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Integumentary System Notes

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This slideshow provides information about human skin to students in Mr. Hildebrandt's Anatomy & Physiology classes.

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Integumentary System Notes

  1. 1. Integumentary System Anatomy & Physiology Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Seventh Edition
  2. 2. <ul><li>Skin Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in heat regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizes vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>Protects deeper tissues from : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical damage - shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Skin Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Skin is the largest organ in the body </li></ul><ul><li>25 square feet of surface area </li></ul><ul><li>40 pounds of skin shed in lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>30-40 thousand cells shed per minute </li></ul><ul><li>50 percent of heat lost through head </li></ul><ul><li>45 miles of nerves are in the skin </li></ul><ul><li>15 feet of blood vessels per 1 sq inch </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Skin Structure </li></ul>Slide 4.13b Figure 4.4
  5. 5. <ul><li>Skin Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis – outer layer forms finger prints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified squamous epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often keratinized (hardened by keratin) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dermis – middle bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Hypodermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors skin to underlying organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed mostly of adipose tissue </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Layers of the Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum basale - cells undergoing mitosis, contain melaninocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum spinosum </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum granulosum </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum lucidum - occurs only in thick skin </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum corneum – Shingle- like dead cells </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Melanin </li></ul><ul><li>Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Color is yellow to brown to black </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetic and exposure to sunlight </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Dermal Bilayer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Papillary layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projections called dermal papillae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain receptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capillary loops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve receptors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Dermal Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Hair follicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arrector pilli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sebaceous gland </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat gland </li></ul>Figure 4.7a
  10. 10. <ul><li>Dermal Oil Glands </li></ul>Slide 4.15 <ul><li>Sebaceous glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricant for skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kills bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most with ducts that empty into hair follicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands are activated at puberty </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Dermal Sweat Glands </li></ul>Slide 4.16 <ul><li>Sweat glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely distributed in skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eccrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open via duct to pore on skin surface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apocrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ducts empty into hair follicles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Dermal Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Scalp alone has 100,000 hairs </li></ul><ul><li>Strands are produced by hair bulb </li></ul><ul><li>40-100 strands fall out each day </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color </li></ul><ul><li>Blonds have more hair than dark </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Skin Color Determinants </li></ul>Slide 4.14 <ul><li>Melanin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow, brown or black pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carotene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Appendages of the Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale-like modifications of the epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily keratinized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of pigment makes them colorless </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Nail Structures </li></ul>Slide 4.22 <ul><li>Free edge </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Root of nail is where growth takes place </li></ul><ul><li>Grow 1/8 inch per month </li></ul>Figure 4.9

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