Write to Learn 2014

Developing a Love of Languages:
Approaches to Writing for English
Language Learners
Jinju Lee
Yang Wa...
Intro

Approaches to Writing for English Language Learners

 Freewriting defined:

• Writing without stopping for a set t...
Intro

Approaches to Writing for English Language Learners

 Freewriting Routine:

•
•
•
•

Write non-stop
No distraction...
Yang Wang
University of Missouri
Columbia, MO
How did we get there?
 The number of English learners in China:

about 200-350 million (Yang, 2006).
 A typical scene: a...
Research Questions
 What happens when English learners

freewrite in class?
 How does freewriting influence their
Englis...
About the class
 The context: a EFL classroom at a major university
in mid-China.
 Participants: 3 undergraduates majore...
About the class
 Students met for academic writing twice a week, 90-135






minutes each time.
Started class with a...
Data Sources
 Students’ pre-semester-survey (writing habits,
interests);
 mid-semester survey (changes, like/dislike);
...
Freewriting Prompts
 Electricity is a recent discovery. Think of 12 things to do when










there’s no power. ...
•

Not write regularly. Write about happy or sad
things, write to record.
• In Chinese, forced to learn many expressions,
...
“I want to write, but I can’t write very good. So
I don’t like (to) write very much. I think
writing is a good way to expr...
Prompt: Electricity is a recent discovery. Think of 12 things to do when there’s no
power. Which one do you think is the m...
Mid-way
 “I think it is a good way to test our ability

of writing and thinking. We can write
what we can think about the...
Final word from Clark
•

OK in writing in both languages
• Like to write essays, journal, feelings, social justice
• In Chinese: read fables, fa...
Yoki (73words)
Think of a product which is dead essential
in your daily life and write about it.
•

•
•
•

•

A good writer in Chinese, but not in English.
Likes to write, journal, prose.
Something touching her, social ...
Rachel talks about freewriting
 I thought it was fresh and challenging because I

usually don’t have the habit of writing...
 Freewriting provided more chances for ELL
students to practice their language knowledge.
 practice vocabulary, sentence...
 Freewriting improved ELL students’ writing fluency,
especially within a set time limit.
 They reported they wrote more ...
 Freewriting lowered ELL students’ affective filter
(Steve Krashen).
 Students get rid of the fear of writing, realize t...
 ELL students wrote out their voices through
freewriting and became critical thinkers.
 a chance to write for pleasure, ...
 Freewriting motivated ELL students to learn

English language.
 Freewriting encourage students to read and

learn more ...
Implication
 This study proved that freewriting could be used

in a language-learning classroom as an
important language ...
Yang Wang
yw9zd@mail.missouri.edu
Write to Learn 2014

W

hat Happens When ELL Use Freewriting in an English class?
: A Case Study: Integration of Writing i...
Introduction

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

What happens to ELL in an English
classroom ?

Sources: Google i...
Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

Introduction

English is
the only
variable

International
students
Rebuild ELL...
Introduction

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Purpose of Study

Using
Freewriting in
an ELL class

What Happ...
Introduction

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

Freewriting is…

A short & unfocused writing activity
Methods

Participants

Research Site

Period

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

8 Female Korean ELLs

English cl...
Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

Methods

 The Major Methods for Data Collection

Work
Samples

Observation

I...
Data Analysis

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Writing Development: Rich context, Complex sentences

First w...
Data Analysis

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Review Note

Review note:
Common mistakes that
ELLs frequentl...
Data Analysis

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Writing to Learn: Reviewing lessons of the day

Reviewing les...
Data Analysis
 Picture Survey

?: Confusion

!: Satisfaction
: Positive attitudes
Right or wrong?:
Metacognition

Integr...
Data Analysis

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Interview Excerpts:
 Metacognition
“..I am simultaneously th...
Data Analysis

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Interview Excerpts:
 Writing to Learn
“I just started writin...
Data Analysis

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Interview Excerpts:
 Writing to Learn
“I like to tell future...
Data Analysis

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Interview Excerpts:
 Learning Strengths & Weaknesses as an I...
Data Analysis

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

 Interview Excerpts:
 Learning Strengths & Weakness as an Ind...
Findings

Learning Writing

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

Get More Familiar with English Writing
(Increasing...
Findings

Writing to Learn

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

Learn How to Approach Learning

Reviewing Lessons ...
Findings

Independent
Learner

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom

Focus on Inner Voice and Emotion

Reflect on Wh...
Implications

Implications

Implementation of
Freewriting in an
ELL Curriculum

Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom...
Please post your comments and questions
at https://todaysmeet.com/freewriting
Thank You
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014

1,138 views

Published on

Slides of the session of freewriting with ELLs at the Write to Learn Conference, February 2014

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,138
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Drive my mind into thinkingWriting in a stream of consciousness
  • English is spoken by a large number of population around the world and is learned as a foreign language in almost all Asian countries. The number of English learners in China is estimated about 200-350 million (Yang, 2006). However, most of them learn English without a rich speaking environment or learning materials and equipments. Here is a typical scene: a teacher, a textbook and 50 to 100 students sitting in rows in a classroom. Students work hard to get high scores in texts and exams, cherish all the chances to learn English so that they are able to compete for better jobs, know the outside world and connect to it.
  • Academic writing is critical for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students to learn a target language. Improving writing instruction and practices has continued to be a concern for English teachers and educators. Freewriting as a writing practice is widely-used in Language Arts classroom of English speaking countries. What happens when English learners free write in class? How would freewriting influence their foreign language learning?
  • This qualitative study was designed according to the guidelines for case study (Creswell, 2007; Stake, 1995; Yin 2003). This single case is using freewriting in an EFL classroom. The context of this study is set in a major university in mid-China. Participants are 32 undergraduates majored in English Language, 4 boys and 28 girls. Their age ranges from 20 to 22. Students met for academic writing twice a week, for 90-135 minutes each time with a ten-minute recess. Each time they started their class with a 5-10 minutes freewriting. The teacher selected all writing prompts for students every time considering students’ interests and national curriculum requirements. The topics ranged from campus life to politics, from personal story to public hot topic. They wrote freely on paper, then volunteered to share their writing in a big group with their classmates. Comments and feedbacks were provided from their peers as well as from the teacher.
  • Pre-survey was held in the beginning of this study to collect basic information of the participants’ writing habits and their identities as writers. Questions were asked on if they like to write, why they write, how to come up with ideas to write, what their favorite subjects were, their extra-curricular events, how to learn writing in their first language and second language. Mid-semester questionnaire was filled in the middle of this study, aiming at understanding how the students took freewriting and if they made any changes. Participants were asked questions on what they think of the freewriting they had done in class, what they would like to free write, what they liked or disliked about freewriting, what changes they had made since they freewrote. End-semester report was completed in the last class in order to study the students’ reflection on using freewriting. They reported on how they benefited from freewriting; the difficulties they have encountered when they freewrote in class and how they dealt with them; as well as the suggestions they would give to improve this activity for future. Students’ freewriting pieces were collected. They all handwrote and turned in their pieces by the end of each class. The classroom teacher kept teaching journals to record her teaching and her observation of students’ freewriting and language learning in class. All collected data were triangulated for analysis (Yin, 2003). All data gathered was repeatedly read by two researchers to discern patterns and findings.
  • It’s not totally free. We give promptsWe could try freewriting without given prompts.
  • Vocabulary, Read,Write moreShe self identified her difficulties and knew what she needed to work on. She knew herself better as a reader.
  • Freewriting provided more chances for EFL students to practice their language knowledge. Through freewriting, those EFL students had more chances to practice vocabulary, sentences structures they had learned from their intensive and extensive reading class. And they were motivated to read more materials, as they were eager to learn more words actively to express themselves and their voices.
  • Freewriting improved EFL students’ writing fluency, especially within a set time limit. The freewriting practice in class is always set in a certain limited period of time, usually 5-10 minutes under the supervision of the teacher. The set time limit gave them a good chance to practice writing fluency. They reported they wrote more and more fluently in the time limit. They had mock TEM and CET tests in class, writing a 150-200 words essay on a given topic in 30 minutes and they reported they wrote faster than before, and were able to achieve comparatively high-qualified essay with the help of freewriting practice in which they paid attention to, step by step, the format, diction, structure and content relevance within the set time limit.
  • Freewriting lowered EFL students’ affective filter. Freewriting helped EFL students gradually get rid of the fear of writing, realize the importance of writing in English language learning, and love English writing. Many of them began writing in English as a new hobby. Through getting rid of the fear and building their confidence, they lowered their affective filter to learn English.
  • EFL students wrote out their voices through freewriting and became critical thinkers. Freewriting provided a chance for them to write for pleasure, because the topics were less academic and all related to their daily life or Western culture. They appreciated this opportunity to write out their voices. They became more concerned about their daily and social life; they dig into the depth of their understanding of social issues; they reflected on their own learning and life and became critical.
  • They started to overcome the negative influence of their first language.
  • Learning a foreign language is learning a whole language as well. Through freewriting, EFL students were able to use whole language to write. Our study found that EFL learners benefit from freewriting. They practiced their language knowledge, improved their writing fluency, became more confident to write; expressed their own voices in their writing and embraced their own authorship. This study proved that freewriting could be used in a language-learning classroom as an important language practice. The sample size was small and this study was conducted in a unique classroom. The future study could be set in other contexts with more language learners with a variety of backgrounds.
  • The English language learners (ELL) are easily tempted to judge their own identity based on a level of English language
  • It is a qualitative case study to understand how ELL students use freewriting in an English programIn the research, freewriting is defined as a short & unfocused writing activity.
  • a substantial study has suggested that four categories should be used as essential elements of the Blackboard system, (1) an instant messaging feature, (2) the automatic recording of chat sessions, (3) assignment schedules, and (4) an item analysis option for tests used by instructors.while they were less likely to use course support and communication (e.g., discussion board, external web sites, faculty information, and e-Mail) (Landy, Griffeth and Hartman, 2006)
  • Write to Learn - Freewriting - 2014

    1. 1. Write to Learn 2014 Developing a Love of Languages: Approaches to Writing for English Language Learners Jinju Lee Yang Wang Amy Lannin University of Missouri
    2. 2. Intro Approaches to Writing for English Language Learners  Freewriting defined: • Writing without stopping for a set time • Writing without censoring, editing, or judging • Writing without fear of audience • Writing freely for self • Writing to sustain thought and language
    3. 3. Intro Approaches to Writing for English Language Learners  Freewriting Routine: • • • • Write non-stop No distractions Follow tangents Try not to censor your writing
    4. 4. Yang Wang University of Missouri Columbia, MO
    5. 5. How did we get there?  The number of English learners in China: about 200-350 million (Yang, 2006).  A typical scene: a teacher, a textbook and 30~200 students sitting in rows in a classroom.  Students’ goal: get high scores, seek for jobs, know the outside world and connect to it.  Improving writing instruction and practices has continued to be a concern for English teachers and educators.
    6. 6. Research Questions  What happens when English learners freewrite in class?  How does freewriting influence their English language learning?
    7. 7. About the class  The context: a EFL classroom at a major university in mid-China.  Participants: 3 undergraduates majored in English Language, 20 ~ 22 years old.
    8. 8. About the class  Students met for academic writing twice a week, 90-135     minutes each time. Started class with a 7 minutes freewriting. The teacher selected all writing prompts. The topics ranged from campus life to politics, from personal story to hot topic. They wrote freely on paper, then volunteered to share their writing in a big group with their classmates.
    9. 9. Data Sources  Students’ pre-semester-survey (writing habits, interests);  mid-semester survey (changes, like/dislike);  end-semester survey (benefits, challenges, suggestions);  students’ writing samples (handwrote);  classroom teacher’s teaching journal.  All collected data were triangulated for analysis (Yin, 2003).
    10. 10. Freewriting Prompts  Electricity is a recent discovery. Think of 12 things to do when        there’s no power. Which one do you think is the most important one, why? Make a list of 10 things that happened to you this month. They can be funny, embarrassing, happy, or infuriating. Then pick one from your list and write about it. Begin a story with “There was once a chance I didn’t get… ” Write a letter to the 10-year old child you had been. Write about one of the most difficult decisions you’ve made in your life. Begin your writing with “If I had the power to change something, I would change… ” It was Erica Jong who said, “If you don’t risk anything, you risk more.” Write about what this means to you. Laptop — A Necessity for College Students?
    11. 11. • Not write regularly. Write about happy or sad things, write to record. • In Chinese, forced to learn many expressions, read; in English, recite words + sentences, reading report, copy good quotes.
    12. 12. “I want to write, but I can’t write very good. So I don’t like (to) write very much. I think writing is a good way to express one’s opinion and feeling about things and people. It can help you to be known by others.” “When I (am) disappointed, it give(s) me hope.”
    13. 13. Prompt: Electricity is a recent discovery. Think of 12 things to do when there’s no power. Which one do you think is the most important one, why?
    14. 14. Mid-way  “I think it is a good way to test our ability of writing and thinking. We can write what we can think about the theme(the prompt).”  Like to write about his own experiences.
    15. 15. Final word from Clark
    16. 16. • OK in writing in both languages • Like to write essays, journal, feelings, social justice • In Chinese: read fables, fairy tales, fiction, various genres; in English, read books, vocabulary, language sense. • “To be frank, I don’t write quite often and I write twice or more a week. I like to write some essays recording my recent life and my feelings about things happened to me recently and how do I think about them.”
    17. 17. Yoki (73words)
    18. 18. Think of a product which is dead essential in your daily life and write about it.
    19. 19. • • • • • A good writer in Chinese, but not in English. Likes to write, journal, prose. Something touching her, social justice. Reading, travelling. Learn to write in Chinese – reading; in English - classes, reading samples, practice
    20. 20. Rachel talks about freewriting  I thought it was fresh and challenging because I usually don’t have the habit of writing freely without a contemplation.  I like the way in which you give us a topic or a theme then we think of the structure and wording. Perhaps you can try another way in which we write whatever we choose. That’s also a flexible way.
    21. 21.  Freewriting provided more chances for ELL students to practice their language knowledge.  practice vocabulary, sentences structures they had learned from their intensive and extensive reading class.  motivated to read more materials, as they were eager to learn more words actively to express themselves and their voices.
    22. 22.  Freewriting improved ELL students’ writing fluency, especially within a set time limit.  They reported they wrote more and more fluently in the time limit.  They reported they were able to write comparatively high-qualified essays: the format, structure, word usage and content.
    23. 23.  Freewriting lowered ELL students’ affective filter (Steve Krashen).  Students get rid of the fear of writing, realize the importance of writing in English language learning  It builds their confidence, and students become to love English writing.
    24. 24.  ELL students wrote out their voices through freewriting and became critical thinkers.  a chance to write for pleasure, because the topics were less academic.  opportunity to write out their voices.  They became more concerned about their daily and social life; they dig into the depth of their understanding of social issues; they reflected on their own learning and life and became critical.
    25. 25.  Freewriting motivated ELL students to learn English language.  Freewriting encourage students to read and learn more vocabulary, sentence structure and other new language knowledge.  They realized reading and writing developed with each other.  They knew their own writing better and knew what they needed to improve.
    26. 26. Implication  This study proved that freewriting could be used in a language-learning classroom as an important language practice, esp. writing fluency.  Freewriting could be used to build English learners’ confidence in writing and motivate them to learn writing and reading.  Freewriting could be used to cultivate English learners into critical thinkers.
    27. 27. Yang Wang yw9zd@mail.missouri.edu
    28. 28. Write to Learn 2014 W hat Happens When ELL Use Freewriting in an English class? : A Case Study: Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom Jinju Lee, Doctoral Student Dept. of Education English Education University of Missouri
    29. 29. Introduction Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom What happens to ELL in an English classroom ? Sources: Google images
    30. 30. Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom Introduction English is the only variable International students Rebuild ELL’s competencies How to use writing? Researcher’s Positionality Educational strategies
    31. 31. Introduction Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Purpose of Study Using Freewriting in an ELL class What Happens to the Second Language Learning?  A qualitative case study to understand how ELL students use freewriting in an English class ?
    32. 32. Introduction Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom Freewriting is… A short & unfocused writing activity
    33. 33. Methods Participants Research Site Period Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom 8 Female Korean ELLs English class at Uni. Of Missouri Aug-Nov, 2012
    34. 34. Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom Methods  The Major Methods for Data Collection Work Samples Observation Interviews Picture Survey Field Notes
    35. 35. Data Analysis Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Writing Development: Rich context, Complex sentences First writing on Aug 22nd Last writing on Nov 7th
    36. 36. Data Analysis Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Review Note Review note: Common mistakes that ELLs frequently made in writing and speaking Phrasal expressions
    37. 37. Data Analysis Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Writing to Learn: Reviewing lessons of the day Reviewing lessons: ex) use of –ed vs. –ing
    38. 38. Data Analysis  Picture Survey ?: Confusion !: Satisfaction : Positive attitudes Right or wrong?: Metacognition Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom
    39. 39. Data Analysis Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Interview Excerpts:  Metacognition “..I am simultaneously thinking whether I am writing correctly or incorrectly while writing.” “While writing, I started thinking about what I want to write about or what I am thinking now…….then, I found that I am simultaneously thinking of better expressions to write.” “I am thinking if I am using appropriate expressions and accurate grammar.”
    40. 40. Data Analysis Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Interview Excerpts:  Writing to Learn “I just started writing not thinking that I am writing…then, when I got stuck while writing because I didn‟t know how to use the correct grammar, l tried to express my thoughts using simple sentences and easy grammar instead...” “ ..through freewriting, I came to know that I could convey my thoughts and emotions well enough by using simple vocabulary like „make‟, „have‟, „get‟. I misunderstood by thinking that I had to use only professional language...”
    41. 41. Data Analysis Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Interview Excerpts:  Writing to Learn “I like to tell future students who will do the freewriting activity to please not get stressed out or burdened, but that it is okay to make mistakes when writing in English…and it is okay to write in Korean when they get stuck. Feeling stressed or burdened slows language learning, so I want to tell them to feel free to write”
    42. 42. Data Analysis Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Interview Excerpts:  Learning Strengths & Weaknesses as an Independent Writer “When the teacher gave a mini lesson, I found out what I had written the freewriting incorrectly, and decided to correct them in the next writing.” “I found out that I tend to use formal expressions unnaturally; Expressions which we studied in Korea. And I think that interrupts the flow of thinking and writing.”
    43. 43. Data Analysis Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom  Interview Excerpts:  Learning Strengths & Weakness as an Independent Writer “I realized that I spend too much time thinking about grammatical rules when freewriting. So when I am confused with which preposition I need to use and I become stuck because of that, I just kept writing as words came to me.” “I think using the appropriate tense is confusing.”
    44. 44. Findings Learning Writing Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom Get More Familiar with English Writing (Increasing the joy of writing, decreasing the fear) Learn How to Construct Sentences Learn How to Choose Words Developing of Context in Individual Writing
    45. 45. Findings Writing to Learn Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom Learn How to Approach Learning Reviewing Lessons of the Day Knowing Weaknesses & Strengths as a Language Learner Revisiting the Unanswered Questions from Lessons or Asking General Questions Applying Newly Acquired Linguistic Knowledge to Daily Conversation
    46. 46. Findings Independent Learner Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom Focus on Inner Voice and Emotion Reflect on What to Write & How to Craft Their Writing Well (Metacognition) Self – Correction Self – Monitoring
    47. 47. Implications Implications Implementation of Freewriting in an ELL Curriculum Integration of Writing in an ELL classroom Increasing Reflective Thinking→Becoming an Independent Language Learner All Level-Friendly → Beginner to Advanced Writing to Develop Other Language Skills Using Freewriting in Other Content Areas
    48. 48. Please post your comments and questions at https://todaysmeet.com/freewriting
    49. 49. Thank You

    ×