Immigration and industrialization


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  • First illustration printed in Rocky Mountain region. 1859
    What does immigration mean for the Rocky Mountain region? In particular Pike’s Peak?
    Indigenous Ute and Arapahoe people, and the nameless cliff dwellers, had been here for centuries.
  • Looking at a shift in social structure in a geographic region towards 19th century industrial
    -infrastructure, mining, construction, milling, etc.
    -concepts of resources, ideas about western law,
    quote about women: Richardson Beyond the Mississippi states that on his first visit to Denver City on June 6, 1858 that "if my memory is faithful, there were five women in the whole gold region; and the appearance of a bonnet in the street was the signal for the entire population to rush to the cabin doors and gaze upon its wearer as at any other natural curiosity," but within a month had increased to several hundred
  • What’s going on here? No literature, building society? 38, 2 3
  • Law and proclamations to control and bring order? The rule of law needs printed documents to exercise control, but it was more subtle. From contemporary accounts miner’s courts were essentially an aural experience. John D. Young gives an account of Denver in 1860: “It was now near the time fixed for the trial so we went to Denver Hall and found a large crowd already assembled. There was a great deal of loud talking and the general tenor of it bade no good to the prisoner. ... There was about one thousand person present. ...” the prisoner was brought forward “His face was as pale as death and his eyes were fixed and stanring wildly over that vast throng looking to find some gleam of compassion some hope of escape. A low savage murmer spread across the hall and as he heard it he knew it was his death warrant and he fell fainting into a seat.” The trial commenced with oral arguments and dealt with the character of the man brought before them. The jury retired and returned with a single word on a slip of paper stating “guilty”, which each juryman pronounced separately.
    “The judge then addressed the people telling them that the jury had found the prisoner guilty of murder and asked them what punishment they should give him. Then arose one loud fierce yell “Hang him, hang him.” The court then asked if there was anyone opposed to this verdict of the people and a dead silence reigned for a moment broken by a yell from the prisoner so wild so terrible as almost to freeze one’s heart’s blood. Not a single voice to speak for the doomed one all hope left him and he fell insensible on the floor. ... The judge now said “Let the will of the people be done” and adjourned the court.”
  • Proclaimed themselves independent of the natives who were oral, and new immigrants who didn’t have access to the localized infrastructure
  • Larger mass of oral and written communication, print smaller, also more constrained.
  • Native american, it’s okay to lie to them Young gives an account of bad faith negotiation in 1860 (p. 110) “One Hand” set up arrangements for taking possession of the mines and spoke eloquently at length about the agreement. Young’s comment “He got warmed up as he proceeded and I was so carried away by free and bold appearance, his loud manly voice and the convincing force of his arguments that I forgot entirely that it was to an untutored savage that I was listening. There was not a person who heard him but were force to admit the justice of his remarks. Still they treated with derision the idea of paying rent to a savage. “What right had he to the mines what use could he make of them?”
    New site for mining boom towns started with oral accounts.
    Written journal of Luke Tierney, was reprinted with the account of Oats on how to get to the gold mines. It had serious shortcomings:
    “In 1859, Oakes returned to the Colorado region, taking with him a sawmill, which he set up on Plum Creek, about thrity miles south of Denver. On the way out he was nearly mobbed by disappointed goldseekers who charged that his guidebook had given them false report of reputed mines and caused them untold suffering. He was burried in effigy with this epitaph:"Here lie the bones of D.C. Oakes,Who was the starter of this damned hoax."”
    Documentation on rocks and bones, about travelers who passed. Numerous accounts of writing the history of exploration, separating from the oral indigenous people.
  • Written signs of peddlers
    Authority for information, but also to save W.P. Fox from having to answer questions. Oral structure
  • Print brought a dramatic change.
    Byers and Merrick account: John Merrick April 13, 1859, but did not start printing immediately, William N. Byers, Thomas Gibson, and John L. Dailey
    The Horace Greeley, hearing of the rumors of the west, put a party together to issue the Greely which gave the accurate advice “Little time is required to learn the great truth that digging gold is about the hardest way upon earth to obtain it; that in this, as in other pursuits, great success is very rare.”
  • Newspaper printing had increased. Active presses had increased from just the three in 1859 to
  • Newspaper printing had increased. Active presses had increased from just the three in 1859 to 11 in 1862 and 10 in 1863
  • serious infrastructure challenges with printing in the west; paper was hard to get, press were giant and migrated from settlement to settlement; and unease due to the authority of a printer were common (Byers held by hoodlums for what he printed) Why print in the West at all? Seventeen guidebooks were printed ABOUT the west by 1859, only one printed in the west as late as 1861.
  • The key, I think, is this chart again. What was being printed? objects for Immigrant authority, literature was imported. Is it that the locally printed material more genuine and thus more authoritative? Concept of the west as section
  • “Beware of Eastern Maps, Gotten up by parties who have never been in the Territory. Their Maps are wholly inadequate to the wants of the public, and, in most cases, are in detail purely imaginary.” in the Pike’s Peak region (i.e. Kansas Territory)
  • This is the key. Don’t trust the east, by implication, eastern authors, and eastern printers.
    The western printer is privileged to speak for the people of the west and to provide an accurate report.
  • This explains why a successful business man from Omaha moved to Colorado to print and why he printed this manifesto. editorial department independence of partizan, pecuniary, or sectional. Devoted to western interests, esp. central west.
  • Revise this diagram from before
  • Pike’s Peak Writing and Printing... not sure about orality... western written to non-west print?
    This is a manifestation of the section
  • Parallel motifs recontextualized by proximity.
  • Immigration and industrialization

    1. 1. Titles in the Pike’s Peak Region, 1858-1862
    2. 2. Immigrant printing as industrialized authority
    3. 3. OralOral WrittenWritten PrintPrint Authority of Media
    4. 4. JUST LOOKA HERE Don't ask any questions, for God's sake, for here they are all answered. How far is it to Cottonwood Springs? 2 ½ miles, and 42 miles to O'Fallon's Bluffs. How far are we from Kearney? Just 88 miles. How far to Denver? It is 300 miles by old road, 260 by the Cut-Off. Any good water in? Not a d—d drop. Good spring 80 rods beyond, on the road, on the right hand side. Any wood at Cottonwood Springs? No Sir, not a d—d bit? Are you a married man? No sir E. Don't you want a wife? Well, wouldn't object. How long have you lived here? 2 years. Do you like it? Well I does. What's the name of this place? Fox's Springs. How old are you? None of your d—d business, Have you any pies? Yes sir. How do you sell whisky? 15 cents a drink. All of which is respectfully submitted.
    5. 5. Number of Active Presses by Year
    6. 6. Titles in the Pike’s Peak Region, 1858-1862
    7. 7. OralOral WrittenWritten PrintPrint Authority of Media
    8. 8. OralOral WrittenWritten PrintPrint PikePike WrittenWritten Pike Print Authority of Media