Immune System notes


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This slideshow is intended for students in Mr. Hildebrandt's anatomy & physiology students. Please watch the introductory video before taking notes.

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Immune System notes

  1. 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology The Immune System Anatomy & Physiology II Mr. Hildebrandt
  2. 2. Divisions of the Immune System• Innate Response: (non- specific) barriers• Acquired immunity (very specific) • Cell-mediated immunity – utilizing cells to fight • Humoral – antibody “production line”
  3. 3. Innate Response: Barriers• Acid mantels – skin, vagina• Sebum – skin, toxic to bacteria• Keratin – skin (pH extremes)• Mucus – resp/digest tracts• Gastric juice – HCl in stomach• Saliva & Tears – contain lysozymes• Cilia – filtering properties
  4. 4. Innate Response: Cells• Phagocytes: (neutrophils and macrophages) • Engulf & destroy invaders• Mast cells aid in inflammation• Natural killer cells: • Can lyse and kill cancer cells • Can destroy virus- infected cells
  5. 5. Innate Response: Chemicals• Complement • 30+ blood proteins that destroy microorganisms• Interferons • Proteins that inhibit viral replication• Urine • Acidic nature protects urinary Figure 12.8 tract
  6. 6. Innate Response - Inflammation• Triggered when body is injured• Produces four cardinal signs: • Redness • Heat • Swelling • Pain• Results in protection and healing
  7. 7. Innate Response: Fever• Abnormally high body temperature• Hypothalamus: the heat regulator can be reset• High temperatures can “burn up” some of the antigens• Fever also increases the speed of tissue repair
  8. 8. Summary of the Acquired Immune Response Figure 12.16
  9. 9. Acquired Response: The Players• Lymphocytes ( from red marrow) • B lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the bone marrow then “hang out” in lymph nodes • T lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the thymus T-cell then “hang out” in lymph nodes • Memory B & T cells stay in blood indefinitely• Macrophages – the “engulfers” • Distributed in lymphoid organs • Stimulate B & T cells B-cell
  10. 10. Antibodies (Immunoglobulins)• Soluble proteins secreted by B cells (plasma cells)• Carried in blood plasma• Can be specifically designed and produced in 7-10 days
  11. 11. Acquired Response: Humoral• Antigen (invader) enters body• Macrophage engulfs antigen, becomes antigen-presenting cell, & release cytokines• Helper T-cells are stimulated and release more cytokines• Cytokines activate B-cells• B-cells become plasma cells• Plasma cells produce antibodies• Memory B-cells stay indefinitely
  12. 12. Humoral Immune Response
  13. 13. Acquired Response: Cell-Mediated• Antigen invades body• Macrophage engulfs antigen, becomes an antigen-presenting cell, & release cytokines• Helper T-cells are stimulated and release more cytokines• Cytokines activate Killer T-cells• Killer T-cell receptors recognize, poison (with perforine), & kill antigen• Memory T-cells stay indefinitely
  14. 14. Things can go wrong…• Immune system structures can mistakenly attack normal body tissues.• This group of illnesses are collectively known as autoimmune disorders
  15. 15. Cell-Mediated Immune Response Figure 12.15Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 12.43