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CASE STUDY ON HOUSING/APARTMENT
BY GROUP D
34 Praman Shrestha.
38 Rajay Bajracharya.
39 Rashmi Gautam.
45 Season Shakya.
48 Yajuna Shrestha.
49 Dev Dahal.
1
HOUSING • Housing is any living spaces for the purpose
of sheltering people. It is also well referred
in construction and assigned usage of
houses or buildings.
• It can be any kind of dwellings, lodging, or
shelter.
• Housing in many different areas consists of
public, social and private housing.
• People can purchase single-family homes,
manufactured homes, apartments and
condominiums. 2
DESIGN METHODOLOGY FLOWCHART
Identifying
the
Problem
Literature
Review
Case
Study
Preparation
of Materials
Site
Visit/Analysis
Conceptual
Designs
Schematic
Designs
Final
Presentation/
Submission
3
Analyzing and
Inferences
Collecting
Data
Selecting
Site/Case
Study
Making
Questionnaire
CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY FLOWCHART
For different levels
like:
-Residents.
-Community.
-Management.
-Designer.
-Developer.
-Accessible ones
where we are
allowed to do the
case study.
-Known residents.
Using Various
methods like:
-Site visit.
-Questionnaire.
-Internet research.
-Evaluating and
report writing.
-Comparing
different aspects.
-Development of
Inferences.
-Conclusion.
4
NATIONAL CASE STUDIES
VINAYAK COLONY
MERO CITY APARTMENTS
5
VINAYAK COLONY
2011
CE CONSTRUCTIONS PVT.LTD
6
PROJECT NAME: Vinayak Colony
DEVELOPERS: CE construction Pvt.Ltd
LOCATION: Sainbu Awas, Bhaisepati,
Karyabinayak municipality, Lalitpur District (200m
from Bhaisepati chowk)
YEAR OF COMPLETION: January, 2008 TO April,
2011
PROJECT TYPE: Multi family, Affordable Housing.
SITE AREA: 5,09,383.5 sq. ft.
NO. OF PLOTS: 183 Housing units and a
community building
INTRODUCTION
7
● Coordinates: 27.65°N, 85.30°E
● Sloppy land
● Houses in the colony are aligned with
the tertiary road of 5m.
● The colony occupies:
○ Land area: 5,09,383.5 sq. ft.
○ Road area: 98,850.35 sq. ft.
(20%)
○ Plot area: 3,75,265.15 sq. ft.
(75%)
○ Open area: 17,968.97 sq. ft. (5%)
8
ROAD AREA OPEN AREA PLOT AREA
LAND DIVISION
● It falls under the planned unit development housing
that doesn't follow the zoning requirements in the
area that are standard for housing developments.It is
owned by the Private sector Developer with
permission from the local government authority to
create a housing development that follows different
standards.
● The colony is spread over 104 Ropanis of land i.e.
5 lakhs 69 thousand five hundred and four square
feet.
● It has two entrances one from the Awas Chhetra
area and one from the Chobar road. There are total
4 gates
● Main colony situated in between Gate 3 and 4 holds
184 houses and additional 19 houses are in between
in Gate 1 and 2. These two are separated by Cross
roads.
9
PUD (PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT)
● The planning is in Grid iron pattern.
● The Houses are arranged along the pattern planned
with setback from all sides of Minimum 5ft setback.
● Larger setbacks have been given at front and back
sides of a house unit.
● Leftover corner spaces are designated as recreational
and landscape spaces.
● Recreational services are far from some houses located
in the other corner.
10
PLANNING
● It consists of 7 types
of housing unit from
Type A to type G
with green pockets
in between and
temple is near the
back entrance. (CE
Real Estate, 2020)
11
PLANNING
Master plan
Community
Building
Temple
12
13
MASTERPLAN
14
HOUSING TYPE – A
15
HOUSING TYPE – B
16
HOUSING TYPE – C
17
HOUSING TYPE – D
18
HOUSING TYPE – E
19
HOUSING TYPE – F
20
HOUSING TYPE – G
OPEN SPACES
● Few open spaces in comparison to its large
land area.
● Only 1.71% out of total land area is landscape
elements.
● Landscape has been done in remaining
residual areas instead of planned landscape.
● Open spaces are given in form of chaitya
square, temple complex and children
playgrounds.
21
22
MULTIPURPOSE BUILDING
OTHER AMENITIES/FACILITIES
● The buildings here are in Contemporary style.
● The units are in different land area and costs according to the
requirements. Minimalist western architecture can be seen with
a suave contemporary look.
● It is modern style with box type architecture played well with
mass and volume with large opening for good light and
ventilation in the interior space.
● Big openings are aesthetically balanced by slit openings.
(Housing Nepal, 2020)
23
ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION
24
● Part of LMC Sainbu, Khokana and Bungamati area covers a
total area of 11.18 Sq.Km. Bhaisipati is growing as a posh,
luxurious residential settlement
● There are 3 routes from the study area to the city or CBD.
○ Route 1 : Primary route (Bhaisipati, Nakkhu,
Bungamati and Khokana to Ekantakuna junction at
ring road )
○ Route 2 : Sainbu (Nakhudole area) across the Nakkhu
River through Kusunti area and connects to
Mahalaxmisthan junction at ring road.
○ Route 3 : Closed to general public
TRAFFIC ROUTE
Jar water and
specially(tanker)
supplied drinking water
Boring water for
household purpose
Boring hole of 300-500m
deep using aquifiers of
waterpump 50mm
diameter
WATER SUPPLY
WATER TREATMENT
Provision of street
lighting
Backup generator &
Mainline via
Transformers
Tractor sent twice a week
by Municipality for solid
waste
While liquid waste is sent
via supply line through
manhole
ELECTRICITY Waste Management
02
01
04
03
02
25
SERVICES
National case study - II
MERO CITY
APPARTMENT
Hattiban, Lalitpur
26
• Location: Hattiban, Lalitpur
• Developer: Royal Orchid Developers
• Construction Date: 2070 BS, operated from 2
years
• Project type: Affordable housing appartment
• Land Area: 11.5 acres
• Appartment Units: 1/2/3 BHK 286 units
INTRODUCTION
27
HOUSING DEVELPMENT
1 2
4 3
The developers of this
housing apartment
project were Royal Orchid
Developers, in the land
located in the Ring road.
The acquisition of the
land for the project was
relatively low-cost and
the thus made it possible
for affordable housing.
It is still on the
development phase,
however it has significantly
made the neighborhood
development and also
benefiting from it.
Reconstruction the bridge
and the construction of
the two apartment towers
are to be carried out by the
developers.
28
MANAGEMENT
• The management committee is elected by the company every 5 years. 5
administration member and 8 staff.
• Repairment and maintenance of the unused apartment is done by the
management. The issues of disputes are settled by the committee
• Pet policy – no new pets allowed, except to those already there.
• The residents ought to ask the permission to add a partition or paint.
• The service charge to each residents is Rs. 2 per s.ft
• Money collected through the committee for maintenance.
29
INFRASTRUCTURES NEARBY
• KU SCHOOL OF ARTS (0.5 km)
• I J PIONEER SCHOOL (82m)
• LA COLLEGE (700 m)
• LA SCHOOL (1.3 km)
• KATHMANDU HOSPITAL (6km)
• NEPAL CANCER HOSPITAL (1.5km )
LOCATION MAP
SITE
30
PLANNING
• The project is designed in a
tower zone planning.
• The apartment tower are
encircled around the setback
lines.
• Amphitheatre is too planned
between the four towers.
(However not yet built)
• The main entrance is through
the bridge (which is damaged
right now )
ENTRANCE
SIDE ENTRANCE
31
MASTER PLAN 32
SITE SECTION 33
AREA ANALYSIS
GROUND
COVERAGE,
1585, 21%
MAIN ROAD,
2598, 34%
GREEN
SPACE, 1510,
20%
UTILITY, 745,
10%
OPEN
SPACE, 1095,
15%
GROUND COVERAGE MAIN ROAD
GREEN SPACE UTILITY
OPEN SPACE
GENERAL INFO
•Area Covered : 15 Ropani
•Road Access : 32 Feet
•Build Up Area : 8 Ropani
FAR AND GROUND COVERAGE
• Land area for tora: 7,535.71 sq.M
• Ground coverage area: 1,585.14
sq.M
• Ground coverage ratio: 21.04%
(per 50%)
• Far: 3.484
-In SQ.M 34
TOWER
A, 395.56,
25%
TOWER
B, 306.57,
19%
TOWER
C, 284.55,
18%
TOWER D
, 271.56,
17%
TOWER E,
326.9,
21%
TOWER A TOWER B TOWER C
TOWER D TOWER E
A
B
D
C
E
FUTURE EXPANSION
• Two apartment towers to be built
• An amphitheater as an public space
• Landscaping Part
-In SQ.M
35
PARKING
BASEMENT PLAN STILT AND SURFACE PARKING LAYOUT
• Basement and surface
parking
• Limited Parking.
• So paid visiting parking
is applied
36
SERVICES
• 50,000 liter per day
consumption
• Use of Rain Water
Harvesting
• No common taps
• Water treatment used
only for the boring.
WATER SUPPLY WATER TREATMENT
• Regular cleaning
• Sewage treatment Plan
• Waste collected in the
open space in the court
area
• Makes a bad visual
sensation
ELECTRICITY Waste Management
02
01
04
03
02
37
• Provision of street lighting
• Backup generator &
Mainline via Transformers
• Company’s own Electrician
and Plumber for any
problems
FIRE HAZARD AND EARTHQUAKE
• The provision of the fire
alarms and fire hose.
• Every unit of the Apartment
Floor.
• No sprinklers
• The project was branded as
the RCC earthquake
Resistant structure.
• Lack of Earthquake
evacuation spaces
Source: Royal Orchid Developers (2015)
38
APPARTMENT UNITS
• Mero city consists of 5 towers with
single bedroom apartments at 377 sq.
ft and going up to two, three bedroom
apartments at 1100 sq. ft.
•Altogether, there are 286 units of
1/2/3 BHK units.
•60% of Apartments are occupied as
of 2 years of habitation.
•Being an affordable housing model,
the room sizes are small and minimal.
39
• The price for the apartment units ranges from smallest (i.e. 1BHK- 358 sq.ft) - 60 lakhs to
3BHK (1 crore 97 lakhs)
•The opening price after the construction was 20 lakhs only.
• 60% of Apartments are occupied as of 2 years of habitation.
40
FACILITIES
• Designed to accommodate the needs of
the entire family, from a play area for the
children to the temple surrounded by the
apartments of nature.
• The different Spaces for Recreational
activities are Basketball, Gym and
swimming pool.
• However many designed spaces like the
Amphitheatre is not yet constructed.
• Provision of 8pcs of CCTV and lockers to
monitor security with the guards.
• New pets are not deemed unallowable.
Playground CCTV
41
ANALYSIS
Cost
Of
living?
Affordability
• The major selling point of this
housing project.
• A model for futuristic vision
addressing the growing
housing demand
Site and surrounding
• Major factor for affordability
is the land (site) purchase.
• The polluted river and the
damaged bridge is the major
issue, however all the
educational institutions,
medical hospitals and
shopping center are nearby
Design & Architecture
• Monotony in design- with the
lack of finishing done in the
structure
• Many of the landscaping and
facilities in the design is not
materialized, making an
uninspiring space.
42
ENTRANCE
• The entrance not visible or well
maintained.
• Since the bridge is now damaged,
the main entry is unavailable.
PEOPLE AND COMMUNITY
• Lack of priority in inclusiveness
• The community is heterogenous
and individualist in nature, with not
much of social event.
• Socially interactive spaces
designed needs to be materialized.
Community Hall
Bridge
Green Spaces
43
INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDIES
ARANYA HOUSING
UNITE D’HABITATION
ARANYA LOW COST HOUSING PROJECT
1989, INDORE INDIA
VASTU-SHILPA FOUNDATION
45
PROJECT NAME: Aranya Housing Project.
DESIGN: Vastu-Shilpa Foundation (B.V. Doshi).
CLIENT: Indore Development Authority (IDA).
LOCATION: Indore, India.
YEAR OF COMPLETION: 1989.
PROJECT TYPE: Multi family, Affordable Housing.
SITE AREA: 85 Hectares (210 Acres).
TOTAL BUILT UP AREA: 100,000 sq.m
POPULATION: 65000
NO. OF PLOTS: 6500
AWARDS: Aga Khan award for Architecture ( 1996)
INTRODUCTION
46
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The Indore Development Authority initiated an
affordable housing project for 60,000 aimed at urban
poor
During 1970 and onward, the emerging need to
house large numbers of people gave rise to various
housing projects.
EFFECT
CAUSE
01 02
It had been estimated that approximately 51,000
families were homeless or living in illegal settlements.
A rectilinear site of 86 hectares was designed to
accommodate over 6500 dwellings, largely for the
Weaker Economic Section.
Previous efforts by the government were aimed at
supplying ready-built units that took long time to
complete, was expensive and required too much
resources
This was an integrated approach for 'a sustainable
society' where the mix of different economic levels
of society could stay together.
47
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
Building homes is about
1. Creating a sense of
belonging,
2. Participatory
involvement
3. The expression of
aspirations,
relationships and
desires
1. Designed for the
city’s economically
weaker sections
(EWS) as well as
slum and street
dwellers
2. Providing a
framework and
access to serviced
land, rather than a
finished house.
AIM OF DESIGN
QUESTION OF OWNERSHIP
DESIGN OBJECTIVE
48
SITE AND SURROUNDING CONTEXT
• SITE AMENITIES: Hospitals,
School, Train Station,
Market, Garden, Offices
• ZONING: Residential,
Commercial, Institutional
and Community spaces
• ACCESIBLE: Delhi-Bombay
Highway towards east(60m
road) MAIN ROAD (30m) in
other three directions
• SITE SELECTION CRITERIA:
Linkage to the city and
employment generated in
the surrounding industrial
areas.
49
CONCEPTUAL
DEVELOPMENT
VITALITY
EQUITY
BASIS
FOR
PLANNIN
G
FLEXIBILI
Y
EFFICIE
NCY
IMAGEABI
LITY
Ideological Basis for Planning Aranya
Evolution of Master Plan
STAGE 1: Plan initially prepared by IDA
STAGE 2: Initial Stage of proposed plan with distributed open spaces
STAGE 3: Later stage of Development with rectified orientation.
STAGE 4: Proposed Master plan
.
50
Where the plot consisted
of provision for services,
a toilet block, and a brick
plinth to build over
Consisted of provision
for services, a toilet
block, and a brick plinth
to build over.
Of the fundamental
needs of people and the
fact that space and
design eventually
revolve around the user
For mixed-income
groups was with an idea
to get them together
From the understanding
Framework of Things
Plot
Integrated Approach
DESIGN APPROACH
51
LAND USE DETAILS
LAND USE AREA (IN
HECTARES)
%
NET PLANNING
AREA
86.24 100
MARKETABLE
PLOT AREA 50.17 58.17
COMMERCIAL
AREA
2.80 3.25
INDUSTRIAL 0.14 0.16
SCHOOL AND
COMMUNITY
5.81 6.74
NON-MARKETABLE
ROAD AREA 20.29 23.52
OPEN SPACES 7.03 8.16
Plan Showing the Zoning of Land Use.
52
SITE PLANNING
Plan showing the division of the sectors via road
network.
• The site is divided into six parts by
the roads.
• Each part/sector has residential
clusters, community spaces, a set of
road networks with services & green
spaces.
• Each sector has residential clusters
of mainly 4 types of housing groups –
EWS, LIG, MIG & HIG.
• The central spine area is meant for
the commercial and institutional land
use.
53
54
ROAD CONNECTIVITY
CLUSTER LEVEL ( EWS )
TOWN LEVEL SECTOR LEVEL
Different Level of Road Connectivity in Aranya
55
HOUSING TYPOLOGY AT ARANYA
Housing Typology in Aranya
56
56
3
PLANNING OF UNITS & INCREMENTAL HOUSING
HOUSING TYPOLOGY & PLANNING OF UNITS
Housing Typologies
Planning of Units 57
3
PLANNING OF CLUSTERS & INCREMENTAL HOUSING
• Incremental housing is a step by step process that is
integral urban development process or building house
communities.
• It is not quick ,immediate or complete but choice
remains with the owner.
• Starts with a starter core shelter which could be a
multipurpose room with kitchen and bathing facilities.
• The owner controls the expansion of their housing
58
3
INSPECTION
CHAMBER
SEPTIC TANK
TOILET UNITS
HOUSE UNITS
SEWER LINE
STORM WATER
Plan Of 4 Cluster Of EWS Showing The Sewer System
SERVICES
SEWER LINE
ELECTRIC LINE
Plan Showing Service lines in the settlement
Section through a street showing the storm water drainage 59
ANALYSIS-KEY FACTORS OF ARANYA HOUSING
1
2
3
4
5
6
Sensitive approach towarsd
society and its tradition al
ways
A conscious response
towards the ecosystem
Relationships
between Human and
Environment
Co-exisence of
functionality and
poetic element
Economic and affordable housing
addressed to the Urban poor
Association of our
lives with culture
60
ALLOWS
1. People to shape
the space
according to
fundamental needs
and lifestyles
2. The house to grow
subjectively,
influencing the
connectivity
INFLUENCES
1. Human and
adaptability
2. Private and
public buffers
3. Indoor-outdoor
relationships
4. Flow of spaces.
FRAMEWORK OF THINGS
61
COMMON BUILDING MATERIALS
Locally available brick,
stone and cement were
used in construction as
per owner’s wishes.
Small diameter shallow
piles with poured
concrete was used,
which made for very
inexpensive foundation
Stone pavement- Internal
Streets/Squares in
Economically Weaker Section
Asphalt pavement- Peripheral
Road with Heavy Traffic
BRICK, STONE, CEMENT
POURED CONCRETE
PAVEMENT
Bright Colors in
Facades
Railings, Grills and
Cornices commonly
seen in Indore houses
DECORATIONS
Details of Indore Houses in Aranya Housing
62
ClimateResponsiveFeatures
CLIMATE RESPONSIVE DESIGN
63
SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT
The house belongs
to the owner
financially physically
and intellectually to
the owners after
hand over
Small courtyards to be
shared families, Larger
green spaces for each of
sectors, s central playing
field to serve the entire
development
OWNERSHIP
HEIRARCHY &
CONNECTIVITY
Emphasis is given on
social structure and life
processes than in the
building technology and
architectural expression
A house is not a
permanent finished
structure but an ever
changing entity shaped
by the lives of the people
SOCIAL STRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE AS A
PROCESS
02
01
04
03
02
64
Interconnectivity and Space Interactions Plots with planned framework to grow
65
1
2
3
4
5
6
The longer side facade is oriented
in the north- south axis to reduce
the solar radiations
two openings on north
and south permit
natural light and cross
ventilation
The houses were
clustered in low rise
blocks.
Co-exisence of Courtyards
within houses, cul-de-sacs,
public squares and small
activity areas sufficiently
shaded
Landscaping and green areas
include flowering and shade giving
trees with thick green ground cover.
Most of the plots were
small in and size
BUILDING TECHNIQUE AND STRUCTURE
66
To have a unified sense of belonging by
including the user in the design process
was an effective and practical approach
towards the housing
Design parameters like
hierarchy, movement, scale were
instrumental in the Master Plan
Growth of houses and the evolution of
spaces were purely out of need and
the lifestyle of families.
1 2
3
Every neighborhood connected
through smaller public spaces and
informal pathways
4
MASTER PLAN
CONNECTION
VISION
GROWTH OF HOUSES
INFERENCES
67
Providing space for organic growth and
movement in users.
Uplift weaker and low-income houses
and transcend the informal nature of
their settlement
This framework maximized the
functionality and usage of spaces in
shared living.
5 6
7
The Project is exceptional for attempts
to meet its socio-cultural as well as
economic purpose
8
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT
EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLE
PLOT FRAMEWORK
FUNCTIONALITY
INFERENCES
68
A Multi-family Housing Project by Le Corbusier
Unité d'Habitation (1952)
69
INTRODUCTION
• Project Name: Unité d'Habitation (Housing
unit in French)
• Designed by: Le Corbusier
• Location: Marseille, France
• Built in: 1947-1952
• Style: Modern
• Project type: Affordable multi family housing
• Land Area: 11.5 acres
• 18 storey slab block structure
• Comprises of 337 apartment Units, housing
about 1600 people
70
SURROUNDING CONTEXT
• Situated in a large park
• So people get views of greenery from the
apartments
• Gardens, Boulevards, Hotels, Nursery
School etc. in site surrounding
Location Map
Aerial View 71
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The bombing of the city resulted
in a substantial rise in houisng
demand
This multi family housing complex
for the masses was built as an
answer to the post-war housing
shortages
Europe was still heavily affected when
Le Corbusier was tasked to design a
multi-family residential
In fact, many people of Marseille were
dislocated in great numbers after the
bombings on France.
Resulting Housing demand
War Aftermath
72
CONCEPTS
A garden city for the
masses that was
affordable
Entire building based on the
measuring units of modulor,
the universal measuring unit
considered by Le Corbusier
MODULOR
Focused on communal
living for all the inhabitants
to shop, play, live, and
come together -unlike villa
construction
VERTICAL GARDEN CITY
AFFORDABILITY
The ocean liner-which housed
fed and entertained
thousands of passengers in a
very restricted space
OCEAN LINER
73
Typical city distribution Vertical city
distribution
PLANNING AND FACILITIES
• The North elevation is completely closed due to the cold winds from that side
• Stands on pillars, leaving space underneath for car and bicycle parking and pedestrian circulation
• Except for the entrance hall with janitor's box and elevators.
Main elevation facing east west axis
165m
24m
56m
74
TYPICAL TWO-LEVEL APARTMENTS
(Interlocking space, central access corridors)
1 – Main Corridor
2 – Entrance
3 – Kitchen
4 – Living Room And Lunchroom
5 – Lunchroom
6 – Double Bedroom
7 – Single Bedroom
8 – Balcony
9 – Void
10 – Double Bedroom
11 – Living Room
12 – Built-in Wardrobe
13 – Bathroom
14 – Shower
SECTION
PLAN
Superior unit
Inferior unit
75
PLANNING AND FACILITIES
• Apartments of 23 types, varying from bachelor
apartments to such for families with 8 children
• Each apartment contains two floors connected with an
interior stair case
• A large window of 3.66 x 4.80 m allows a full view of the
beautiful surrounding landscape
• Height of the modules restricted to 2.3 each floor -the
length of the Modulor Man standing with his one hand
raised
• The apartments, being distributed in pairs on three
floors, need only 5 corridors, called interior roads, one
on every third floor
• They run in the longitudinal axis of the building
Modular Man
76
STANDARD TWO FLOOR FLAT
GARAGES
ENTRANCE & PORTER’S LODGE
INTERNAL THOROUGHFARE
YOUTH CLUBS & WORKSHOP
COMMUNAL LAUNDRY
PUB
HEALTH CENTRE
CHILD CARE CENTRE
GYMNASIUM CAFETERIA
CHILDREN’S PLAYGROUND
CAFÉ & SUN TERRACE
AMENITIES 77
BUILDING MATERIALS
1 2
4 3
The materials selected
are reinforced concrete
and glass (because of the
post-war steel shortage)
with no ornaments
This project offered the
greatness of possibilities
using reinforced concrete
as a natural material.
Thick lead sheets for sound
proofing
Considered as the pioneer
of the Brutalist
architectural style.
The constructive principle
adopted, the so-called
“bottle rack”
78
• There is nothing that we could call a
proper skeleton
• But the system of "Bottles and Bottle-
rack“
• i.e. each apartment is an independent box
of pre-cast concrete having no contact
with its neighbors.
• Suspended with the independent concrete
frame
BOTTLE RACK PRINCIPLE
79
STRUCTURE
Artificial ground basically a
transfer structure
serves no useful purpose other
than complying, dogmatically,
with Le Corbusier’s first point of
architecture
Artificial Floor
Section
Bases of the columns were
‘hinged’ to the pile caps, by
being supported in what were
essentially ‘buckets of sand.’
Columns needed temporary
support for stability until at
least four columns had been
built, together with the linking
transverse and longitudinal
beams
Unnecessarily time
consuming expensive work
Pilotis
Pilotis
Columns were a
complicated u-shape in
section, with a tapering
shape on elevation, thus
needing complex formwork
and reinforcement
80
VERTICAL CITY
Advantage
Greenery around the building
Pilotis provide area under building in
ground floor as well
Disadvantage
limitation to the social life of the inhabitants;
A resident will have little need and less inclination ever
to leave the building at all for days on end
81
• Private Appartment with an
interlocking system of
residential volume
• The units designed the
units to span from each
side having a duplex unit
• Required corridors reduced
to one every three floors
• Very low ceiling height of
2.26m is just too low for
today standards
• The modular was ignored
for many of the interior
dimensions
Bedroom
Bedroom and living rm.
Dining and Kitchen Living Room
INTERIOR DESIGN
82
LIGHTING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM
• Apartment units exceeding from the main body building apartments are covers the whole
floor
• Natural light and ventilation to be permeable in both sides and also surround the
apartments.
83
• Corbusier advocated with the idea
of fixed sunshades which were
made of concrete called as brise
soleils
• This is the intended situation at
noon in winter and summer. (fig a
and b)
• In summer, the sun’s low-angled
rays are intense i.e. brise soleil is
applicable to south-facing façades.
• But the main elevations faces east
and west. Consequently catch the
hot morning and evening sun in
summer- the orientation of the
brise soleil is wrong (a)
(b)
Brise Soleil
Conceptual drawings of Brise Soleil working Mechanism84
CIRCULATION SYSTEM
Corridors run through the centre
of the long axis of every third
floor of the building
The corridors on every third floor
allows access to each flat, like a
jigsaw, 3 emergency staircases
The apartments in the building
all have two floors with their own
internal staircase.
Section showing circulation
ADVANTAGE
Percentage of common
circulation decreased so
more space for private
areas and common
facilities like shops,
restaurants etc.
85
CIRCULATION
DISADVANTAGE
• No natural sunlight in internal corridor
• Energy Inefficient
• Dark(without artificial lights) and Impersonal
• No views to outside
• Can become crowded as single corridor for 3
levels (pandemic situations unsafe)
Section
86
CIRCULATION
DISADVANTAGE
Superior
unit
Inferior
unit
Plan
Section
Living
Room
Bedroom
Have to pass through
bedroom to reach living room
87
Corridor
Escape Route
Plans and Sections
• No effective fire separation
between the different areas
within the apartments
• Maximum escape route
(from a child’s bedroom) over
20 m - normally 9 m and 12 m
FIRE SAFETY
View of Kitchen, Dining and Exit
• No alternative means of escape
• The escape route ends by
passing through the kitchen,
the source of most domestic
fires
88
PUBLIC HEATH REGULATIONS VIOLATION
Kitchen, bathroom, WC and the
children’s bedrooms, the long access
corridors, were entirely dependent on
mechanical ventilation
the minister to Le Corbusier
‘You are free of all restrictions and
above the law…’ Confirmed in July
1949 when the ministry issued a
waiver exempting the project from
the need for a building license
Kitchens and Dining
rooms were nearly
eight meters from a
window
Floor to ceiling height
of only 2.26 m was
less than the legal
minimum
89
Never fully clear
what type of people
it was designed for
Supposed to be a
prototype for housing
worldwide so should be
fit for all
Not designed for the
ordinary
people/workers of
his time
01 02
05
03
Instead for modern
individuals who were a
strange combination
of monk, artist, athlete,
worker and intellectual
04
Who
is it
built
for?
Similar to Le
Corbusier’s carefully
cultivated self image
06
As architects
should be careful to
avoid
90
Inferences
Hardly
newsworthy type
of construction
today
But attracted
global interest at
the time, and can
be seen as one of
the most influential
buildings of the
twentieth century
Has since been
the example for
public housing
across the world
Inspired a new
generation of
architects to think
differently about
social housing
91
COMPARISON
S.
No.
TITLE VINAYAK COLONY MERO CITY
APARTMENT
ARANYA HOUSING UNITÉ
D'HABITATION
1. LOCATION Bhaisepati, Lalitpur.
(NATIONAL)
Mero city, Lalitpur.
(NATIONAL)
Indore, India.
(REGIONAL)
Marseille, France.
(INTERNATIONAL)
2. CLIMATE Sub-Tropical Climate. Sub-Tropical Climate. Tropical Savanna
Climate
Hot-summer
Mediterranean climate
3. TOPOGRAPHY Contour. Flat, By the riverside. Plain, By the highway. Flat.
4. AREA 11.69 acres. 1.88 acres 210 acres. 11.5 acres.
5. NUMBER OF
UNITS
183 305 6500
Plots.
337
6. YEAR OF
COMPLETION
2011 A.D 2013 A.D 1989 A.D 1952 A.D
7. DEVELOPERS/
DESIGNERS
CE construction Pvt.
Ltd
Royal Orchid Developers
Pvt. Ltd
Vastu-Shilpa Foundation
(B.V. Doshi).
Le Corbusier
COMPARISON
S.
No.
TITLE VINAYAK COLONY MERO CITY
APARTMENT
ARANYA
HOUSING
UNITÉ
D'HABITATION
8. PROJECT TYPE Mass housing. Affordable housing
apartment.
Low cost housing for
EWS and slums.
Affordable multi-family
housing.
9. RESIDENT TYPE High Class Middle and High Class. Low, Middle and High
Class.
Low and middle Class.
(War displaced)
10. CONCEPT Minimalist & modern.
Grid iron pattern.
Affordable housing around
Kathmandu.
Tower zone planning.
Social and
experimental housing
designed to adapt to
residents.
Vertical garden city.
11. MATERIALS RCC, Brick, Aluminum,
Tiles,
RCC, Brick, Tile, Marble,
Aluminum, POP
Concrete, Steel,
Bricks, Metals
Pre-cast concrete,
Glass, RCC, Steel
12. SUSTAINABILITY
APPROACH
More or less green
spaces seen in each
unit, solar water heater
Rain water harvesting,.
Sewage treatment plant
Locally available
materials-brick,
stones and cements.
Greeneries around the
site and under the
pilotis area in ground
COMPARISON
S.
No.
TITLE VINAYAK COLONY MERO CITY
APARTMENT
ARANYA
HOUSING
UNITÉ
D'HABITATION
13. AMENITIES Gym, Basketball court,
Community halls,
Swimming pool, Child
playground, Park,
Temple, Shop
Temple, Swimming poll,
Basketball court,
Amphitheater, Child play-
ground, Gym, ATM,
Commercial centre,
school, health centre,
public squares,
playgrounds
Shop, Café, Educational
& Youth club, Gallery,
Hotel, Pub, Gym, Child
care, Health & fitness
center
14. ASPECTS –
POSITIVE
Security, proper
planning, fire hose in
every house.
Affordable, Nearby major
city facilities, Hydrant fire
fighting systems.
Affordable, Climate
responsive design,
Self contained
neighborhood.
Influential building,
Pioneered brutalist
architecture,
15. ASPECTS -
NEGATIVE
Lack of parking &
adequate open space,
sloping entrance &
road, not suitable for
joint family.
Two elevators not enough
for single tower,
Lack of finishing, No
proper entrance, Lack of
socially interactive spaces,
amenities & open spaces.
Model template failed
to inspire the
inhabitants, objective
design approach,
Lack of mechanism
for sustenance.
Limitation of social life,
Low ceiling height, lack
of lighting & fire safety,
Circulation
disadvantage, Public
heath regulations
violation.
• These case studies helped us understand the
different design and planning approach as per
the need, theme, site context and target
groups.
• Inclusion of socio-cultural aspects and
sustainable approach.
• Following the by-laws, policies, acts and
regulation set by the government.
• Architecturally and structurally sound with
pleasing view of not only site but the area/city.
• Also, human component linking physical
development with socio cultural as well as
economic activities.
CONCLUSION
95
SOURCES
•Revisit: Aranya low-cost housing, Indore, Balkrishna Doshi - Architectural
Review (architectural-review.com)
•A--D -- Aranya Housing Project (architectureindevelopment.org)
•Aranya Low-cost Housing by BV Doshi – archEstudy
•Aranya Community Housing - AKDN (the.akdn)
•Unité d’Habitation by Le Corbusier - A Closer Look (artincontext.org)
•A-critical-appraisal-of-the-design-construction-and-influence-of-the-Unite-
dHabitation-Marseilles-France.pdf (researchgate.net)
•Unité d'habitation – Wikipedia
•Case Study_ Unite d’Habitation – İremSümer- TEDUArch (wordpress.com)
•Unité d’habitation - Le Corbusier - World Heritage
•Unite'd habitation, Le corbusier. (slideshare.net)
•Views on Le Corbusier's Unite d’Habitation - Architectural Review (architectural-
review.com)
96
THANK YOU

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Housing/ Apartment Case Study Nepal

  • 1. CASE STUDY ON HOUSING/APARTMENT BY GROUP D 34 Praman Shrestha. 38 Rajay Bajracharya. 39 Rashmi Gautam. 45 Season Shakya. 48 Yajuna Shrestha. 49 Dev Dahal. 1
  • 2. HOUSING • Housing is any living spaces for the purpose of sheltering people. It is also well referred in construction and assigned usage of houses or buildings. • It can be any kind of dwellings, lodging, or shelter. • Housing in many different areas consists of public, social and private housing. • People can purchase single-family homes, manufactured homes, apartments and condominiums. 2
  • 3. DESIGN METHODOLOGY FLOWCHART Identifying the Problem Literature Review Case Study Preparation of Materials Site Visit/Analysis Conceptual Designs Schematic Designs Final Presentation/ Submission 3
  • 4. Analyzing and Inferences Collecting Data Selecting Site/Case Study Making Questionnaire CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY FLOWCHART For different levels like: -Residents. -Community. -Management. -Designer. -Developer. -Accessible ones where we are allowed to do the case study. -Known residents. Using Various methods like: -Site visit. -Questionnaire. -Internet research. -Evaluating and report writing. -Comparing different aspects. -Development of Inferences. -Conclusion. 4
  • 5. NATIONAL CASE STUDIES VINAYAK COLONY MERO CITY APARTMENTS 5
  • 7. PROJECT NAME: Vinayak Colony DEVELOPERS: CE construction Pvt.Ltd LOCATION: Sainbu Awas, Bhaisepati, Karyabinayak municipality, Lalitpur District (200m from Bhaisepati chowk) YEAR OF COMPLETION: January, 2008 TO April, 2011 PROJECT TYPE: Multi family, Affordable Housing. SITE AREA: 5,09,383.5 sq. ft. NO. OF PLOTS: 183 Housing units and a community building INTRODUCTION 7
  • 8. ● Coordinates: 27.65°N, 85.30°E ● Sloppy land ● Houses in the colony are aligned with the tertiary road of 5m. ● The colony occupies: ○ Land area: 5,09,383.5 sq. ft. ○ Road area: 98,850.35 sq. ft. (20%) ○ Plot area: 3,75,265.15 sq. ft. (75%) ○ Open area: 17,968.97 sq. ft. (5%) 8 ROAD AREA OPEN AREA PLOT AREA LAND DIVISION
  • 9. ● It falls under the planned unit development housing that doesn't follow the zoning requirements in the area that are standard for housing developments.It is owned by the Private sector Developer with permission from the local government authority to create a housing development that follows different standards. ● The colony is spread over 104 Ropanis of land i.e. 5 lakhs 69 thousand five hundred and four square feet. ● It has two entrances one from the Awas Chhetra area and one from the Chobar road. There are total 4 gates ● Main colony situated in between Gate 3 and 4 holds 184 houses and additional 19 houses are in between in Gate 1 and 2. These two are separated by Cross roads. 9 PUD (PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT)
  • 10. ● The planning is in Grid iron pattern. ● The Houses are arranged along the pattern planned with setback from all sides of Minimum 5ft setback. ● Larger setbacks have been given at front and back sides of a house unit. ● Leftover corner spaces are designated as recreational and landscape spaces. ● Recreational services are far from some houses located in the other corner. 10 PLANNING
  • 11. ● It consists of 7 types of housing unit from Type A to type G with green pockets in between and temple is near the back entrance. (CE Real Estate, 2020) 11 PLANNING
  • 21. OPEN SPACES ● Few open spaces in comparison to its large land area. ● Only 1.71% out of total land area is landscape elements. ● Landscape has been done in remaining residual areas instead of planned landscape. ● Open spaces are given in form of chaitya square, temple complex and children playgrounds. 21
  • 23. ● The buildings here are in Contemporary style. ● The units are in different land area and costs according to the requirements. Minimalist western architecture can be seen with a suave contemporary look. ● It is modern style with box type architecture played well with mass and volume with large opening for good light and ventilation in the interior space. ● Big openings are aesthetically balanced by slit openings. (Housing Nepal, 2020) 23 ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION
  • 24. 24 ● Part of LMC Sainbu, Khokana and Bungamati area covers a total area of 11.18 Sq.Km. Bhaisipati is growing as a posh, luxurious residential settlement ● There are 3 routes from the study area to the city or CBD. ○ Route 1 : Primary route (Bhaisipati, Nakkhu, Bungamati and Khokana to Ekantakuna junction at ring road ) ○ Route 2 : Sainbu (Nakhudole area) across the Nakkhu River through Kusunti area and connects to Mahalaxmisthan junction at ring road. ○ Route 3 : Closed to general public TRAFFIC ROUTE
  • 25. Jar water and specially(tanker) supplied drinking water Boring water for household purpose Boring hole of 300-500m deep using aquifiers of waterpump 50mm diameter WATER SUPPLY WATER TREATMENT Provision of street lighting Backup generator & Mainline via Transformers Tractor sent twice a week by Municipality for solid waste While liquid waste is sent via supply line through manhole ELECTRICITY Waste Management 02 01 04 03 02 25 SERVICES
  • 26. National case study - II MERO CITY APPARTMENT Hattiban, Lalitpur 26
  • 27. • Location: Hattiban, Lalitpur • Developer: Royal Orchid Developers • Construction Date: 2070 BS, operated from 2 years • Project type: Affordable housing appartment • Land Area: 11.5 acres • Appartment Units: 1/2/3 BHK 286 units INTRODUCTION 27
  • 28. HOUSING DEVELPMENT 1 2 4 3 The developers of this housing apartment project were Royal Orchid Developers, in the land located in the Ring road. The acquisition of the land for the project was relatively low-cost and the thus made it possible for affordable housing. It is still on the development phase, however it has significantly made the neighborhood development and also benefiting from it. Reconstruction the bridge and the construction of the two apartment towers are to be carried out by the developers. 28
  • 29. MANAGEMENT • The management committee is elected by the company every 5 years. 5 administration member and 8 staff. • Repairment and maintenance of the unused apartment is done by the management. The issues of disputes are settled by the committee • Pet policy – no new pets allowed, except to those already there. • The residents ought to ask the permission to add a partition or paint. • The service charge to each residents is Rs. 2 per s.ft • Money collected through the committee for maintenance. 29
  • 30. INFRASTRUCTURES NEARBY • KU SCHOOL OF ARTS (0.5 km) • I J PIONEER SCHOOL (82m) • LA COLLEGE (700 m) • LA SCHOOL (1.3 km) • KATHMANDU HOSPITAL (6km) • NEPAL CANCER HOSPITAL (1.5km ) LOCATION MAP SITE 30
  • 31. PLANNING • The project is designed in a tower zone planning. • The apartment tower are encircled around the setback lines. • Amphitheatre is too planned between the four towers. (However not yet built) • The main entrance is through the bridge (which is damaged right now ) ENTRANCE SIDE ENTRANCE 31
  • 34. AREA ANALYSIS GROUND COVERAGE, 1585, 21% MAIN ROAD, 2598, 34% GREEN SPACE, 1510, 20% UTILITY, 745, 10% OPEN SPACE, 1095, 15% GROUND COVERAGE MAIN ROAD GREEN SPACE UTILITY OPEN SPACE GENERAL INFO •Area Covered : 15 Ropani •Road Access : 32 Feet •Build Up Area : 8 Ropani FAR AND GROUND COVERAGE • Land area for tora: 7,535.71 sq.M • Ground coverage area: 1,585.14 sq.M • Ground coverage ratio: 21.04% (per 50%) • Far: 3.484 -In SQ.M 34
  • 35. TOWER A, 395.56, 25% TOWER B, 306.57, 19% TOWER C, 284.55, 18% TOWER D , 271.56, 17% TOWER E, 326.9, 21% TOWER A TOWER B TOWER C TOWER D TOWER E A B D C E FUTURE EXPANSION • Two apartment towers to be built • An amphitheater as an public space • Landscaping Part -In SQ.M 35
  • 36. PARKING BASEMENT PLAN STILT AND SURFACE PARKING LAYOUT • Basement and surface parking • Limited Parking. • So paid visiting parking is applied 36
  • 37. SERVICES • 50,000 liter per day consumption • Use of Rain Water Harvesting • No common taps • Water treatment used only for the boring. WATER SUPPLY WATER TREATMENT • Regular cleaning • Sewage treatment Plan • Waste collected in the open space in the court area • Makes a bad visual sensation ELECTRICITY Waste Management 02 01 04 03 02 37 • Provision of street lighting • Backup generator & Mainline via Transformers • Company’s own Electrician and Plumber for any problems
  • 38. FIRE HAZARD AND EARTHQUAKE • The provision of the fire alarms and fire hose. • Every unit of the Apartment Floor. • No sprinklers • The project was branded as the RCC earthquake Resistant structure. • Lack of Earthquake evacuation spaces Source: Royal Orchid Developers (2015) 38
  • 39. APPARTMENT UNITS • Mero city consists of 5 towers with single bedroom apartments at 377 sq. ft and going up to two, three bedroom apartments at 1100 sq. ft. •Altogether, there are 286 units of 1/2/3 BHK units. •60% of Apartments are occupied as of 2 years of habitation. •Being an affordable housing model, the room sizes are small and minimal. 39
  • 40. • The price for the apartment units ranges from smallest (i.e. 1BHK- 358 sq.ft) - 60 lakhs to 3BHK (1 crore 97 lakhs) •The opening price after the construction was 20 lakhs only. • 60% of Apartments are occupied as of 2 years of habitation. 40
  • 41. FACILITIES • Designed to accommodate the needs of the entire family, from a play area for the children to the temple surrounded by the apartments of nature. • The different Spaces for Recreational activities are Basketball, Gym and swimming pool. • However many designed spaces like the Amphitheatre is not yet constructed. • Provision of 8pcs of CCTV and lockers to monitor security with the guards. • New pets are not deemed unallowable. Playground CCTV 41
  • 42. ANALYSIS Cost Of living? Affordability • The major selling point of this housing project. • A model for futuristic vision addressing the growing housing demand Site and surrounding • Major factor for affordability is the land (site) purchase. • The polluted river and the damaged bridge is the major issue, however all the educational institutions, medical hospitals and shopping center are nearby Design & Architecture • Monotony in design- with the lack of finishing done in the structure • Many of the landscaping and facilities in the design is not materialized, making an uninspiring space. 42
  • 43. ENTRANCE • The entrance not visible or well maintained. • Since the bridge is now damaged, the main entry is unavailable. PEOPLE AND COMMUNITY • Lack of priority in inclusiveness • The community is heterogenous and individualist in nature, with not much of social event. • Socially interactive spaces designed needs to be materialized. Community Hall Bridge Green Spaces 43
  • 44. INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDIES ARANYA HOUSING UNITE D’HABITATION
  • 45. ARANYA LOW COST HOUSING PROJECT 1989, INDORE INDIA VASTU-SHILPA FOUNDATION 45
  • 46. PROJECT NAME: Aranya Housing Project. DESIGN: Vastu-Shilpa Foundation (B.V. Doshi). CLIENT: Indore Development Authority (IDA). LOCATION: Indore, India. YEAR OF COMPLETION: 1989. PROJECT TYPE: Multi family, Affordable Housing. SITE AREA: 85 Hectares (210 Acres). TOTAL BUILT UP AREA: 100,000 sq.m POPULATION: 65000 NO. OF PLOTS: 6500 AWARDS: Aga Khan award for Architecture ( 1996) INTRODUCTION 46
  • 47. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The Indore Development Authority initiated an affordable housing project for 60,000 aimed at urban poor During 1970 and onward, the emerging need to house large numbers of people gave rise to various housing projects. EFFECT CAUSE 01 02 It had been estimated that approximately 51,000 families were homeless or living in illegal settlements. A rectilinear site of 86 hectares was designed to accommodate over 6500 dwellings, largely for the Weaker Economic Section. Previous efforts by the government were aimed at supplying ready-built units that took long time to complete, was expensive and required too much resources This was an integrated approach for 'a sustainable society' where the mix of different economic levels of society could stay together. 47
  • 48. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY Building homes is about 1. Creating a sense of belonging, 2. Participatory involvement 3. The expression of aspirations, relationships and desires 1. Designed for the city’s economically weaker sections (EWS) as well as slum and street dwellers 2. Providing a framework and access to serviced land, rather than a finished house. AIM OF DESIGN QUESTION OF OWNERSHIP DESIGN OBJECTIVE 48
  • 49. SITE AND SURROUNDING CONTEXT • SITE AMENITIES: Hospitals, School, Train Station, Market, Garden, Offices • ZONING: Residential, Commercial, Institutional and Community spaces • ACCESIBLE: Delhi-Bombay Highway towards east(60m road) MAIN ROAD (30m) in other three directions • SITE SELECTION CRITERIA: Linkage to the city and employment generated in the surrounding industrial areas. 49
  • 50. CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT VITALITY EQUITY BASIS FOR PLANNIN G FLEXIBILI Y EFFICIE NCY IMAGEABI LITY Ideological Basis for Planning Aranya Evolution of Master Plan STAGE 1: Plan initially prepared by IDA STAGE 2: Initial Stage of proposed plan with distributed open spaces STAGE 3: Later stage of Development with rectified orientation. STAGE 4: Proposed Master plan . 50
  • 51. Where the plot consisted of provision for services, a toilet block, and a brick plinth to build over Consisted of provision for services, a toilet block, and a brick plinth to build over. Of the fundamental needs of people and the fact that space and design eventually revolve around the user For mixed-income groups was with an idea to get them together From the understanding Framework of Things Plot Integrated Approach DESIGN APPROACH 51
  • 52. LAND USE DETAILS LAND USE AREA (IN HECTARES) % NET PLANNING AREA 86.24 100 MARKETABLE PLOT AREA 50.17 58.17 COMMERCIAL AREA 2.80 3.25 INDUSTRIAL 0.14 0.16 SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY 5.81 6.74 NON-MARKETABLE ROAD AREA 20.29 23.52 OPEN SPACES 7.03 8.16 Plan Showing the Zoning of Land Use. 52
  • 53. SITE PLANNING Plan showing the division of the sectors via road network. • The site is divided into six parts by the roads. • Each part/sector has residential clusters, community spaces, a set of road networks with services & green spaces. • Each sector has residential clusters of mainly 4 types of housing groups – EWS, LIG, MIG & HIG. • The central spine area is meant for the commercial and institutional land use. 53
  • 54. 54
  • 55. ROAD CONNECTIVITY CLUSTER LEVEL ( EWS ) TOWN LEVEL SECTOR LEVEL Different Level of Road Connectivity in Aranya 55
  • 56. HOUSING TYPOLOGY AT ARANYA Housing Typology in Aranya 56 56
  • 57. 3 PLANNING OF UNITS & INCREMENTAL HOUSING HOUSING TYPOLOGY & PLANNING OF UNITS Housing Typologies Planning of Units 57
  • 58. 3 PLANNING OF CLUSTERS & INCREMENTAL HOUSING • Incremental housing is a step by step process that is integral urban development process or building house communities. • It is not quick ,immediate or complete but choice remains with the owner. • Starts with a starter core shelter which could be a multipurpose room with kitchen and bathing facilities. • The owner controls the expansion of their housing 58
  • 59. 3 INSPECTION CHAMBER SEPTIC TANK TOILET UNITS HOUSE UNITS SEWER LINE STORM WATER Plan Of 4 Cluster Of EWS Showing The Sewer System SERVICES SEWER LINE ELECTRIC LINE Plan Showing Service lines in the settlement Section through a street showing the storm water drainage 59
  • 60. ANALYSIS-KEY FACTORS OF ARANYA HOUSING 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sensitive approach towarsd society and its tradition al ways A conscious response towards the ecosystem Relationships between Human and Environment Co-exisence of functionality and poetic element Economic and affordable housing addressed to the Urban poor Association of our lives with culture 60
  • 61. ALLOWS 1. People to shape the space according to fundamental needs and lifestyles 2. The house to grow subjectively, influencing the connectivity INFLUENCES 1. Human and adaptability 2. Private and public buffers 3. Indoor-outdoor relationships 4. Flow of spaces. FRAMEWORK OF THINGS 61
  • 62. COMMON BUILDING MATERIALS Locally available brick, stone and cement were used in construction as per owner’s wishes. Small diameter shallow piles with poured concrete was used, which made for very inexpensive foundation Stone pavement- Internal Streets/Squares in Economically Weaker Section Asphalt pavement- Peripheral Road with Heavy Traffic BRICK, STONE, CEMENT POURED CONCRETE PAVEMENT Bright Colors in Facades Railings, Grills and Cornices commonly seen in Indore houses DECORATIONS Details of Indore Houses in Aranya Housing 62
  • 64. SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT The house belongs to the owner financially physically and intellectually to the owners after hand over Small courtyards to be shared families, Larger green spaces for each of sectors, s central playing field to serve the entire development OWNERSHIP HEIRARCHY & CONNECTIVITY Emphasis is given on social structure and life processes than in the building technology and architectural expression A house is not a permanent finished structure but an ever changing entity shaped by the lives of the people SOCIAL STRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE AS A PROCESS 02 01 04 03 02 64
  • 65. Interconnectivity and Space Interactions Plots with planned framework to grow 65
  • 66. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The longer side facade is oriented in the north- south axis to reduce the solar radiations two openings on north and south permit natural light and cross ventilation The houses were clustered in low rise blocks. Co-exisence of Courtyards within houses, cul-de-sacs, public squares and small activity areas sufficiently shaded Landscaping and green areas include flowering and shade giving trees with thick green ground cover. Most of the plots were small in and size BUILDING TECHNIQUE AND STRUCTURE 66
  • 67. To have a unified sense of belonging by including the user in the design process was an effective and practical approach towards the housing Design parameters like hierarchy, movement, scale were instrumental in the Master Plan Growth of houses and the evolution of spaces were purely out of need and the lifestyle of families. 1 2 3 Every neighborhood connected through smaller public spaces and informal pathways 4 MASTER PLAN CONNECTION VISION GROWTH OF HOUSES INFERENCES 67
  • 68. Providing space for organic growth and movement in users. Uplift weaker and low-income houses and transcend the informal nature of their settlement This framework maximized the functionality and usage of spaces in shared living. 5 6 7 The Project is exceptional for attempts to meet its socio-cultural as well as economic purpose 8 SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLE PLOT FRAMEWORK FUNCTIONALITY INFERENCES 68
  • 69. A Multi-family Housing Project by Le Corbusier Unité d'Habitation (1952) 69
  • 70. INTRODUCTION • Project Name: Unité d'Habitation (Housing unit in French) • Designed by: Le Corbusier • Location: Marseille, France • Built in: 1947-1952 • Style: Modern • Project type: Affordable multi family housing • Land Area: 11.5 acres • 18 storey slab block structure • Comprises of 337 apartment Units, housing about 1600 people 70
  • 71. SURROUNDING CONTEXT • Situated in a large park • So people get views of greenery from the apartments • Gardens, Boulevards, Hotels, Nursery School etc. in site surrounding Location Map Aerial View 71
  • 72. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The bombing of the city resulted in a substantial rise in houisng demand This multi family housing complex for the masses was built as an answer to the post-war housing shortages Europe was still heavily affected when Le Corbusier was tasked to design a multi-family residential In fact, many people of Marseille were dislocated in great numbers after the bombings on France. Resulting Housing demand War Aftermath 72
  • 73. CONCEPTS A garden city for the masses that was affordable Entire building based on the measuring units of modulor, the universal measuring unit considered by Le Corbusier MODULOR Focused on communal living for all the inhabitants to shop, play, live, and come together -unlike villa construction VERTICAL GARDEN CITY AFFORDABILITY The ocean liner-which housed fed and entertained thousands of passengers in a very restricted space OCEAN LINER 73
  • 74. Typical city distribution Vertical city distribution PLANNING AND FACILITIES • The North elevation is completely closed due to the cold winds from that side • Stands on pillars, leaving space underneath for car and bicycle parking and pedestrian circulation • Except for the entrance hall with janitor's box and elevators. Main elevation facing east west axis 165m 24m 56m 74
  • 75. TYPICAL TWO-LEVEL APARTMENTS (Interlocking space, central access corridors) 1 – Main Corridor 2 – Entrance 3 – Kitchen 4 – Living Room And Lunchroom 5 – Lunchroom 6 – Double Bedroom 7 – Single Bedroom 8 – Balcony 9 – Void 10 – Double Bedroom 11 – Living Room 12 – Built-in Wardrobe 13 – Bathroom 14 – Shower SECTION PLAN Superior unit Inferior unit 75
  • 76. PLANNING AND FACILITIES • Apartments of 23 types, varying from bachelor apartments to such for families with 8 children • Each apartment contains two floors connected with an interior stair case • A large window of 3.66 x 4.80 m allows a full view of the beautiful surrounding landscape • Height of the modules restricted to 2.3 each floor -the length of the Modulor Man standing with his one hand raised • The apartments, being distributed in pairs on three floors, need only 5 corridors, called interior roads, one on every third floor • They run in the longitudinal axis of the building Modular Man 76
  • 77. STANDARD TWO FLOOR FLAT GARAGES ENTRANCE & PORTER’S LODGE INTERNAL THOROUGHFARE YOUTH CLUBS & WORKSHOP COMMUNAL LAUNDRY PUB HEALTH CENTRE CHILD CARE CENTRE GYMNASIUM CAFETERIA CHILDREN’S PLAYGROUND CAFÉ & SUN TERRACE AMENITIES 77
  • 78. BUILDING MATERIALS 1 2 4 3 The materials selected are reinforced concrete and glass (because of the post-war steel shortage) with no ornaments This project offered the greatness of possibilities using reinforced concrete as a natural material. Thick lead sheets for sound proofing Considered as the pioneer of the Brutalist architectural style. The constructive principle adopted, the so-called “bottle rack” 78
  • 79. • There is nothing that we could call a proper skeleton • But the system of "Bottles and Bottle- rack“ • i.e. each apartment is an independent box of pre-cast concrete having no contact with its neighbors. • Suspended with the independent concrete frame BOTTLE RACK PRINCIPLE 79
  • 80. STRUCTURE Artificial ground basically a transfer structure serves no useful purpose other than complying, dogmatically, with Le Corbusier’s first point of architecture Artificial Floor Section Bases of the columns were ‘hinged’ to the pile caps, by being supported in what were essentially ‘buckets of sand.’ Columns needed temporary support for stability until at least four columns had been built, together with the linking transverse and longitudinal beams Unnecessarily time consuming expensive work Pilotis Pilotis Columns were a complicated u-shape in section, with a tapering shape on elevation, thus needing complex formwork and reinforcement 80
  • 81. VERTICAL CITY Advantage Greenery around the building Pilotis provide area under building in ground floor as well Disadvantage limitation to the social life of the inhabitants; A resident will have little need and less inclination ever to leave the building at all for days on end 81
  • 82. • Private Appartment with an interlocking system of residential volume • The units designed the units to span from each side having a duplex unit • Required corridors reduced to one every three floors • Very low ceiling height of 2.26m is just too low for today standards • The modular was ignored for many of the interior dimensions Bedroom Bedroom and living rm. Dining and Kitchen Living Room INTERIOR DESIGN 82
  • 83. LIGHTING AND VENTILATION SYSTEM • Apartment units exceeding from the main body building apartments are covers the whole floor • Natural light and ventilation to be permeable in both sides and also surround the apartments. 83
  • 84. • Corbusier advocated with the idea of fixed sunshades which were made of concrete called as brise soleils • This is the intended situation at noon in winter and summer. (fig a and b) • In summer, the sun’s low-angled rays are intense i.e. brise soleil is applicable to south-facing façades. • But the main elevations faces east and west. Consequently catch the hot morning and evening sun in summer- the orientation of the brise soleil is wrong (a) (b) Brise Soleil Conceptual drawings of Brise Soleil working Mechanism84
  • 85. CIRCULATION SYSTEM Corridors run through the centre of the long axis of every third floor of the building The corridors on every third floor allows access to each flat, like a jigsaw, 3 emergency staircases The apartments in the building all have two floors with their own internal staircase. Section showing circulation ADVANTAGE Percentage of common circulation decreased so more space for private areas and common facilities like shops, restaurants etc. 85
  • 86. CIRCULATION DISADVANTAGE • No natural sunlight in internal corridor • Energy Inefficient • Dark(without artificial lights) and Impersonal • No views to outside • Can become crowded as single corridor for 3 levels (pandemic situations unsafe) Section 86
  • 88. Corridor Escape Route Plans and Sections • No effective fire separation between the different areas within the apartments • Maximum escape route (from a child’s bedroom) over 20 m - normally 9 m and 12 m FIRE SAFETY View of Kitchen, Dining and Exit • No alternative means of escape • The escape route ends by passing through the kitchen, the source of most domestic fires 88
  • 89. PUBLIC HEATH REGULATIONS VIOLATION Kitchen, bathroom, WC and the children’s bedrooms, the long access corridors, were entirely dependent on mechanical ventilation the minister to Le Corbusier ‘You are free of all restrictions and above the law…’ Confirmed in July 1949 when the ministry issued a waiver exempting the project from the need for a building license Kitchens and Dining rooms were nearly eight meters from a window Floor to ceiling height of only 2.26 m was less than the legal minimum 89
  • 90. Never fully clear what type of people it was designed for Supposed to be a prototype for housing worldwide so should be fit for all Not designed for the ordinary people/workers of his time 01 02 05 03 Instead for modern individuals who were a strange combination of monk, artist, athlete, worker and intellectual 04 Who is it built for? Similar to Le Corbusier’s carefully cultivated self image 06 As architects should be careful to avoid 90
  • 91. Inferences Hardly newsworthy type of construction today But attracted global interest at the time, and can be seen as one of the most influential buildings of the twentieth century Has since been the example for public housing across the world Inspired a new generation of architects to think differently about social housing 91
  • 92. COMPARISON S. No. TITLE VINAYAK COLONY MERO CITY APARTMENT ARANYA HOUSING UNITÉ D'HABITATION 1. LOCATION Bhaisepati, Lalitpur. (NATIONAL) Mero city, Lalitpur. (NATIONAL) Indore, India. (REGIONAL) Marseille, France. (INTERNATIONAL) 2. CLIMATE Sub-Tropical Climate. Sub-Tropical Climate. Tropical Savanna Climate Hot-summer Mediterranean climate 3. TOPOGRAPHY Contour. Flat, By the riverside. Plain, By the highway. Flat. 4. AREA 11.69 acres. 1.88 acres 210 acres. 11.5 acres. 5. NUMBER OF UNITS 183 305 6500 Plots. 337 6. YEAR OF COMPLETION 2011 A.D 2013 A.D 1989 A.D 1952 A.D 7. DEVELOPERS/ DESIGNERS CE construction Pvt. Ltd Royal Orchid Developers Pvt. Ltd Vastu-Shilpa Foundation (B.V. Doshi). Le Corbusier
  • 93. COMPARISON S. No. TITLE VINAYAK COLONY MERO CITY APARTMENT ARANYA HOUSING UNITÉ D'HABITATION 8. PROJECT TYPE Mass housing. Affordable housing apartment. Low cost housing for EWS and slums. Affordable multi-family housing. 9. RESIDENT TYPE High Class Middle and High Class. Low, Middle and High Class. Low and middle Class. (War displaced) 10. CONCEPT Minimalist & modern. Grid iron pattern. Affordable housing around Kathmandu. Tower zone planning. Social and experimental housing designed to adapt to residents. Vertical garden city. 11. MATERIALS RCC, Brick, Aluminum, Tiles, RCC, Brick, Tile, Marble, Aluminum, POP Concrete, Steel, Bricks, Metals Pre-cast concrete, Glass, RCC, Steel 12. SUSTAINABILITY APPROACH More or less green spaces seen in each unit, solar water heater Rain water harvesting,. Sewage treatment plant Locally available materials-brick, stones and cements. Greeneries around the site and under the pilotis area in ground
  • 94. COMPARISON S. No. TITLE VINAYAK COLONY MERO CITY APARTMENT ARANYA HOUSING UNITÉ D'HABITATION 13. AMENITIES Gym, Basketball court, Community halls, Swimming pool, Child playground, Park, Temple, Shop Temple, Swimming poll, Basketball court, Amphitheater, Child play- ground, Gym, ATM, Commercial centre, school, health centre, public squares, playgrounds Shop, Café, Educational & Youth club, Gallery, Hotel, Pub, Gym, Child care, Health & fitness center 14. ASPECTS – POSITIVE Security, proper planning, fire hose in every house. Affordable, Nearby major city facilities, Hydrant fire fighting systems. Affordable, Climate responsive design, Self contained neighborhood. Influential building, Pioneered brutalist architecture, 15. ASPECTS - NEGATIVE Lack of parking & adequate open space, sloping entrance & road, not suitable for joint family. Two elevators not enough for single tower, Lack of finishing, No proper entrance, Lack of socially interactive spaces, amenities & open spaces. Model template failed to inspire the inhabitants, objective design approach, Lack of mechanism for sustenance. Limitation of social life, Low ceiling height, lack of lighting & fire safety, Circulation disadvantage, Public heath regulations violation.
  • 95. • These case studies helped us understand the different design and planning approach as per the need, theme, site context and target groups. • Inclusion of socio-cultural aspects and sustainable approach. • Following the by-laws, policies, acts and regulation set by the government. • Architecturally and structurally sound with pleasing view of not only site but the area/city. • Also, human component linking physical development with socio cultural as well as economic activities. CONCLUSION 95
  • 96. SOURCES •Revisit: Aranya low-cost housing, Indore, Balkrishna Doshi - Architectural Review (architectural-review.com) •A--D -- Aranya Housing Project (architectureindevelopment.org) •Aranya Low-cost Housing by BV Doshi – archEstudy •Aranya Community Housing - AKDN (the.akdn) •Unité d’Habitation by Le Corbusier - A Closer Look (artincontext.org) •A-critical-appraisal-of-the-design-construction-and-influence-of-the-Unite- dHabitation-Marseilles-France.pdf (researchgate.net) •Unité d'habitation – Wikipedia •Case Study_ Unite d’Habitation – İremSümer- TEDUArch (wordpress.com) •Unité d’habitation - Le Corbusier - World Heritage •Unite'd habitation, Le corbusier. (slideshare.net) •Views on Le Corbusier's Unite d’Habitation - Architectural Review (architectural- review.com) 96