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Using Emotional Intelligence to
Increase Work Engagement in
Process Improvement Experts

          Dr. Scott Thor
Speaker Bio: Scott Thor
• Associate with Variance Reduction International, Inc.
• UC Irvine Lean and Six Sigma Instructor
...
You have a choice…
                      I Ilove
                          love
                     Mondays!
            ...
Outline

•   Lean and Six Sigma success and failure
•   The problem of engagement
•   Defining the constructs
•   Research...
Question?
• How many of you have been involved with
  a process improvement project that didn’t
  achieve the desired resu...
Lean and Six Sigma Success
            0%           100%   Process & Tools
                   50%
   People   100%        ...
Lean and Six Sigma “Human” Failure Modes
+ Senior and middle management support
+ Lack of execution
+ Ineffective mentorin...
The Effects of Low Engagement
         • $340B loss / year1
         • ~30% disengaged2
         • Increased absenteeism, ...
Why is engagement so low?
• External factors – lots of research!
  – Manager
  – Job resources
  – Recognition
  – Opportu...
The History of Emotional Intelligence
• 1920 Thorndike “social intelligence”
• 1950s Wechsler IQ testing
• 1983 Gardner mu...
Defining Emotional Intelligence
• The ability to identify, use, understand
  and manage emotions in ourselves and
  others
Identifying Emotions
                                             Skillful                                                ...
Can you identify emotions?
• I find it hard to understand the non‑ verbal
  messages of other people

• By looking at thei...
Using Emotions
                                             Skillful                                                      ...
How well do you use emotions?
• When I am in a positive mood:
  – Solving problems is easy for me
  – I am able to come up...
Understanding Emotions
                                             Skillful                                              ...
Do you understand emotions?
• Other people find it easy to confide in me

• I help other people feel better when they
  ar...
Managing Emotions
                                             Skillful                                                   ...
How well do you manage emotions?
• When I am faced with obstacles, I
  remember times I faced similar obstacles
  and over...
The History of Engagement
• 1940s
  – Hawthorne experiments
  – Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
• 1950s McGregor “Theory X and Y...
Defining Work Engagement
         • “a positive, fulfilling, affective−motivational
           state of work−related well ...
Vigor
•   High energy level
•   Willingness to invest in work
•   Resilience and not easily fatigued
•   Ability to deal p...
What level of vigor do you have?
• At my work, I feel bursting with energy

• When I get up in the morning, I feel like
  ...
Dedication
•   Meaningful work
•   Sense of significance in work
•   Proud of and enthusiastic to pursue
•   Find work cha...
How dedicated are you?
• I find the work that I do full of meaning and
  purpose

• My job inspires me

• I am proud of th...
Absorption
• Characterized by how immersed an
  individual is in their work
• Time seems to pass by quickly
• Everything o...
How absorbed in your work are you?
• Time flies when I am working

• When I am working, I forget everything
  else around ...
Research Hypotheses
H1: A positive relationship exists between
    emotional intelligence (EI) and work
    engagement (WE...
Study Methodology
• 50,000 US and Canadian ASQ members
  solicited
• 5,187 participated
• November – December 2011
• Asses...
Study Demographics
•   61% male – 39% female
•   46-55 years old (39% female, 37% male)
•   49% manufacturing sector
•   6...
H1 Results
         • Moderate statistically significant correlation
           between EI and WE1
         • EI predicted...
H2 Results – Emotional Intelligence
                 Effect       No Effect

Gender             X

Age                    ...
H3 Results – Work Engagement
                 Effect   No Effect

Gender                         X

Age                   ...
Research Conclusions
• High emotional intelligence may lead to
  greater work engagement
  – Ability to manage emotions ha...
And now for the “touchy-feely” stuff…
Increasing Emotional Intelligence
• Pay attention to:
    – Facial expressions
    – Body language
    – Speech
•   Keep a...
Increasing Emotional Intelligence
•   Emotion vs. reason list
•   Count to ten
•   Schedule a routine “clarity break”
•   ...
What else drives work engagement?
•   Clarity – knowing what is expected
•   Focus on strengths
•   Growth opportunities
•...
Holistic View of Work Engagement




                   Lean and       Work
                   Six Sigma   Engagement
    ...
Healthy Lean and Six Sigma
    Lean and                           Lean and              Healthy
   Six Sigma IQ           ...
Summary
         • Emotions are data about people
         • Human emotions are a powerful source of
           energy for...
Appendix
Using Emotional Intelligence to Increase Work
Engagement in Process Improvement Experts
What about money?
         • Higher pay doesn’t guarantee increased
           engagement1
         • Important to attract...
How can I measure my EI and WE?
• Emotional Intelligence
  http://www.eiconsortium.org/measures/measures.htm
• Engagement
...
Where can I learn more about EI and WE?
Taking a DMAIC Approach to Improve EI and WE
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Emotional Intelligence and Work Engagement

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This presentation provides an overview of research in which over 5,000 U.S. ASQ members contributed. The research centered on the relationship between emotional intelligence and work engagement in process improvement experts. Conclusions from the research suggest individuals who can manage their emotions are more likely to be engaged in their work.

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Emotional Intelligence and Work Engagement

  1. 1. Using Emotional Intelligence to Increase Work Engagement in Process Improvement Experts Dr. Scott Thor
  2. 2. Speaker Bio: Scott Thor • Associate with Variance Reduction International, Inc. • UC Irvine Lean and Six Sigma Instructor • Certified MBB, ASQ certified BB, quality engineer, and manager of quality / OE • 20 yrs. experience working within multiple industries (IT, mfg., energy, automotive, and construction) • Doctorate in management, MBA, BS Industrial Technology • Bakersfield, CA
  3. 3. You have a choice… I Ilove love Mondays! Mondays! Is it Is it Friday Friday yet? yet?
  4. 4. Outline • Lean and Six Sigma success and failure • The problem of engagement • Defining the constructs • Research • Discussion
  5. 5. Question? • How many of you have been involved with a process improvement project that didn’t achieve the desired results? – Was the failure because of technical issue? – Was the failure due to a human issue?
  6. 6. Lean and Six Sigma Success 0% 100% Process & Tools 50% People 100% 0%
  7. 7. Lean and Six Sigma “Human” Failure Modes + Senior and middle management support + Lack of execution + Ineffective mentoring + Time + Teamwork = Lack of engagement
  8. 8. The Effects of Low Engagement • $340B loss / year1 • ~30% disengaged2 • Increased absenteeism, turnover, theft, and accidents3 • Personal impact • Societal impact Source 1: Rivera, A., & Flinck, J. (2011). Employee-led, employee engagement in the federal government: SAMHSA peoplefirst. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(4), 479-493. Source 2: Towers Perrin/Towers Watson (2003). Working today: Understanding what drive employee engagement. Retrieved from http://www.towerswatson.com Source 3: Wagner, R., & Harter, J. K. (2006). 12: The elements of great managing. New York, NY: Gallup Press.
  9. 9. Why is engagement so low? • External factors – lots of research! – Manager – Job resources – Recognition – Opportunities to learn • Internal factors – very little research! – Emotional intelligence
  10. 10. The History of Emotional Intelligence • 1920 Thorndike “social intelligence” • 1950s Wechsler IQ testing • 1983 Gardner multiple intelligences • 1988 Bar-On coins term “EQ” • 1990 Mayer and Salovey use “emotional intelligence” in journal article • 1995 Goleman writes Emotional Intelligence
  11. 11. Defining Emotional Intelligence • The ability to identify, use, understand and manage emotions in ourselves and others
  12. 12. Identifying Emotions Skillful Not Skillful Will talk about feelings Doesn’t talk about feelings Can show how they feel Never shows how they feel Reads people accurately Fails to identify how others feel Good at recognizing own Misunderstands own feelings feelings Source: Caruso, D. R. & Salovey, P. (2004). The emotionally intelligent manager: How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  13. 13. Can you identify emotions? • I find it hard to understand the non‑ verbal messages of other people • By looking at their facial expressions, I recognize the emotions people are experiencing • I can tell how people are feeling by listening to the tone of their voice
  14. 14. Using Emotions Skillful Not Skillful Creative thinker Practical and concrete Inspires people Doesn’t motivate others Beliefs and opinions are Emotions improve thinking unchanged by emotions Source: Caruso, D. R. & Salovey, P. (2004). The emotionally intelligent manager: How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  15. 15. How well do you use emotions? • When I am in a positive mood: – Solving problems is easy for me – I am able to come up with new ideas • When I feel a change in emotions, I tend to come up with new ideas
  16. 16. Understanding Emotions Skillful Not Skillful Makes correct assumptions Misunderstands people about people Knows the right thing to say Gets on people’s nerves Source: Caruso, D. R. & Salovey, P. (2004). The emotionally intelligent manager: How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  17. 17. Do you understand emotions? • Other people find it easy to confide in me • I help other people feel better when they are down • When another person tells me about an important event in his or her life, I almost feel as though I experienced this event myself
  18. 18. Managing Emotions Skillful Not Skillful Can “psych up”, calm down, or Is a slave to passions, let their maintain a mood, as desirable emotions manage them Has no intentional impact on Can cheer others up, calm others’ feelings; has others down, or manage others’ unintentional impact on others’ feelings appropriately feelings Cannot connect with other Inspires other people people Source: Caruso, D. R. & Salovey, P. (2004). The emotionally intelligent manager: How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  19. 19. How well do you manage emotions? • When I am faced with obstacles, I remember times I faced similar obstacles and overcame them • When I experience a positive emotion, I know how to make it last • I use good moods to help myself keep trying in the face of obstacles
  20. 20. The History of Engagement • 1940s – Hawthorne experiments – Maslow Hierarchy of Needs • 1950s McGregor “Theory X and Y” • 1990 Kahn first “engagement” study • 2000s – Towers Watson and Gallup “employee engagement” – Schaufeli & Bakker “work engagement”
  21. 21. Defining Work Engagement • “a positive, fulfilling, affective−motivational state of work−related well being that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption” Source: Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health and psychology. Work & Stress, 22(3), 187-200.
  22. 22. Vigor • High energy level • Willingness to invest in work • Resilience and not easily fatigued • Ability to deal persistently with difficult situations
  23. 23. What level of vigor do you have? • At my work, I feel bursting with energy • When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work • I can continue working for very long periods at a time • At my work, I always persevere, even when things do not go well
  24. 24. Dedication • Meaningful work • Sense of significance in work • Proud of and enthusiastic to pursue • Find work challenging and inspiring
  25. 25. How dedicated are you? • I find the work that I do full of meaning and purpose • My job inspires me • I am proud of the work that I do • To me, my job is challenging
  26. 26. Absorption • Characterized by how immersed an individual is in their work • Time seems to pass by quickly • Everything outside of work is absent from thoughts
  27. 27. How absorbed in your work are you? • Time flies when I am working • When I am working, I forget everything else around me • I am immersed in my work • It is difficult to detach myself from my job
  28. 28. Research Hypotheses H1: A positive relationship exists between emotional intelligence (EI) and work engagement (WE) H2: There is no significant difference in EI and age, education, org level H3: There is no significant difference in WE and age, education, org level, years in current position, Six Sigma or ASQ certification
  29. 29. Study Methodology • 50,000 US and Canadian ASQ members solicited • 5,187 participated • November – December 2011 • Assessing Emotions Scale (EI) • Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (WE)
  30. 30. Study Demographics • 61% male – 39% female • 46-55 years old (39% female, 37% male) • 49% manufacturing sector • 61% management – 33% employee • 50% >15 years PI experience • 80% Bachelor degree or higher • 51% Six Sigma certification • 53% no ASQ certification
  31. 31. H1 Results • Moderate statistically significant correlation between EI and WE1 • EI predicted a statistically significant portion of WE2 • Managing emotions predicted the largest amount of variability in WE3 1. r = 0.416, p <0.001 2. R2 = 17.3%, p <0.001 3. R2 = 22.6%, p <0.001
  32. 32. H2 Results – Emotional Intelligence Effect No Effect Gender X Age X Education X Org Level X
  33. 33. H3 Results – Work Engagement Effect No Effect Gender X Age X Education X Tenure X Org Level X Six Sigma Cert X ASQ Cert X
  34. 34. Research Conclusions • High emotional intelligence may lead to greater work engagement – Ability to manage emotions has greatest impact on work engagement • Engaged individuals don’t leave • Higher education has an effect on EI and WE • Senior managers have the highest EI and WE
  35. 35. And now for the “touchy-feely” stuff…
  36. 36. Increasing Emotional Intelligence • Pay attention to: – Facial expressions – Body language – Speech • Keep an emotional journal • Seek feedback • Ask, “How are you feeling?” • Confirm, “I sense you’re feeling…”
  37. 37. Increasing Emotional Intelligence • Emotion vs. reason list • Count to ten • Schedule a routine “clarity break” • Do something active • Know who and what pushes your buttons
  38. 38. What else drives work engagement? • Clarity – knowing what is expected • Focus on strengths • Growth opportunities • Socially supportive environment • Routine performance feedback
  39. 39. Holistic View of Work Engagement Lean and Work Six Sigma Engagement Process
  40. 40. Healthy Lean and Six Sigma Lean and Lean and Healthy Six Sigma IQ Six Sigma HQ Lean and Six Sigma Intelligence Factors Human Factors Tools People (right people, right seats) Process (DMAIC) Teams (trust, conflict, Training (belts, committed, accountable, champs, exec’s) results focused) Organizational Behaviors (behavior Knowledge analysis, performance management) IQ (individuals, teams, organization) Emotional intelligence Work engagement Experience “Brains” of Lean “Life-Blood” of Lean and Six Sigma and Six Sigma Lean and Six Sigma Probability of Success
  41. 41. Summary • Emotions are data about people • Human emotions are a powerful source of energy for action1 • You have a choice to be engaged or disengaged • Work without meaning is a life without meaning “Why are we here? We are here to come alive, to have fun, “Why are we here? We are here to come alive, to have fun, to have joy in work.”22 – W. Edwards Deming to have joy in work.” – W. Edwards Deming Source 1: Deci, E.L., & Flaste, R. (1995). Why we do what we do: Understanding self-motivation. Penguin Books: New York, NY. Source 2: Neave, H. R. (1990). The Deming dimension. SPC Press, Inc.: Knoxville, TN.
  42. 42. Appendix Using Emotional Intelligence to Increase Work Engagement in Process Improvement Experts
  43. 43. What about money? • Higher pay doesn’t guarantee increased engagement1 • Important to attraction and retention 2 • Money only works in combination with other engagement factors2 • Pay a “fair” wage and money becomes less of an engagement issue • Use ASQ salary survey to determine wages Source 1: Wagner, R., & Harter, J. K. (2006). 12: The elements of great managing. New York, NY: Gallup Press. Source 2: Towers Watson (2012). Global workforce study. Retrieved from http://www.towerswatson.com
  44. 44. How can I measure my EI and WE? • Emotional Intelligence http://www.eiconsortium.org/measures/measures.htm • Engagement –Utrecht Work Engagement Scale • http://www.wilmarschaufeli.nl/downloads/test-manuals/ –Gallup Q12 (employee engagement) • http://www.gallup.com/strategicconsulting/employeeeng
  45. 45. Where can I learn more about EI and WE?
  46. 46. Taking a DMAIC Approach to Improve EI and WE
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This presentation provides an overview of research in which over 5,000 U.S. ASQ members contributed. The research centered on the relationship between emotional intelligence and work engagement in process improvement experts. Conclusions from the research suggest individuals who can manage their emotions are more likely to be engaged in their work.

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