Air Barrier: (aka “Building Wrap”) is a plastic-like membrane which is attached to the sheathing of the home and is used to minimize the leakage of air from inside the home to the exterior, and also minimize the infiltration of exterior air to the interior of the home. The air barrier also protects the sheathing, framing, insulation, etc. from condensed water caused by the temperature differential between the exterior and interior.
Attic ventilation: -Soffit Vent: Allows air circulation in the attic by allowing air to escape via the underside of the soffit -Ridge Vent: Allows air to escape the attic through an opening in the roof’s ridge -Gable Vent: Allows air to escape the attic through a louvered vent usually placed in the sidewall of the building, but yet still in the attic area -Roof Turbine: Encourages air circulation in the attic through convection
Soffit Vent The soffit vent is required for this building because there is no other form of attic ventilation (i.e. ridge, gable, turbine, etc.). The air in the attic is allowed to exit through the small perforations in the vinyl soffit panel. This then keeps the attic’s air temperature closer to that of the interior of the home. Because of this, the cost for energy to condition the air in the home will be lower than if the attic were not vented.
Ridge Vent A ridge vent is a small opening in the ridge of the roof which allows the attic air to escape. This is especially effective in warmer climates. When the hot air rises, it escapes the attic. This then brings down the temperature of the attic and thereby lowering the energy costs.
Backhoe: A backhoe is a hydraulically-powered machine used primarily for the excavation of earth. Backhoes will often be seen on a construction site digging the trenches for the footings of the building. A variety of bucket widths are available for the backhoe.
Brick Bond 1 – Running Bond A running course consists of multiple bricks laid in the stretcher position with generally a 3/8” gap between each brick for the mortar joint (or head joint). Vertically, the bricks are staggered.
Brick Bond 2 – Herringbone Pattern (Straight) A herringbone pattern consists of bricks laid in a “basket weave”-type pattern. Generally, a herringbone pattern will be seen laid at a 45° angle. This pattern, however, is laid in the vertical/horizontal position.
Brick Size 1 Modular Brick – 3-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 2-1/4”
Brick Size 2 - Roman Roman Brick – 3-5/8” x 11-5/8” x 1-5/8”
Bulldozer A bulldozer is machine/vehicle used for the mass excavation of earth. With its bucket-like appendage, it shoves material from one location to another until the grading of the site is sufficient for construction.
Wood Shingle/Shake Clad Structure Wood shakes – series of square planks with inconsistent dimensions attached to the sheathing of the structure to form a veneer
Code Requirements – Egress Window IBC Requirements: Min. clear opening of 5.7 SF If on ground floor, min. of 5.0 SF Min. clear opening height of 24” Min. clear opening width of 20” Bot. of clear opening no more than 44” AFF If in basement, window well of 9 SF (36” min. dimension)
This window: 7-1/2” AFF 72” Wide (Double Window) 72” High 36 SF Total (18 Individually) 9 SF clear opening clearance Based on the standards set by the IBC, this window meets code
Concrete Joints -Control Joint: an intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure -Isolation Joint: a joint created between two or more members to allow expansion/contraction and also to isolate them from one another to minimize the effects of the concrete’s cracking in the process of expansion/contraction
Isolation Joint In these pictures, the brick veneer is being separated from the concrete slab. This minimizes the effects of expansion/contraction of the concrete as so not to impede on the brick veneer.
CMU: -(aka “Concrete Masonry Unit”, “Cinderblock”) is a masonry unit composed primarily of concrete and small aggregates. The block typically is used for structural applications such as foundations and load-bearing masonry walls. The most common dimensions of the block are 15-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 7-5/8”. The dimensions of the block directly correlate with those of a modular clay brick. Every 3 brick courses plus 3 mortar joints equals roughly the height of one CMU.
3 masonry units equals the height of one CMU (including the mortar joints)
Transom Transom: small, Usually fixed piece of glass directly above a door Sidelight Sidelight: fixed glass located on either, or both sides of a door
Electrical components - Transformer Transformer: an electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current
Power Pole Pole mounted transformer Electrical lines to service heads
Service Heads Service Head: the point of entry of electricity, from a power pole/transformer, into the residence.
Service Head Electrical lines from power pole/transformer To the electrical meter
Electrical Meter Meter: the means by which electrical consumption is measured. The meter will get its power from the service head. From here, the power is routed to the electrical panel.
Duplex Receptacle Duplex Receptacle: electrical component by which electrical devices can be connected
Framing Elements - #1 Anchor Bolt Anchor Bolt: the anchor bolt provides the physical connection between the concrete slab and the sole plate
Framing Elements - #2 Sill Plate Sole Plate: the strip of wood that lies immediately on top of a concrete or masonry foundation in wood frame construction. This allows for the connection of the floor joists and rim joists.
Framing Elements - #3 Floor Joist Floor Joists: the framing element which supports the load of the subflooring (in this picture, you see the floor joists for the attic)
Framing Elements - #4 Subflooring Subflooring: the framing element which lies directly on top of the floor joists. To this, finished flooring is applied (in this picture, you see the subflooring of the attic)
Framing Elements - #5 Sole Plate Sole Plate: the horizontal piece of dimensional lumber at the bottom of the studs in a wall in a light frame building.
Front End Loader: -typically used to either transport material from one area to a separate vehicle or to transport that load to another area. The front-end loader is used as a means to move materials in bulk from one place to another with efficiency.
Gypsum Board Gypsum Board: an interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces; also called drywall, plasterboard.
Heat Pump: Advantage: Allows exterior air to be conditioned for inside the building. Makes the air inside comfortable (temperature and humidity. Disadvantage: Costly Can be noisy
Compressor Unit: -moves outdoor air across coils containing refrigerant to heat/cool air. The air is then pumped inside to be conditioned
Air Handling Unit: conditions the air for inside the building (temperature, humidity, etc.)
Air Handling Unit Refrigerant lines from compressor/condensor
Batt/Blanket Insulation Batt/Blanket Insulation: assists in preventing heat transfer from exterior to interior or interior to exterior.
Loose fill insulation Loose fill insulation: assists in preventing heat transfer from exterior (the attic in this case) to the interior of the home (and visa versa in the winter).
Foamed Insulation Foamed Insulation: used primarily to fill small cracks where air infiltration might otherwise become an issue. The foam insulation expands on contact to seal any holes/cracks to prevent air infiltration.
Rigid Board Insulation Rigid Board Insulation: generally applied to the exterior of the home rather than the interior. Often used as a face to apply EIFS. Acts in much the same way as the other types of insulation by limiting the amount of heat transfer from one side to the other.
Lintel Lintel: a beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening
Mortar Joint 1: -Tooled, 3/8” joint, commercial building (Home Depot in Tiger Town) Type S Mortar
Mortar Joint 2: Tooled, 3/8” joint, commercial, Type S Mortar
OSB Oriented Strand Board: a building panel composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure