<br />Debbie McCormick<br />
    2. 2. This Week<br />Housekeeping<br />Recap Week 2<br />Conclusion of Week 2<br />The Self and Identity<br />Learn something<br />Fun<br />
    3. 3. Housekeeping<br />Unit Reader<br />
    4. 4. Facebook<br /><ul><li>Not an official Monash page
    5. 5. Official notifications posted to Blackboard
    6. 6. Post relevant pictures, links, news</li></li></ul><li>Blackboard<br /><ul><li>Discussion forums
    7. 7. Chat
    8. 8. Calendar
    9. 9. Assignment uploading
    10. 10. Grades</li></li></ul><li>Access Lecture Recordings<br />
    11. 11. What is Social Psychology<br />What is Social Psychology<br />Study of relationships between people with respect to:<br />Individual ‘mental processes’ (psychodynamics) and;<br />Meaning given to experience as it derives from social values/norms<br />Social psychologists are interested in the impact that social environment and interaction has on attitudes and behaviors<br />
    12. 12. Summary<br />A conceptual (theoretical) frameworkis used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to an idea or thought.<br />Social Exchange Theory <br /><ul><li>focuses on the nature of exchanges
    13. 13. What do people get; what do they give?
    14. 14. Who has the power?</li></ul>Social Cognition Theory (today)<br /><ul><li>Actors perceptions, thoughts and
    15. 15. Expectations about self and others behaviour</li></ul>Symbolic Interaction (today)<br /><ul><li>Addresses actual negotiations between actors
    16. 16. What symbolic gestures are used in the interaction</li></li></ul><li>Social Cognition<br />Emphasises the ways in which we think about our social worlds<br />Two fundamental premises:<br />Cognitive mediation = thought intervenes between action and behaviour<br />Because we can’t perceive or use all the information in a situation our minds only process a portion <br />Distinguishes between the ways our thoughts are organised and processed<br />
    17. 17. Activity<br />
    18. 18. Schemas<br />When we enter a situation we need to:<br />Attend to some things in the environment<br />Store some information<br />Retrieve information from long-term memory<br />Info is used to make social inferences<br />Decisions<br />Judgements of probability<br />Evaluations<br />Attributions of causality or assessments of the characteristics of others<br />
    19. 19. Schemas<br />Social Schemas<br />Organised, abstract frameworks of information<br />Repeated experience with people, social roles, or situations allow us to develop expectations of ‘typical’ behaviour<br />We develop schemas about:<br />People and ourselves<br />Social position (gender or race stereotypes)<br />Social roles (parent, student, teacher)<br />Social situations (going to the movies, queuing)<br />
    20. 20. Schemas<br />The schemas we develop are informed and influenced by existing schemas<br />People in different social positions and with different social experiences may develop systematically different schemas<br />Variations lead to systematic differences in the evaluations and judgements<br />
    21. 21. Symbolic Interaction<br />Emphasises the everyday interactions and negotiations that constitute social life<br />Meaning is not inherent in the people or objects a person encounters but is created by the person perceiving them<br />This implies that one of the main tasks of social interaction is to come to a shared definition or common perspective that facilitates the accomplishment of their mutual goals<br />
    22. 22. Symbolic Interaction<br />Symbolic Interaction refers to the nuances of an interaction<br />Symbolic gestures used in interactions include:<br />Sitting or standing <br />Tone of voice<br />Non verbal indications<br />
    23. 23. Summary<br />Social Cognition Theory<br />Actors perceptions, thoughts and <br />Expectations about self and others behaviour<br />Symbolic Interaction<br />Addresses actual negotiations between actors<br />What symbolic gestures are used in the interaction<br />
    24. 24. The Self and Others<br />What is the Self?<br />How does the Self develop?<br />The Social Self<br />Significance of the Social Self<br />
    25. 25. What is The Self?<br />Many different ideas of what constitutes ‘the self’<br />Definition we will use is ‘Individual’s consciousness of his/her own identity’<br />Major theorists of the self<br />Sigmund Freud<br />William James<br />George Herbert Mead <br />Charles Cooley<br />
    26. 26. http://www.jfkukarentownsendpandp.us/class_2_discussion<br />Sigmund Freud<br />Psyche<br />Id, Ego, Super Ego<br />Id –pleasure<br />I want it and I want it NOW!<br />Ego –reality<br />What do I have to do to get what I want<br />Ego develops through socialisation<br />Superego –morality<br />How does what I do affect others<br />
    27. 27. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dU7nG3KvZDA<br />
    28. 28. Activity<br />
    29. 29. The Social Origins of Self<br />Self-schema is produced in our social relationships<br />We seek to understand what others think of us by interpreting their feedback<br />We incorporate these imagined views into our self-schema<br />
    30. 30. Charles Cooley<br />We use others as a kind of mirror in order to construct a self-image<br />Three stages<br />We imagine how we appear to others<br />We observe how others react to what they see in us<br />We develop feelings about ourselves based on the judgements we believe others have made about us<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_looking_glass_self.png<br />Jureidini, R. & Poole, M. (2000) Sociology: Australian Connections, Allen & Unwin St. Leonards<br />
    31. 31. The Development of Self<br />We are born without boundaries<br />We don’t recognise ourselves as being separate from our environment<br />A name becomes an important reference point for distinguishing from others<br />Action is guided by an internal dialogue<br />To facilitate this dialogue, babies need to:<br />Develop an ability to differentiate themselves from other persons<br />Learn to see themselves and their own actions as if through others’ eyes<br />Learn to use a symbol system or language for inner thought<br />
    32. 32. The Self as Source and Object of Action<br />The self is the individual viewed as both the source and the object of reflexive behaviour <br />Reflexive behaviour = behaviour in which the individual who acts and the individual toward whom the action is directed are the same. i.e.<br />plan<br />observe<br />guide<br />respond to our own behaviour<br />
    33. 33. Role Taking<br />Imagining yourself in someone else's shoes<br />Viewing situations from others’ perspectives<br />Role taking facilitates reflexive action – seeing ourselves through others eyes<br />When children are able to understand that others see them as objects they are able to see themselves as objects<br />
    34. 34. Play and the Game<br />Forms of role taking involved in development of self:<br />Play<br />Children imitate the activities of people around them<br />Limited or no concept of actors playing any other roles<br />Game<br />Conceive differentiated roles<br />Requires children to imagine the viewpoint of several others at the same time<br />
    35. 35. The Generalised Other<br />A conception of the attitudes and expectations held in common by the members of the organised groups with whom they interact<br />Imagining what is expected of us as part of a larger group i.e. a football supporter; a gang; ‘society’<br />Children internalise the attitudes and expectations of the generalised other <br />
    36. 36. Role Identities<br />Role Identities are concepts of self in specific roles<br />The meanings attached to the self by the self and others<br />Constructed by observing our own behaviour and the responses of others to us as we enact these roles.<br />Demand actions that are appropriate to that identity<br />I’m a fire fighter<br />You’re a fire fighter!<br /><ul><li>Can be enhanced or limited by social positions available to us in society
    37. 37. Societal expectations don’t strictly dictate our role identities
    38. 38. May be more accurate to say that we ‘shape our roles’</li></li></ul><li>Social Identities<br />A definition of the self in terms of the defining characteristics of a social group<br />Race/ethnicity, nationality<br />Characterisations:<br />can vary according to the group<br />become part of your self<br />What comes first the chicken or the egg?<br />Being in groups creates ‘out-groups’<br />May be an accentuation effect – an emphasis on perceived differences and unfavourable evaluations<br />
    39. 39. Actual Self-Descriptions<br />Responses to ‘Who am I?’ activity reveal three general types of self-description:<br />Role identities<br />Personal qualities<br />Self-evaluations<br />Personal qualities and self-evaluations affect the way we express our role identities<br />
    40. 40. The Situated Self<br />The aspects of the self that enter our awareness and matter to us most depend on the situation<br />Self concepts most likely to enter the situated self are those distinctive in the setting and relevant to the ongoing activities<br />Self concepts that are distinctive or peculiar in the social setting tend to enter into the situated self<br />
    41. 41. Culture and the Self<br />Independent and Collectivist cultures<br />Independent Self<br />View themselves as independent functioning units<br />Define independence as a fundamental task of socialisation<br />Interdependent Self<br />Not a bounded whole<br />Changes its structure with the nature of the social context<br />Internal qualities i.e. abilities or opinions are thought to be situation-specific and unstable, rather than defining characteristics of the self<br />
    42. 42. Culture and the Self<br />Markus, H. R., & Kitayama. S. (1999) Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253.<br />
    43. 43. Culture and the Self<br />Markus, H. R., & Kitayama. S. (1999) Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253.<br />
    44. 44. Summary<br />Development of self<br />Imitation, recognition of separateness<br />Self as a source and object of action (‘I’ and ‘me’)<br />Play and game stage<br />How we construct self-image<br />‘Looking Glass’, reflexivity<br />Role taking<br />Role Identities<br />The role of ‘the other’<br />The Situated Self<br />Culture and Self<br />