Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
SCY2400-SCY3400Week 2 – What is Social Psychology<br />Debbie McCormick<br />
This Week<br />Housekeeping<br />What is Social Psychology<br />Psycho-social factors of behaviour<br />Conceptual framewo...
Housekeeping<br />Unit Reader<br />Useful resources<br />
Facebook<br /><ul><li>Not an official Monash page
Official notifications posted to Blackboard
Post relevant pictures, links, news</li></li></ul><li>Blackboard<br /><ul><li>Discussion forums
Chat
Calendar
Assignment uploading
Grades</li></li></ul><li>Access Lecture Recordings<br />
What is Social Psychology<br />Psychology<br />Acknowledges social and cultural forces<br />Individual is primary unit of ...
What is Social Psychology<br />The ‘Social’<br />Effect of others on individual behaviour<br />The situation (context)<br ...
What is Social Psychology<br />Study of relationships between people with respect to:<br />Individual ‘mental processes’ (...
What is Social Psychology<br />Concerned with a wide range of social topics, including:<br />group behavior<br />social pe...
How could this happen?<br />When someone is in an accident or otherwise needs help, he or she has a better chance of getti...
Social Influence<br />The effects of others behaviour on your actions and decisions<br />Interpretation (Informational)<br...
Evaluation Apprehension<br />Emotional rather than cognitive <br />Concern with what others might think about them<br />Pe...
Diffusion of Responsibility<br />Less people = less diffusion<br />Many of the 38 witnesses of Kitty Genovese’s murder sai...
Other factors<br />Gender<br />Would they have reacted differently if <br />victim and assailant were same gender?<br />Th...
Conceptual (Theoretical) Frameworks<br />A conceptual (theoretical) frameworkis used in research to outline possible cours...
Key principles of behaviourism<br />Reward = encourages behaviour<br />Punishment = discourages behaviour<br />We learn be...
Social Exchange Theory<br />Every human relationship involves the exchange of resources:<br />Material (money, goods)<br /...
Social Exchange Theory<br />Operation of Power<br /><ul><li>Greater control than the other over available rewards and puni...
Need the relationship less
Tables can be turned</li></ul>http://www.funagain.com/control/product?product_id=014054<br />
Social Exchange Theory<br />Gives<br />Gets<br />Time & expertise (P)<br />Time (S)<br />Subservient behaviour (S)<br />St...
Social Exchange Theory – Main Points<br />Facilitates the analysis of behaviour in the context of social interaction<br />...
Social Cognition<br />Emphasises the ways in which we think about our social worlds<br />Two fundamental premises:<br />Co...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Week 2

597 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Week 2

  1. 1. SCY2400-SCY3400Week 2 – What is Social Psychology<br />Debbie McCormick<br />
  2. 2. This Week<br />Housekeeping<br />What is Social Psychology<br />Psycho-social factors of behaviour<br />Conceptual frameworks (Ways of understanding)<br />Social Cognition<br />Social Exchange Theory<br />Symbolic Interaction<br />Fun<br />Learn something<br />
  3. 3. Housekeeping<br />Unit Reader<br />Useful resources<br />
  4. 4. Facebook<br /><ul><li>Not an official Monash page
  5. 5. Official notifications posted to Blackboard
  6. 6. Post relevant pictures, links, news</li></li></ul><li>Blackboard<br /><ul><li>Discussion forums
  7. 7. Chat
  8. 8. Calendar
  9. 9. Assignment uploading
  10. 10. Grades</li></li></ul><li>Access Lecture Recordings<br />
  11. 11. What is Social Psychology<br />Psychology<br />Acknowledges social and cultural forces<br />Individual is primary unit of analysis<br />Evaluates differences in behaviour at functions of:<br />Personality<br />Emotional makeup<br />Aptitude<br />Sociology<br />Acknowledges individual processes<br />Give priority to the impact of social dynamics and social contexts which shape:<br />Cognition<br />Emotional experiences<br />Behaviour<br />
  12. 12. What is Social Psychology<br />The ‘Social’<br />Effect of others on individual behaviour<br />The situation (context)<br />Interactions and exchanges at the micro-level, group dynamics and group development, and crowds at the macro-level.<br />The ‘Psychological’<br />Individual and individual traits/responses<br />
  13. 13. What is Social Psychology<br />Study of relationships between people with respect to:<br />Individual ‘mental processes’ (psychodynamics) and;<br />Meaning given to experience as it derives from social values/norms<br />Social psychologists are interested in the impact that social environment and interaction has on attitudes and behaviors<br />
  14. 14. What is Social Psychology<br />Concerned with a wide range of social topics, including:<br />group behavior<br />social perception<br />leadership<br />nonverbal behavior<br />conformity<br />aggression<br />prejudice<br />
  15. 15. How could this happen?<br />When someone is in an accident or otherwise needs help, he or she has a better chance of getting help if only one other person is present than if several are present. <br />True.<br />Video “The Bystander Effect” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OSsPfbup0ac <br />Three traditional social psychological explanations<br />Social influence<br />Evaluation apprehension<br />Diffusion of responsibility<br />
  16. 16. Social Influence<br />The effects of others behaviour on your actions and decisions<br />Interpretation (Informational)<br />People look to others to assess whether there is an emergency, and if so, what to do about it. <br />If no one else is doing anything then perhaps it’s not an emergency.<br />Social norms (Normative)<br />Social norms prescribe the privacy of intimate relationships.<br />Clark, R. D., III, & Word, L. E. 1972. "Why don't bystanders help? Because of ambiguity." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 392-400.<br />
  17. 17. Evaluation Apprehension<br />Emotional rather than cognitive <br />Concern with what others might think about them<br />People may experience evaluation apprehension when they are part of a negatively stereotyped group and involved in a stereotype-linked activity.<br />http://www.despair.com/connot.html<br />
  18. 18. Diffusion of Responsibility<br />Less people = less diffusion<br />Many of the 38 witnesses of Kitty Genovese’s murder said they assumed someone else had taken action<br />Video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2OdKow7IAuw<br />Latane, B., & Darley, J. 1970. The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn't he help? New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts<br />
  19. 19. Other factors<br />Gender<br />Would they have reacted differently if <br />victim and assailant were same gender?<br />They were different gender?<br />Socioeconomic<br />Would someone have been more likely to respond if the attack occurred in an affluent area?<br />Gender is a central factor in most social situations<br />
  20. 20. Conceptual (Theoretical) Frameworks<br />A conceptual (theoretical) frameworkis used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to an idea or thought.<br />
  21. 21. Key principles of behaviourism<br />Reward = encourages behaviour<br />Punishment = discourages behaviour<br />We learn behaviours by doing or watching, and experiencing consequences<br />Social Learning Theory – individual behaviour<br />Social Exchange Theory - applies these principles to understanding social behaviour<br />
  22. 22. Social Exchange Theory<br />Every human relationship involves the exchange of resources:<br />Material (money, goods)<br />Intangible (status, affection)<br />If balance becomes unequal, disadvantaged partner may exit<br />Key factor is availability of alternatives<br />May remain if alternatives are worse <br />
  23. 23. Social Exchange Theory<br />Operation of Power<br /><ul><li>Greater control than the other over available rewards and punishments = more power
  24. 24. Need the relationship less
  25. 25. Tables can be turned</li></ul>http://www.funagain.com/control/product?product_id=014054<br />
  26. 26. Social Exchange Theory<br />Gives<br />Gets<br />Time & expertise (P)<br />Time (S)<br />Subservient behaviour (S)<br />Status acknowledgement<br />Status enhancement (P)<br />Personal satisfaction (P)<br />Individual tutoring (S) <br />
  27. 27. Social Exchange Theory – Main Points<br />Facilitates the analysis of behaviour in the context of social interaction<br />Answers offered emphasise situated, individual power<br />Method minimises effect of socialstructuresthat may advantage the other<br />Gender<br />Age<br />Occupation<br />
  28. 28. Social Cognition<br />Emphasises the ways in which we think about our social worlds<br />Two fundamental premises:<br />Cognitive mediation = thought intervenes between action and behaviour<br />Because we can’t perceive or use all the information in a situation our minds only process a portion <br />Distinguishes between the ways our thoughts are organised and processed<br />
  29. 29. Schemas<br />Social Schemas<br />Organised, abstract frameworks of information<br />Repeated experience with people, social roles, or situations allow us to develop expectations of ‘typical’ behaviour<br />We develop schemas about:<br />People and ourselves<br />Social position (gender or race stereotypes)<br />Social roles (parent, student, teacher)<br />Social situations (going to the movies, queuing)<br />
  30. 30. Schemas<br />When we enter a situation we need to:<br />Attend to some things in the environment, but not all<br />Store some information, but not all<br />Retrieve information from long-term memory, but not all<br />Info is used to make social inferences<br />Decisions<br />Judgements of probability<br />Evaluations<br />Attributions of causality or assessments of the characteristics of others<br />
  31. 31. Schemas<br />The schemas we develop are informed and influenced by existing schemas<br />People in different social positions and with different social experiences may develop systematically different schemas<br />Variations lead to systematic differences in the evaluations and judgements<br />
  32. 32. Symbolic Interaction<br />Emphasises the everyday interactions and negotiations that constitute social life<br />Meaning is not inherent in the people or objects a person encounters but is created by the person perceiving them<br />This implies that one of the main tasks of social interaction is to come to a shared definition into a common perspective that facilitates the accomplishment of their mutual goals<br />
  33. 33. Symbolic Interaction<br />Symbolic Interaction is the nuances of an interaction<br />Symbolic gestures used in interactions include:<br />Sitting or standing <br />Tone of voice<br />Non verbal indications<br />
  34. 34. Summary<br />Social Exchange Theory focuses on the nature of exchanges<br />What do people get; what do they give?<br />Who has the power?<br />Social Cognition Theory <br />Actors perceptions, thoughts and <br />Expectations about self and others behaviour<br />SymbolicInteraction<br />Addresses actual negotiations between actors<br />What symbolic gestures are used in the interaction<br />

×