PANCHO VILLA5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923Commander of the División del Norte (Division ofthe North.)Led a group of guerrillas that burned the town ofColumbus, New Mexico, and killed a number ofAmericans.Provisional Governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914.Assassinated- 20 July, 1923.
FRANZ FERDINAND18 December 1863–28 June 1914Arch duke of Austria-EsteVisited the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo.Assassinated there with his wifeAssassinated by a group called “The Black Hand.”
ALLIESThe name for the Triple Entente.France, Russia, and Great Britain formed it.Original backbone of the Triple Entente.Italy joined in 1915.Italy joined after other Allies promised to cedeAustro-Hungarian territory to Italy after the war.
CENTRAL POWERSWhen Italy joined the Allies broke up Triple Alliance.Remaining of the former Allies joined with theOttoman Empire.They joined Bulgaria to form the Central PowersOne of the two sides that participated in World WarI.
SUSSEX PLEDGEA promise made in 1916 during World War I byGermany to the United States.Met the foreign-policy goals of both Germany andPresident Wilson by keeping the United States out ofthe war a little longer.
ZIMMERMANN TELEGRAMA 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empireto Mexico to make war against the United States.Declined by Mexico.Angered Americans; led in part to a U.S. declarationof war in April.A coded telegram created by Foreign Secretary of theGerman Empire, Arthur ZimmermannBritish intelligence intercepted the telegram.
WAR INDUSTRIES BOARDA United States government agency established onJuly 28, 1917.Coordinate the purchase of war supplies.Wilson was reluctant at ﬁrst.March 1918, he decided industrial production neededbetter coordination.reorganized and Bernard Baruch was appointed torun it.
BERNARD BARUCHAugust 19, 1870 – June 20, 1965American ﬁnancier, stock-market speculator,statesman, and political consultantAdvised U.S. Presidents Woodrow Wilson andFranklin D. Roosevelt on economic matters.Led WIB
VICTORY & LIBERTY BONDSGovernment borrowed over $20 billion from theAmerican people by selling Liberty Bonds.A war bond that was sold in the United States tosupport the allied cause in World War I.Americans were loaning the government money.Government agreed to repay the money with interestin a speciﬁed number of years.“Liberty Loan sermons” encouraged people to buythe bonds as an act of patriotism.
COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATIONNew government agency.Had the task of “selling” the war to the Americanpeople.Journalist George Creel was in charge of the CPI.He found advertising executives, commercial artists,authors, songwriters, entertainers, public speakers,and motion picture companies.He had these people help sway public opinion in favorof the war.
VLADIMIR LENIN22 April 1870 – 21 January 1924.Leader of the Bolshevik Party.November, 1917, he overthrew the Russiangovernment and established a Communistgovernment.ﬁrst act after seizing power was to pull Russia out ofthe war and concentrate on establishing aCommunist state.Accomplished it by agreeing to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany on March 3, 1918.
TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSKMarch 3, 1918Russia lost substantial territory, giving up Ukraine, itsPolish and Baltic territories, and Finland.Removed the German Army from the remainingRussian lands.Provide some relief to the Bolsheviks, who were tiedup in ﬁghting the Russian Civil War.Independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus,Ukraine, and Lithuania
FOURTEEN POINTSSpeech delivered by United States PresidentWoodrow Wilson to a joint session of CongressBased on “the principle of jus- tice to all peoples andnationalities.”Intended to assure the country that the Great Warwas being fought for a moral cause and for postwarpeace in Europe.Presented to Congress January, 1918.Delivered 10 months before the Armistice withGermany
LEAGUE OF NATIONS1919–1946Precursor to the United Nations.The foundation of President Wilson’s plan for lastingworld peace.Intergovernmental organization founded as a result ofthe Paris Peace Conference.Faced immediate opposition from numerous U.S.lawmakers.
TREATY OF VERSAILLESSigned by Germany on June 28, 1919.One of the peace treaties at the end of World War I.Weakened or discarded many of Wilson’s proposals.Germany was stripped of its armed forces.Germany had to pay war damages to the Allies.
RED SCAREDenotes two distinct periods of strong Anti-Communism in the United States.The fear that Communists would seize power.Began following the Bolshevik Russian Revolution of1917.About worker revolution and political radicalism.The Second Red Scare was from 1947 to 1957.
A. MITCHELL PALMERMay 4, 1872 – May 11, 1936United States Attorney General.Nicknamed The Fighting Quaker.Directed the controversial Palmer Raids.Died from cardiac complications following anappendectomy two weeks earlier.
J. EDGAR HOOVERJanuary 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972.First Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.Critics have accused him of exceeding the jurisdictionof the FBI.Died of a heart attack.Hoover became an increasingly controversial ﬁgurelater in his life and after his death.