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Heritage Tourism

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Heritage Tourism

  1. 1. Heritage Tourism: Historic Resources Walkable to Atlanta’s Public Transit Sean Yates PMAP 8651 12/7/2016
  2. 2. Acknowledgements I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Ann-Margaret Esnard of Georgia State University. She has provided the knowledge to perform the tasks necessary to complete this project. She was happy to answer any questions along the way.
  3. 3. Abstract Heritage tourism is “traveling to experience the places, artifacts, and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present. It includes visitation to cultural, historic, and natural resources,” as defined by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.1 Heritage tourists tend to stay longer and spend more money on their vacations.2 Atlanta City Landmarks are properties that have been designated by the city as being individually historically significant. These properties are the most prominent examples of Atlanta’s historic built environment. These are the sites that define who we are and where we have come from. Most importantly, these are the face of our city. This report examines the proximity of Atlanta City Landmarks to public transit. All landmarks within a quarter mile (generally accepted as walking distance) of MARTA and Atlanta Streetcar stops are portrayed on map layouts. Further spatial analysis is portrayed, such as land use and population density. Together, these maps and analysis give an overview of Atlanta’s walkable historic resources. 1 https://savingplaces.org/stories/preservation-glossary-todays-word-heritage- tourism#.WEBmLqIrKRs 2 http://www.georgiashpo.org/sites/uploads/hpd/pdf/Heritage_Tourism_Handbook_revised.pdf
  4. 4. Introduction Heritage Tourism is tourism based off historic and cultural sites such as historic houses, districts, theaters, courthouses, museums and more. This project displays all Atlanta City Landmarks within ¼ mile of MARTA stations and Atlanta Streetcar stops. This allows heritage tourists to theoretically visit sites from the Atlanta Airport without ever having to be in a car. This could be helpful for someone on a layover in Atlanta that is interested in our historic built environment. Further, this could be a major marketing tool for tourism-related organizations in Atlanta. This is a unique idea that has yet to be fully developed and presented to the public. The goal is to eventually have an informative, readable map to guide tourists to historic hot spots near public transit stops in the city limits of Atlanta. The geographic area of interest in confined to only the city limits of Atlanta. Someone on a layover in Atlanta likely does not have the time or interest to meander up to North Springs or out to Decatur. Atlanta City Landmarks within ¼ mile from stops are displayed on a large map. Other maps will show things to better understand the areas, such as population density and land use. These inset maps will portray how these historic resources relate to their surroundings and help travellers determine what kinds of areas they’re most interested in visiting.
  5. 5. The expected outcome is to provide a useful guide for those interested in heritage tourism that do not wish to travel by car in Atlanta. There are plenty of historic walking tours already established in the city of Atlanta, but this is a unique idea that has yet to be completed. Methodology This project was chosen for a litany of reasons. Atlanta is notoriously poor at preserving its historic built environment, and this is a way to concisely portray what we have left. It could also be developed into a great marketing tool for tourism and/or historic preservation efforts. Atlanta is known as a city that has historically been almost entirely centered around automobile traffic. This project attempts to circumvent this and give reasonable alternatives for exploring our cultural and physical heritage. Data Sources • American Fact Finder [http://factfinder.census.gov]: 2015 Population Estimates. [This dataset is merely a table that was joined with the 2015 Census Tracts dataset below.]
  6. 6. • Atlanta Department of Planning and Community Development GIS [http://gis.atlantaga.gov]: Atlanta City Limits, Historic Districts, Landmark Building Site, Parks. [These datasets were originally in GCS WGS 1984.] • Atlanta Regional Commission Open GIS [http://opendata.atlantaregional.com]: Parcels, Transit Rail Stations, Transit Stops 2015. [These datasets were originally in NAD83 Georgia West Ft US.] • Fulton County GIS [http://www.fultoncountyga.gov/fcgis-home]: Street Centerlines for Fulton County, Georgia. [This dataset was originally in NAD 1983 StatePlane Georgia West FIPS 1002 Feet.] • U.S. Census Bureau TIGER/Line Shapefiles [https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/tiger-line.html]: 2015 Census Tracts. [This dataset was originally in GCS North American 1983.]
  7. 7. Analytical Procedures The following steps were performed to achieve the results of this project: Layout 1 [MARTA-centric layout]: • Data was acquired via channels in the preceding section • Data that was not already in NAD 1983 StatePlane Georgia West FIPS 1002 Feet were converted to that projection. Some of the data were originally in GCS projection. For the purposes of this project, StatePlane projection will portray more accurate results than GCS, as we are focusing exclusively on the City of Atlanta. • The following data sets were used in this layout: Atlanta City Limits, Historic Districts, Landmark Building Sites [from Atlanta Department of Planning and Community Development GIS], Transit Rail Stations and Transit Stops 2015 [from Atlanta Regional Commission Open GIS]. • The Transit Rail Stations [MARTA] layer was clipped to fall inside the Atlanta City Limits layer. • The Transit Stops 2015 layer originally included all bus stops. The Select by Attribute function was used to select only Atlanta Streetcar stops, and then I created a new layer with only these Atlanta Streetcar stops [while deleting the previous Transit Stops 2015 layer].
  8. 8. • The Landmark Building Site layer was originally polygons, and these were changed to points using the Feature to Point Tool in the ArcToolbox. • The Select by Location function was used to select only those Atlanta Landmarks which are located within ¼ mile of MARTA stations or Atlanta Streetcar stops. A new layer was created with these results and the previous layer was deleted. • A ¼ mile buffer around MARTA stations was created using the Buffer tool. • The label features were turned on for the following layers: Historic Districts, MARTA Stations and Atlanta City Landmarks. • To avoid clutter, the Atlanta City Landmarks labels were converted to numbers from 1 to 30, and an accompanying table was created using information (Building Name and Address) from the attribute table. Layout 2 [Atlanta Streetcar-centric layout]: • The following data sets were used in this layout: Atlanta City Limits, Historic Districts, Landmark Building Sites [from Atlanta Department of Planning and Community Development GIS], Transit Stops 2015 (edited version from Layout 1) [from Atlanta Regional Commission Open GIS] and Street Centerlines [from Fulton County GIS]. • The label features were turned on for the following layers: Historic Districts, Landmark Building Sites, Transit Stops 2015 and Street Centerlines.
  9. 9. • The Street Centerlines labels were converted to annotation and many of the labels (of less important streets) were deleted to prevent clutter. • The transparency for the Street Centerlines layer was turned up to 75% to make the layer less prominent (mostly used for reference). • The Select by Location function was used to select only those Atlanta Landmarks which are located within ¼ of Atlanta Streetcar stops (Transit Stops 2015 layer). A new layer was created with these results and the previous layer was deleted. Layout 3 [Land Use]: • All of the layers from Layout 1 (except for the Buffer layer) were copied to this layout. • Additionally, the Parcels data set [from Atlanta Regional Commission Open GIS] was added. • The Select by Attribute function was used (in consultation with the Land Use Codes sheet supplied by Fulton County GIS) to select land uses (such as Universities, Hospitals, Restaurants, Residential, etc.) and then create layers with each of them. Similar land uses (such as Residential 1 Family and Residential 2 Family) were grouped together as a single layer. Layout 4 [Population Density]:
  10. 10. • All of the layers from Layout 1 (except for the Buffer and Historic District layers) were copied to this layout. • In addition, the 2015 Population Estimates [from American Fact Finder] and 2015 Census Tracts [U.S. Census Bureau TIGER/Line Shapefiles] data sets were added. These two layers were then joined together via the Join function. • Only the MARTA stations layer had the label features turned on. • Two new fields were created in the 2015 Census Tracts layer: Area and Population Density. Area was calculated using the Calculate Geometry function in the Attribute Table. Next, Population Density was calculated using the Field Calculator [Population/Area]. • Population Density was then portrayed using Natural Breaks (Jenks) classification.
  11. 11. Results (maps, tables, etc.) Layout 1 * Please see table below for more information on landmarks.
  12. 12. Table 1 [Landmarks]: Number Name Address 1 Flatiron Building 84 Peachtree Street, NW 2 Windsor House Apartments 979 Crescent Avenue, NW 3 Feebeck Hall 96 Armstrong Street, NE 4 Georgia Hall 36 Butler Street, NE 5 Hirsch Hall 55 Coca Cola Place, NE 6 Steiner Clinic 62 Butler Street, NE 7 Central Presbyterian Church 201 Washington Street, SW 8 Commercial Row 990 Peachtree Street, NE 9 Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus 325 Peachtree Center Avenue, NE 10 Palmer House Apartments 952 Peachtree Street, NW 11 The Castle 87 15th Street, NW 12 Academy of Medicine 875 West Peachtree Street, NW 13 Rufus M. Rose House 537 Peachtree Street, NW 14 Imperial Hotel 355 Peachtree Street, NE 15 Georgian Terrace Hotel 659 Peachtree Street, NE 16 Carnegie Building 141 Carnegie Way, NW 17 First Congregational Church 115 Courtland Street, NE 18 Rhodes-Haverty Building 134 Peachtree Street, NW 19 Candler Building 127 Peachtree Street, NE 20 Haas-Howell Building 75 Poplar Street, NW 21 Herndon Home 587 University Place, SW 22 C&S National Bank Building 35 Broad Street, NW 23 Ten Park Place Building 10 Park Place, NE 24 Dixie Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Plant 125 Edgewood Avenue, NE 25 Olympia Building 23 Peachtree Street, NE 26 Hurt Building 45 Edgewood Avenue, NE 27 Ponce de Leon Apartments 75 Ponce de Leon Avenue, NE 28 Fox Theater 660 Peachtree Street, NW 29 Healey Building 57 Forsyth Street, NW 30 W.W. Orr Doctors Building 478 Peachtree Street, NW
  13. 13. Layout 2
  14. 14. Layout 3
  15. 15. Layout 4
  16. 16. Discussion and Conclusions One can easily discern several things from the preceding map layouts. Of all Atlanta City Landmarks within ¼ mile of MARTA stations and Atlanta Streetcar stops, almost all lay between the Five Points MARTA station and Arts Center MARTA station on the Red/Gold (north/south) Line. Perhaps this should be evident, as this is the area of the original period of development for the city of Atlanta. This is also the area that houses that traditional “downtown” of the city. From examining the other maps, one can see that the population density is greatest near the Midtown and North Avenue MARTA stations. Comparing this with the land use map, one can tell why this is the case. South of the Midtown and North Avenue MARTA stations consists of largely commercial, hotel, restaurant and institutional land uses. While this area is very dense, it is not very densely populated. Limitations and Next Steps While these map layouts do portray much information, there is much more to be gleaned from physically observing these landmarks and their surroundings in the real world. Observing each of the landmarks was not a feasible step for this project. Next steps would include actually observing the landmarks and neighborhoods to
  17. 17. determine walkability based on the presence and condition of sidewalks, crosswalks and visibility of the landmarks from the street level. With this information, this project could then be developed into something more marketable for tourism purposes.
  18. 18. References • Atlanta Department of Planning and Community Development GIS [http://gis.atlantaga.gov/]. • Atlanta Regional Commission Open GIS [http://opendata.atlantaregional.com/]. • Fulton County GIS [http://www.fultoncountyga.gov/fcgis-home]. • Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Historic Preservation Division, Heritage Tourism Handbook [http://www.georgiashpo.org/sites/uploads/hpd/pdf/Heritage_Tourism_Ha ndbook_revised.pdf]. • Getting to Know ArcGIS, 4th edition by Michael Law. • National Trust for Historic Preservation, Preservation Glossary [https://savingplaces.org/stories/preservation-glossary-todays-word- heritage-tourism#.WEXb1qIrKRs]. • U.S. Census Bureau, American Fact Finder [http://factfinder.census.gov/]. • U.S. Census Bureau, TIGER/Line Shapefiles [https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/tiger-line.html].

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