Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Crushed by technical debt


Published on

“Technical debt” refers to any quality issues within the implementation of an IT solution that hampers your ability to work with or evolve that solution. Technical debt is often thought of as a source code problem, but it also occurs in your user interface design, in your data sources, in your network architecture, and in many other places. This presentation explores disciplined agile strategies to avoid technical debt in the first place, to remove existing technical debt, and how to fund the removal of technical debt. Industry data regarding technical debt will be shared.

Published in: Software

Crushed by technical debt

  1. 1. Crushed by Technical Debt? Disciplined Agile Strategies to Dig Your Way Out
  2. 2. The primary goal of this presentation is to help you to understand the issues surrounding technical debt. It overviews a collection of strategies for avoiding, finding, fixing, and funding technical debt. © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 2
  3. 3. Let’s explore several important questions… What is technical debt? How can we avoid technical debt? How do we identify technical debt? How do we fix technical debt? When should we accept technical debt? How can we fund technical debt removal? © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 3
  4. 4. The Survey Results Shared in This Presentation •  All surveys were performed in an open manner •  The questions as they were asked, the source data, and a summary slide deck can be downloaded free of charge from © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 4
  5. 5. What is Technical Debt? Technical debt is the accumulation of defects, quality issues (such as difficult to read code or low data quality), poor architecture, and poor design in existing solutions Types of technical debt: –  Code –  Data –  Documentation –  Architectural –  User Interface (UI) –  Operational infrastructure –  Middleware –  Tests (or lack thereof) –  …and many more © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 5
  6. 6. Why Does Technical Debt Occur? •  Business pressures •  Lack of process •  Lack of alignment of implementation to requirements •  Lack of architectural thinking •  Lack of a regression test suite •  Lack of documentation •  Lack of collaborative development •  Poorly coordinated parallel development •  Delayed refactoring •  Lack of alignment to standards •  Lack of knowledge •  Lack of effective governance © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 6 Source: Reworked from Wikipedia
  7. 7. How Aware Are People About Technical Debt? -1.8 1.3 2.3 2.5 3.9 4.9 6.7 Copyright 2015 Scott Ambler + Associates Source: SA+A 2015 Q1 Agile State of the Art Survey Observation: Development teams are often far more aware of technical debt than key decision makers are
  8. 8. Technical Debt Quadrant © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 8 Reckless Prudent Deliberate Inadvertent “We don’t have time for architecture” “We don’t have time for design” “We must ship now and deal with the consequences later” “What is layering?” “What is data normalization?” “What is UX design?” “Now we know how we should have done it” Source: Martin Fowler
  9. 9. Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) is a process decision framework The key characteristics of DAD: –  People-first –  Goal-driven –  Hybrid agile –  Learning-oriented –  Full delivery lifecycle –  Solution focused –  Risk-value lifecycle –  Enterprise aware © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 9 Claim: DAD motivates you towards the prudent end of the spectrum
  10. 10. Disciplined Agile 2.0: The Agile IT Department 10@scottwambler
  11. 11. Avoiding Technical Debt © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 11
  12. 12. Explore the Initial Scope Strategy: –  At the beginning of an endeavor you should invest some time to identify what your stakeholders expect you to deliver –  This should be done in a light- weight manner Why do this? –  Reduces risk of injecting technical debt caused by misunderstanding the domain –  Improves productivity during Construction © Disciplined Agile Consortium 12
  13. 13. Build Quality In From the Beginning © Scott Ambler + Associates 13 Strategy: –  At the beginning of an endeavor you should identify the quality of service (QoS)/non- functional requirements Why do this? –  Reduces risk of injecting technical debt caused by missing key QoS needs Observation: Most architectural debt results from missed QoS requirements
  14. 14. © Disciplined Agile Consortium 14 Goal: Explore Initial Scope Observation: There’s more to agile requirements than writing user stories
  15. 15. Identify the Initial Technical Strategy Strategy: –  At the beginning of an endeavor you should invest some time to identify how the solution is to be built –  This should be done in a light- weight manner Why do this? –  Reduces risk of injecting technical debt caused by inappropriate technical decisions –  Improved productivity during Construction © Disciplined Agile Consortium 15
  16. 16. Architecture Owner •  Guides the creation and evolution of the solution’s architecture •  Mentors and coaches team members in architecture practices and issues •  Understands the architectural direction and standards of your organization and ensures that the team adheres to them •  Ensures the system will be easy to support by encouraging appropriate design and refactoring •  Ensures that the system is integrated and tested frequently •  Has the final decision regarding technical decisions, but doesn’t dictate them •  Leads the initial architecture envisioning effort •  Works closely with enterprise architecture team (if one exists) •  Responsible for technical risk mitigation 16 © Disciplined Agile Consortium Observation: Often leads the avoidance and removal of technical debt
  17. 17. Goal: Identify Initial Technical Strategy © Disciplined Agile Consortium 17 Observation: A little bit of agile architecture modeling can avoid a lot of future rework
  18. 18. Be Enterprise Aware Strategy: –  Disciplined agilists work closely with enterprise professionals, including enterprise architects –  Your architecture owner may be a member of the enterprise architecture (EA) team –  Leverage your existing ecosystem to reuse existing assets such as services, components, data sources, and more Why do this? –  Improves consistency and collaboration between teams, leading to greater quality and thereby lower technical debt © Scott Ambler + Associates 18
  19. 19. Enterprise Architecture Teams © Scott Ambler + Associates 19 Observation: A collaborative, light- weight approach to EA increases the chance that delivery teams will understand and follow the roadmaps
  20. 20. © Disciplined Agile Consortium 20 Observation: Common architectural roadmaps and guidelines can help to avoid injection of new technical debt
  21. 21. © Disciplined Agile Consortium 21 Observation: The greater the level of reuse, the lower overall technical debt
  22. 22. Following Organizational Guidelines © Disciplined Agile Consortium 22 Strategy: –  Teams adopt and follow organizational guidelines Examples of guidelines: –  Development, database, user interface, and coding guidelines –  Testing guidelines (e.g. unit test coverage) –  Governance guidelines –  Architecture guidelines –  Asset reuse guidelines –  Documentation guidelines Why do this? –  Following guidelines can improve quality, consistency, supportability, and consumability of solutions across the organization
  23. 23. © Disciplined Agile Consortium 23 Goal: Align with Enterprise Direction Observation: A lot of technical debt is caused by development teams that don’t understand the “big picture”
  24. 24. Technical Debt Avoidance Strategies Detailed up-front architecture modeling Team members trained in technical debt Team works with Enterprise Architects Team includes Architecture Owner/ Agile Architect Tech debt considered when designing Lightweight up-front architecture 12% 16% 19% 39% 49% 53% Copyright 2015 Scott Ambler + Associates Source: SA+A 2015 Q1 Agile State of the Art Survey
  25. 25. Finding Technical Debt © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 25
  26. 26. Regression Testing © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 26 Strategy: –  Have a full regression test suite for all of your IT assets –  This includes systems/applications, purchased packages, legacy databases, services, and other IT infrastructure components –  Run it often Why do this? –  Enables teams to safely evolve their solutions –  Enables teams to find potential problems at the point in time that they inject them
  27. 27. Test-First Development (TFD) © Disciplined Agile Consortium 27 Strategy: –  Write a single test before you write just enough production code to fulfill that test Why do this? –  Forces you to think before you code –  Results in development of higher- quality assets –  Reduces technical debt associated with poor requirements or poor design
  28. 28. Automated Tooling to Detect Technical Debt Strategy –  Include static and dynamic code analysis in your continuous integration (CI) strategy Many potential code analysis tools: –  CAST –  SonarQube –  Checkstyle –  FindBugs –  Database schema tools such as TOAD are emerging Why do this? –  Straightforward and easy way to identify potential quality problems © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 28
  29. 29. Continuous Integration (CI) 29 © Disciplined Agile Consortium Strategy –  Automatically build, test, and measure your work whenever you check a file in Why do this? –  Enables previously mentioned techniques, including regression testing, TFD, and static/dynamic analysis
  30. 30. Measure Technical Debt Strategy –  Make measurement of technical a common practice across your organization Subjective measures: –  We know it when we see it Potential objective measures: –  Quality metrics from code analysis tools –  Defect trends –  Cycle time –  Coverage testing Why do this? –  Provides insight into the extent of your technical debt problem, thereby motivating the need to invest in its removal © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 30 Observation: What gets measured gets improved
  31. 31. Technical Debt Identification Strategies Explictly measure tech debt across IT Continuous integration strategy includes the database Measure tech debt within teams Continous integration includes code analysis We know technical debt when we see it 8% 10% 20% 35% 61% Copyright 2015 Scott Ambler + Associates Source: SA+A 2015 Q1 Agile State of the Art Survey Observation: If you can’t consistently identify technical debt then you can’t fix it
  32. 32. Fixing Technical Debt © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 32
  33. 33. Refactoring Strategy –  Make simple changes to your design that improves the quality without changing its semantics (in a practical manner) Examples –  Rename operation –  Introduce variable –  Rename column –  Align entry fields Why do this –  Enables us to safely improve the quality of our work, including legacy systems © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 33
  34. 34. Database Refactoring Strategy –  Fix data quality problems via simple refactorings of your database Why do it? –  Data is a corporate asset, or at least it should be –  Significant data technical debt exists in your legacy data sources © Scott Ambler + Associates 34 Challenge: Refactoring is still considered a radical concept within the data management community
  35. 35. Technical Debt Removal Strategies Database refactoring User interface refactoring Code refactoring 38% 53% 90% Copyright 2015 Scott Ambler + Associates Source: SA+A 2015 Q1 Agile State of the Art Survey
  36. 36. Accepting Technical Debt © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 36
  37. 37. Explicitly Accept Technical Debt Strategy –  Explicitly accept existing technical debt, or even accept injection of new technical debt –  This is a business decision that is the responsibility of the Product Owner –  The team, in particular your Architecture Owner, must educate the Product Owner on the implications of accepting technical debt Why do this? –  Sometimes it makes sense to accept technical debt in the short term, particularly given schedule constraints © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 37 Architecture Owner Product Owner Recommendation: Document the reasons in your architecture handbook as to why you accepted the technical debt
  38. 38. Challenges •  Business doesn’t understand technical debt •  Business wants new functionality •  Time-to-market concerns are often allowed to override long-term sustainability concerns •  Acceptance of technical debt is typically the result of short-term tactical thinking, not long- term strategic thinking © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 38
  39. 39. Funding Removal of Technical Debt © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 39
  40. 40. Explicitly Fund Removal of Technical Debt Strategy –  Choose a strategy to fund the removal of technical debt Why do this? –  It requires investment to remove technical debt © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 40 Option Advantages Disadvantages Built-Into Team Budget •  Easy to estimate costs •  Often insufficient •  TD removal often dropped in favor of new development •  Seen as an overhead Technical Stories •  Easy to estimate costs •  Explicit funding strategy for small-scale TD removal •  Clear impact on team velocity motivates deprioritization of such stories Projects •  Explicit funding strategy for large-scale TD removal •  Becomes a big ticket item in your IT budget
  41. 41. Govern Technical Debt Strategy –  Explicitly include technical debt in your IT governance activities Potential activities –  Monitor and track technical debt –  Educate, coach, and mentor people in technical debt skills and thinking –  Set organizational and team goals related to technical debt Why do this? –  Gets senior management behind the avoidance and removal of technical debt © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 41
  42. 42. Technical Debt Funding Strategies Cost of addressing tech debt is tracked Value of addressing tech debt is tracked Specific projects to pay down tech debt Paying down tech debt automatically funded Specific requirements to pay down tech debt 5% 14% 23% 48% 49% Copyright 2015 Scott Ambler + Associates Source: SA+A 2015 Q1 Agile State of the Art Survey
  43. 43. © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 43
  44. 44. Technical Debt Requires a Culture Change •  Make technical debt awareness part of your culture •  Educate people in technical debt and the implications of it •  Help people recognize the tradeoffs that they’re making •  Communicate, communicate, communicate © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 44
  45. 45. You Can Address Technical Debt •  This presentation shared a collection of strategies to: –  Avoid technical debt –  Find and fix technical debt –  Find and accept technical debt –  Fund technical debt related efforts © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 45 Adage: The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago. The next best time is today.
  46. 46. If You Don’t Address Technical Debt… © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 46
  47. 47. Thank you – Questions? •  Scott Ambler + Associates – – @scottwambler •  Disciplined Agile Delivery: A Practitioner’s Guide, by Scott Ambler & Mark Lines •  Introduction to Disciplined Agile Delivery: A Small Team’s Journey, by Mark Lines and Scott Ambler • • •  DAD LinkedIn Discussion Group: – 47
  48. 48. Scott Ambler + Associates is the thought leader behind the Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) framework and its application. We are a boutique IT management consulting firm that advises organizations to be more effective applying disciplined agile and lean processes within the context of your business. Our website is We can help © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 48
  49. 49. For the Certified Disciplined Agilists among us… This webinar counts as one hour towards your education time to maintain your certification See for details © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 49
  50. 50. Shuhari and Disciplined Agile Certification At the shu stage you are beginning to learn the techniques and philosophies of disciplined agile development. Your goal is to build a strong foundation from which to build upon. At the ha stage you reflect upon and question why disciplined agile strategies work, seeking to understand the range of strategies available to you and when they are best applied. At the ri stage you seek to extend and improve upon disciplined agile techniques, sharing your learnings with others. © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium 50
  51. 51. Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) Disciplined Agile Delivery: The Foundation for Scaling Agile © 2015 Disciplined Agile Consortium Scrum LeanKanban Unified Process Agile Modeling And more…“Traditional”DevOps Team Size Geographic Distribution Compliance Domain Complexity Technical Complexity Organizational Distribution Team Culture Organizational Culture DAD leverages proven strategies from several sources, providing a decision framework to guide your adoption and tailoring of them in a context-driven manner. 51