PowerPoint for
Computer Service
and Repair
by

JoAnne Keltner

Goodheart-Willcox Publisher
18604 West Creek Drive
Tinley P...
Chapter 1
Introduction to a Typical PC

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purpo...
Textbook Purpose


To provide you with the basic skills needed
to be proficient in PC repair.



To prepare you for the ...
Who Is CompTIA?
CompTIA is a vendor-neutral, not-for-profit
organization that provides certification in
various areas of t...
CompTIA A+ 2006 Exams
A+ Essentials

IT Technician
(220-602)

Required

Remote Support
Technician
(220-603)

Depot Technic...
Chapter Purpose




To provide an overview of
the PC.
 Inside/outside
components.
 How computers
communicate
internall...
Importance to the PC Technician
This chapter provides introductory
knowledge and an overview of the
computer system before...
Objectives
Explain the role of computers.
 Explain what a computer is.
 Describe computer data.
 Identify the major com...
Objectives
Explain how the major components interact
with each other.
 Interpret the common prefixes associated
with the ...
Presentation Outline
1
2
3

What Is a Computer?
Outside Tour
Inside Tour

4 How Computers Communicate
5 The PC Technician’...
1

What Is a Computer?

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
Computer Functions
Store
data

Retrieve/
receive
data

Process
data

Output
data

Click each link for details.
Goodheart-W...
Data
MP3, WAV,
MIDI
PNG, TIF, JPG

TXT, DOC

(Courtesy of Union Tools, Inc.)
Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission grant...
Examples of Computers

Handheld
(Reprinted with permission from
ViewSonic Corporation.)

Tablet
(Reprinted with permission...
Computers Can Be Found In …
Business

Government

Education

Home

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Military

Permission grant...
Review


List the four basic functions of a computer.
 Retrieve/receive data.
 Store data.
 Process data.
 Output dat...
Review


List three forms of computer data.
 Text
 Sound
 Graphics

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to...
Review


List at least three devices from which computers
can retrieve or receive data.
Some devices are …
 Keyboard.
 ...
Review


List at least three devices to which computers can
store data.
Some devices are …
 Hard drive.
 Floppy drive.
...
Review


List at least three devices to which computers can
output data.
Some devices are …
 Printer.
 Monitor.
 Speak...
Review


List at least four ways in which data is processed.





Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Sorting
Comparing
Comp...
2

Outside Tour

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
Minimal Workstation Components

Input
device



Computer

Output
device

Input and output devices are called peripherals....
Exterior Connections

RJ-45

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
PS/2




Referred to as the
mini-DIN or PS/2
connector.
Used for mouse and
keyboard.




Mouse must connect to
mouse P...
USB





Allows USB devices to
connect to PC in a daisy
chain fashion or through a
USB hub.
Can connect up to 127
devic...
USB Hub

USB hub

(Courtesy of Logitech.)

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational pu...
FireWire







Designed for Apple
computers by Lucent
Technologies.
Also known as IEEE
1394.
Can connect up to 63
dev...
Serial





D-shell with 9 pins.
Used to connect to
external modems, and
some printers and
digital cameras.
Being repla...
Parallel




D-shell with 15 pin
connections.
Typically used with
printers.
Being replaced by
USB.

Goodheart-Willcox C...
VGA



Stands for video
graphics array.
HD-15 connection.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce ...
Game Joystick Port



D-shell, 15-pin, 2-row
connection.
Most game peripherals are
USB or wireless devices.

Goodheart-W...
RJ-11



Used for telephone
modem connections.
Uses four conductors
and four pins.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permiss...
RJ-45



Used for network
connections.
Uses eight conductors
and eight pins.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission gr...
Review


List the three minimal workstation components.






Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Input device
Computer
Outpu...
Review


Identify the following DB connectors.
= Pin

Serial

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

= Hole

VGA

Game

Parallel

P...
Review


Name the following port and list the two devices
which use this port.




Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

The por...
Review


Identify the following port.



Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

FireWire, or IEEE 1934

Permission granted to repr...
Review


Identify the following port.



Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

USB

Permission granted to reproduce for education...
Review


Identify the following connectors and their
purpose.




Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

RJ-45, used for network
...
3

Inside Tour

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
Inside Components

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
Power Supply




Converts 120 volts of ac
power to dc voltage
levels used by various
PC components.
DC voltage levels ar...
Hard Drive






The hard drive is used
to store computer
programs and data.
Made of several disks
which are stacked
in...
CD-ROM / DVD Drive


CD-ROM and DVD
drives use the same
types of data cable as
the hard drive.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., In...
Motherboard


The motherboard
provides the electrical
energy paths to the
computer components
and expansion slots.

Goodh...
CPU




The central processing
unit (CPU) carries out
program code.
The cooling fan mounts
to CPU to assist in
cooling.
...
Random Access Memory


Random access
memory (RAM) is …






Classified as volatile
memory.
The location where
program...
BIOS






Basic input/output system
(BIOS) is a non-volatile
memory chip called an
EEPROM or Flash ROM.
Consists of so...
CMOS


A complementary
metal oxide
semiconductor is …






A volatile storage area,
which stores the BIOS
Setup progr...
Expansion Cards and Slots





Expansion cards
enhance or expand a
computer’s
capabilities.
Also called interface
cards...
Review


Identify the following component.



Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Power supply

Permission granted to reproduce...
Review


Identify the following component.



Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Hard drive

Permission granted to reproduce f...
Review


Identify the following components.

Memory slots 1.
Cooling fan 2.
CPU 3.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

4. Mothe...
4

How Computers
Communicate

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
Analog


Analog electronics use and produce varying
voltage levels.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to r...
Digital


Digital electronics use and produce discrete
voltage levels.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted t...
Computer Data





Can be expressed by voltage levels, numeric
systems, and symbolic codes.
Numeric systems:
 Binary n...
Binary Number Code
Base

128 64

Binary 0
Code

1

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 0 ...
Hexadecimal Number Code
Based on the number base 16.
 Uses 16 characters.
 Uses numerals 0–9 and characters A–F.
 Match...
Hexadecimal Numbers
Hex Decimal Hex Decimal Hex Decimal Hex

Decimal

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

1
2
3
4
5
...
Hexadecimal Conversion
Base
Hex Code

64

32

Hex = 20
Decimal = 32
Base
Hex Code
Hex = A4
Decimal = 164

Goodheart-Willco...
ASCII Code
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange.
 First attempt to standardize computer
character codes.
 ...
ASCII Code Chart

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
Bits, Bytes, and Words
Unit

Definition

Example

Bit

0 or 1

1

Byte

8 bits

01011100

Word

1 to 8 bytes 01011100 1100...
Serial and Parallel Data Transfer


Serial transfers one bit
at a time.

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.



Parallel transfe...
Computer Numerical Values
Metric prefixes are commonly used to
express speed and size of computer systems
and hardware.
 ...
Metric Prefixes
Metric
Name

Symbol Number
Base 10

Number
Base 2

Common
Name

Numeric Equivalent for
the Base 10 Number
...
Base 10 and Base 2 Comparisons


Use base 2 number system when referring to bits
and bytes.

Prefix

Base 2 Number System...
Power-On Sequence
1

Ac power is converted to dc and distributed to the major
components of the computer system.

2

BIOS ...
Major Parts Working Together
Example
1

CPU waits for
activity.

2

When a user
opens a program,
the program shares
contro...
Review


Name three ways with which data can be
expressed.





Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Voltage levels.
Number sy...
Review


Describe the power-on sequence.
1. Ac power is converted to dc and distributed to the
major components of the co...
Review


Describe what happens when a user saves data.
1. The program issues the save command, and the
operating system t...
Review


What is the nominal value of 1 MB?
 1,000,000

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for...
Review


What is the value of 1 MB based on the binary
system?
 1,048,576 (220)

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission...
5

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

The PC Technician’s
Toolkit

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only...
Anti-Static Wrist Strap
Anti-static wrist
strap protects
against electrostatic
discharge (ESD).
 One end of the strap
is ...
Tool Kit
Torx
driver

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Extraction
tools

Star
driver

Screws

Phillips
screwdriver

Flat tip
s...
Software Tool Kit
Diagnostic software.
 Boot disks.


Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for e...
Review


What is electrostatic discharge?



Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Electrostatic discharge is the transfer of
sta...
Review


Identify the following tools:
1. Torx

driver
2. Extraction

tools
3. Star

driver

5. Phillips

screwdriver

56...
6

Integrated Circuits

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
Integrated Circuit (IC)






An integrated circuit is
often referred to as a
chip.
A collection of
transistors, resist...
IC Manufacturing Process
1.

2.

3.

Circuit is drawn on a
large scale.
The drawing is
photographed.
The negative of the
p...
IC Manufacturing Process (Cont.)
4.

5.

An ingot of pure
silicon is sliced into
thin wafers.
A series of layers are
produ...
IC Manufacturing Process (Cont.)
6.

7.

The negative of the
photograph and an
ultraviolet light are
used to leave a patte...
IC Manufacturing Process (Cont.)
8.

9.

10.

The valleys of the etched
pattern are filled with
conductive material.
This ...
Review


What is an integrated circuit (IC)?


Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

A collection of transistors, resistors, and ...
Review


What is a photomask?


Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

The negative of the photograph used in the IC
manufacturing...
Review


What is a photoresist?


Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

A chemical applied to the surface of a silicon
wafer duri...
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Ch01

  1. 1. PowerPoint for Computer Service and Repair by JoAnne Keltner Goodheart-Willcox Publisher 18604 West Creek Drive Tinley Park, IL 60477 www.g-w.com Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Introduction to a Typical PC Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  3. 3. Textbook Purpose  To provide you with the basic skills needed to be proficient in PC repair.  To prepare you for the CompTIA A+ Certification exams. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  4. 4. Who Is CompTIA? CompTIA is a vendor-neutral, not-for-profit organization that provides certification in various areas of the IT industry.  CompTIA A+ Certification is awarded on successful completion of two exams: A+ Essentials and one elective.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  5. 5. CompTIA A+ 2006 Exams A+ Essentials IT Technician (220-602) Required Remote Support Technician (220-603) Depot Technician (220-604) One elective Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  6. 6. Chapter Purpose   To provide an overview of the PC.  Inside/outside components.  How computers communicate internally. To introduce you to the common tools used by the PC technician. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  7. 7. Importance to the PC Technician This chapter provides introductory knowledge and an overview of the computer system before going in depth at a technician level.  This overview will give you the ―big picture.‖  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  8. 8. Objectives Explain the role of computers.  Explain what a computer is.  Describe computer data.  Identify the major components of a typical PC.  Describe the power-on sequence of a typical PC.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  9. 9. Objectives Explain how the major components interact with each other.  Interpret the common prefixes associated with the computer’s size and speed.  Define electrostatic discharge.  Identify common tools used to service a PC.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  10. 10. Presentation Outline 1 2 3 What Is a Computer? Outside Tour Inside Tour 4 How Computers Communicate 5 The PC Technician’s Toolkit 6 Integrated Circuits Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  11. 11. 1 What Is a Computer? Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  12. 12. Computer Functions Store data Retrieve/ receive data Process data Output data Click each link for details. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  13. 13. Data MP3, WAV, MIDI PNG, TIF, JPG TXT, DOC (Courtesy of Union Tools, Inc.) Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  14. 14. Examples of Computers Handheld (Reprinted with permission from ViewSonic Corporation.) Tablet (Reprinted with permission from ViewSonic Corporation.) Mainframe Personal Computer Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. (Courtesy of International Business Systems Corporation.) Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  15. 15. Computers Can Be Found In … Business Government Education Home Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Military Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  16. 16. Review  List the four basic functions of a computer.  Retrieve/receive data.  Store data.  Process data.  Output data. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  17. 17. Review  List three forms of computer data.  Text  Sound  Graphics Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  18. 18. Review  List at least three devices from which computers can retrieve or receive data. Some devices are …  Keyboard.  Mouse.  Digital pen.  Memory.  Hard drive. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  19. 19. Review  List at least three devices to which computers can store data. Some devices are …  Hard drive.  Floppy drive.  CD-ROM drive.  DVD drive. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  20. 20. Review  List at least three devices to which computers can output data. Some devices are …  Printer.  Monitor.  Speakers. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  21. 21. Review  List at least four ways in which data is processed.     Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sorting Comparing Computing Locating Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  22. 22. 2 Outside Tour Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  23. 23. Minimal Workstation Components Input device  Computer Output device Input and output devices are called peripherals. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  24. 24. Exterior Connections RJ-45 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  25. 25. PS/2   Referred to as the mini-DIN or PS/2 connector. Used for mouse and keyboard.   Mouse must connect to mouse PS/2 port. Keyboard must connect to keyboard PS/2 port. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  26. 26. USB    Allows USB devices to connect to PC in a daisy chain fashion or through a USB hub. Can connect up to 127 devices. Eliminates need to open case to install the device. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  27. 27. USB Hub USB hub (Courtesy of Logitech.) Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  28. 28. FireWire     Designed for Apple computers by Lucent Technologies. Also known as IEEE 1394. Can connect up to 63 devices that can be hot swapped. Device bay is designed to accommodate hotswap devices. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  29. 29. Serial    D-shell with 9 pins. Used to connect to external modems, and some printers and digital cameras. Being replaced by USB and FireWire. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  30. 30. Parallel    D-shell with 15 pin connections. Typically used with printers. Being replaced by USB. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  31. 31. VGA   Stands for video graphics array. HD-15 connection. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  32. 32. Game Joystick Port   D-shell, 15-pin, 2-row connection. Most game peripherals are USB or wireless devices. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  33. 33. RJ-11   Used for telephone modem connections. Uses four conductors and four pins. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  34. 34. RJ-45   Used for network connections. Uses eight conductors and eight pins. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  35. 35. Review  List the three minimal workstation components.    Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Input device Computer Output device Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  36. 36. Review  Identify the following DB connectors. = Pin Serial Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. = Hole VGA Game Parallel Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  37. 37. Review  Name the following port and list the two devices which use this port.   Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The port is called a mini-DIN or a PS/2. The keyboard and mouse connect to this port type; however, keyboard and mouse ports are not interchangeable. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  38. 38. Review  Identify the following port.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. FireWire, or IEEE 1934 Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  39. 39. Review  Identify the following port.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. USB Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  40. 40. Review  Identify the following connectors and their purpose.   Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. RJ-45, used for network connections. RJ-11, used for telephone modem connections. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  41. 41. 3 Inside Tour Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  42. 42. Inside Components Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  43. 43. Power Supply   Converts 120 volts of ac power to dc voltage levels used by various PC components. DC voltage levels are usually 3.3, 5, and 12. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  44. 44. Hard Drive    The hard drive is used to store computer programs and data. Made of several disks which are stacked inside a sealed box. Data is transmitted through a data cable. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  45. 45. CD-ROM / DVD Drive  CD-ROM and DVD drives use the same types of data cable as the hard drive. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  46. 46. Motherboard  The motherboard provides the electrical energy paths to the computer components and expansion slots. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  47. 47. CPU   The central processing unit (CPU) carries out program code. The cooling fan mounts to CPU to assist in cooling. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  48. 48. Random Access Memory  Random access memory (RAM) is …    Classified as volatile memory. The location where programs are loaded to from the hard drive. Mounted into several parallel slots on the motherboard. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  49. 49. BIOS    Basic input/output system (BIOS) is a non-volatile memory chip called an EEPROM or Flash ROM. Consists of software programs that support the compatibility between the CPU and computer hardware. Includes the BIOS Setup program. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  50. 50. CMOS  A complementary metal oxide semiconductor is …    A volatile storage area, which stores the BIOS Setup program data. Located in the motherboard’s chipset. Powered by a battery. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  51. 51. Expansion Cards and Slots    Expansion cards enhance or expand a computer’s capabilities. Also called interface cards or adapter cards. Fit into expansion card slots. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  52. 52. Review  Identify the following component.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Power supply Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  53. 53. Review  Identify the following component.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hard drive Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  54. 54. Review  Identify the following components. Memory slots 1. Cooling fan 2. CPU 3. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 4. Motherboard 5. Battery 6. Expansion card slots Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  55. 55. 4 How Computers Communicate Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  56. 56. Analog  Analog electronics use and produce varying voltage levels. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  57. 57. Digital  Digital electronics use and produce discrete voltage levels. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  58. 58. Computer Data    Can be expressed by voltage levels, numeric systems, and symbolic codes. Numeric systems:  Binary number system.  Hexadecimal number system. Symbolic codes:  ASCII. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  59. 59. Binary Number Code Base 128 64 Binary 0 Code 1 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 0 = 114 Binary = 01110010 Decimal = 114 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  60. 60. Hexadecimal Number Code Based on the number base 16.  Uses 16 characters.  Uses numerals 0–9 and characters A–F.  Matches the hardware system of most computers.  Data lines in a computer are 8, 16, 32, or 64 lines wide.  Memory sizes are in increments of 8 and 16.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  61. 61. Hexadecimal Numbers Hex Decimal Hex Decimal Hex Decimal Hex Decimal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 9 A B C D E F 10 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  62. 62. Hexadecimal Conversion Base Hex Code 64 32 Hex = 20 Decimal = 32 Base Hex Code Hex = A4 Decimal = 164 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 16 2 1 0 (16 x 2) + (1 x 0) = 32 64 32 16 A 1 4 (16 x A) + (1 x 4) = 164 Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  63. 63. ASCII Code American Standard Code for Information Interchange.  First attempt to standardize computer character codes.  Unique to certain systems, such as IBM.  Must be used with compatible software.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  64. 64. ASCII Code Chart Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  65. 65. Bits, Bytes, and Words Unit Definition Example Bit 0 or 1 1 Byte 8 bits 01011100 Word 1 to 8 bytes 01011100 11001101 01111101 11010100 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  66. 66. Serial and Parallel Data Transfer  Serial transfers one bit at a time. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.  Parallel transfers multiple bits at a time. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  67. 67. Computer Numerical Values Metric prefixes are commonly used to express speed and size of computer systems and hardware.  Used in combination with the words bit (b) and byte (B):  bps (bits per second).  Bps (bytes per second).  256 MB (256 Megabytes).  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  68. 68. Metric Prefixes Metric Name Symbol Number Base 10 Number Base 2 Common Name Numeric Equivalent for the Base 10 Number System Pico p 10–12 10–40 trillionth 0.000 000 000 001 Nano n 10–9 10–30 billionth 0.000 000 001 Micro μ 10–6 10–20 millionth 0.000 001 Milli m 10–3 10–10 thousandth 0.001 Base unit 1 1 Kilo K 103 1010 thousand 1,000 Mega M 106 1020 million 1,000,000 Giga G 109 1030 billion 1,000,000,000 Terra T 1012 1040 trillion 1,000,000,000,000 Peta P 1015 1050 quadrillion 1,000,000,000,000,000 Exa E 1018 1060 quintillion 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  69. 69. Base 10 and Base 2 Comparisons  Use base 2 number system when referring to bits and bytes. Prefix Base 2 Number System Base 10 Number System Kilobyte 1,024 1,000 Megabyte 1,048,576 1,000,000 Gigabyte 1,073,741,824 1,000,000,000 Terabyte 1,099,511,627,776 1,000,000,000,000 Petabyte 1,125,899,906,842,624 1,000,000,000,000,000 Exabyte 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  70. 70. Power-On Sequence 1 Ac power is converted to dc and distributed to the major components of the computer system. 2 BIOS checks components in the system to ensure they are in working order. This is called the power-on self-test (POST). 3 The operating system takes control of the system. 4 The CPU waits for activity. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  71. 71. Major Parts Working Together Example 1 CPU waits for activity. 2 When a user opens a program, the program shares control with the CPU. 4 The BIOS translates the save instructions to the disk system. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. 3 When a user saves data, the program issues the save command, and the operating system takes over and works with the BIOS to complete the 5 operation. Control is returned to the operating system. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  72. 72. Review  Name three ways with which data can be expressed.    Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Voltage levels. Number systems, such as binary and hexadecimal. ASCII code. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  73. 73. Review  Describe the power-on sequence. 1. Ac power is converted to dc and distributed to the major components of the computer system. 2. BIOS checks components in the system to ensure they are in working order. This is called the power-on selftest (POST). 3. The operating system takes control of the system. 4. The CPU waits for activity. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  74. 74. Review  Describe what happens when a user saves data. 1. The program issues the save command, and the operating system takes over and works with the BIOS to complete the operation. 2. The BIOS translates the save instructions to the disk system. 3. Control is returned to the operating system. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  75. 75. Review  What is the nominal value of 1 MB?  1,000,000 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  76. 76. Review  What is the value of 1 MB based on the binary system?  1,048,576 (220) Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  77. 77. 5 Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The PC Technician’s Toolkit Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  78. 78. Anti-Static Wrist Strap Anti-static wrist strap protects against electrostatic discharge (ESD).  One end of the strap is worn around the wrist—the other, the clip, is grounded.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  79. 79. Tool Kit Torx driver Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Extraction tools Star driver Screws Phillips screwdriver Flat tip screwdriver Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  80. 80. Software Tool Kit Diagnostic software.  Boot disks.  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  81. 81. Review  What is electrostatic discharge?  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Electrostatic discharge is the transfer of static electrical energy from one object to another. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  82. 82. Review  Identify the following tools: 1. Torx driver 2. Extraction tools 3. Star driver 5. Phillips screwdriver 56 6. Flat tip screwdriver 1 23 4 4. Screws Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  83. 83. 6 Integrated Circuits Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  84. 84. Integrated Circuit (IC)    An integrated circuit is often referred to as a chip. A collection of transistors, resistors, and other electronic components on a piece of semiconductor material. Commonly found on circuit boards. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Integrated circuit Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  85. 85. IC Manufacturing Process 1. 2. 3. Circuit is drawn on a large scale. The drawing is photographed. The negative of the photograph, called a photomask, is used in the IC manufacturing process. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. (Courtesy of International Business Systems Corporation.) Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  86. 86. IC Manufacturing Process (Cont.) 4. 5. An ingot of pure silicon is sliced into thin wafers. A series of layers are produced over the silicon wafer using a process called photolithography. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. (Courtesy of International Business Systems Corporation.) Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  87. 87. IC Manufacturing Process (Cont.) 6. 7. The negative of the photograph and an ultraviolet light are used to leave a pattern of the circuit on the photoresist of the wafer. The photoresist is washed away leaving an etched pattern on the wafer. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. (Courtesy of International Business Systems Corporation.) Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  88. 88. IC Manufacturing Process (Cont.) 8. 9. 10. The valleys of the etched pattern are filled with conductive material. This process is repeated until 20 or more layers are developed over the surface of the wafer. The wafer is cut into individual integrated circuits and then packaged. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. (Courtesy of International Business Systems Corporation.) Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  89. 89. Review  What is an integrated circuit (IC)?  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. A collection of transistors, resistors, and other electronic components on a piece of semiconductor material. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  90. 90. Review  What is a photomask?  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The negative of the photograph used in the IC manufacturing process. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.
  91. 91. Review  What is a photoresist?  Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. A chemical applied to the surface of a silicon wafer during the photolithography process that reacts when exposed to ultraviolet light. Permission granted to reproduce for educational purposes only.

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