LivingSocial’sincreasing focus on behavioral changeaction design dc • january 15, 2013       scott stroud & liz odar
daily deals     escapes   fun & events       shoptakeout & delivery
what is action  design?
design to influence     behavior    (behavior = a range of actions)
action design  at LivingSocial
user research
what is user research?
“Providing insights into product users,their perspectives, and their abilities tothe right people at the right time.”     ...
common questions• what are users looking for?• what do they care about?• can they use this thing?• why are they doing X?• ...
research methods     Usability tests    Un-moderated                            tests     Contextual                   Cus...
lab
tools we use recruit        livingsocial.com/research screen share record                  Silverback other
diary studies  data collection powered by Twilio  Send a Question!                                                Particip...
twilio + ruby = journioa new user research tool        Manage multiple studies!   Create Groups!         Threaded Response...
current process    » hypothesis    » research    » analyze    » report    » design    » launch    » measure
➜we need a better framework   to help user research      influence design
+   example:the redemption    problem
the problem                                 +• flood of consumers at the beginning and endof redemption period• consumers ...
identify KPIs(key performance    indicators)
KPIs                                   +• reduce refunds by x %• increase voucher redemptions by x%• even out distribution...
consumers         merchantsidentify goals, behaviors, &         motivations     of each persona
user goals                       +• don’t waste money• find the merchant’s location• have a good experience
given what we knowabout goals & KPIs,what actions do wewant to encourage?     or stop?
desired actions                               +• use voucher early, but not during a spike• find merchant without hassle• ...
how do we change   behavior?(first, understand what makes a behavior                 happen)
the behavior model   bj fogg (stanford university)
behaviors =              motivations                            abilities                                        triggers ...
core motivatorspleasure                painhope                    fearsocial acceptance   rejection
motivators                                             +what motivates me to redeem?  pleasure of experiencing the restaur...
motivators                                      +... at a time that’s good for me and good for themerchant?   hope that th...
motivators                                              +what motivates me to let a deal expire?   nothing (I forgot)   fe...
abilities(time/money, willingness, brain power,           social friction)
abilities                                        +what makes it simple for me to redeem at aoptimal time?    understanding...
triggers (do it! now.)
activation threshold                          (Fogg behavior model)     high                                            ✔ ...
choose types of triggers thatmatch motivation and ability
types of triggers                    (Fogg behavior model)      high              facilitator                   signalmoti...
types of triggers                    (Fogg behavior model)      high              facilitator                   signalmoti...
triggers                                         +what triggers me to redeem a voucher at a goodtime?   memory that I own ...
behavior chains  (trigger small actions first)
how do weprioritize?
1) what is the  likelihood we’llchange/create/stop   the behavior?
2) if the behavior      changes,what is the relative  impact to KPIs?
15 types of behavior change              do        do             new      familiar   increase   decrease         stop    ...
find the right mix of triggers,      ability, motivators                     credit: flickr user rosa y dani
want to increase a behavior? +++ motivators             +++ triggers                  make it                  easier
want to stop a behavior?de-motivate             remove triggers              make it              harder
design solutions                                +• use voucher early, but not during a spike     send reminder emails/noti...
design solutions                                +• find merchant without hassle       make it easy to find the merchant lo...
design solutions                                    +• give voucher as a gift to someone else        present gift options ...
design solutions                                         +• redeem for paid value if expired    send reminders/notificatio...
how do we know if    our design solutions actuallychanged behavior?
measure real world actions.
how do we know ifchanged behaviors  lead to desired    outcomes?
measure KPIs.
our current world     » hypothesis     » research     » analyze     » report     » design     » launch     » measure
our new world» define KPIs & user goals» define target actions» understand» design for desired behaviors» measure actions»...
our new world» user research organizes findingsaccording to b =» product owners & designers havea mixing board» focus on u...
discussion
Action Design DC: LivingSocial's Increasing Focus on Behavioral Change
Action Design DC: LivingSocial's Increasing Focus on Behavioral Change
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Action Design DC: LivingSocial's Increasing Focus on Behavioral Change

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This presentation was part of the Action Design DC Meetup on January 15th, 2013 .

Scott Stroud, Director of User Experience for LivingSocial, and Liz Odar, LivingSocial's Manager of User Research, describe LivingSocial’s ongoing research and product development around people's daily behavior.

The presentation gives an overview of LivingSocial’s UX work in understanding how existing common behaviors can be channeled effectively and how new, helpful patterns can be influenced and encouraged.

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Action Design DC: LivingSocial's Increasing Focus on Behavioral Change

  1. 1. LivingSocial’sincreasing focus on behavioral changeaction design dc • january 15, 2013 scott stroud & liz odar
  2. 2. daily deals escapes fun & events shoptakeout & delivery
  3. 3. what is action design?
  4. 4. design to influence behavior (behavior = a range of actions)
  5. 5. action design at LivingSocial
  6. 6. user research
  7. 7. what is user research?
  8. 8. “Providing insights into product users,their perspectives, and their abilities tothe right people at the right time.” Tomer Sharon UX Research, Google
  9. 9. common questions• what are users looking for?• what do they care about?• can they use this thing?• why are they doing X?• why are they not doing Y?
  10. 10. research methods Usability tests Un-moderated tests Contextual Customer Service Inquiry Shadowing Diary Studies
  11. 11. lab
  12. 12. tools we use recruit livingsocial.com/research screen share record Silverback other
  13. 13. diary studies data collection powered by Twilio Send a Question! Participants Receive!& Reply! Collect! + Web! SMS! Voice ! or! SMS! Smart Phone designed by Stefan Bumbeck from The Noun Project! List designed by Jose Manuel Rodriguez from The Noun Project!
  14. 14. twilio + ruby = journioa new user research tool Manage multiple studies! Create Groups! Threaded Responses! Higher Participation Rate Easier for Participants Easier for Researchers
  15. 15. current process » hypothesis » research » analyze » report » design » launch » measure
  16. 16. ➜we need a better framework to help user research influence design
  17. 17. + example:the redemption problem
  18. 18. the problem +• flood of consumers at the beginning and endof redemption period• consumers ask for refunds if they can’t get inbefore expiration• merchants are overwhelmed by spikes• merchants want returning, loyal customers
  19. 19. identify KPIs(key performance indicators)
  20. 20. KPIs +• reduce refunds by x %• increase voucher redemptions by x%• even out distribution over redemptionperiod• increase customer & merchantsatisfaction
  21. 21. consumers merchantsidentify goals, behaviors, & motivations of each persona
  22. 22. user goals +• don’t waste money• find the merchant’s location• have a good experience
  23. 23. given what we knowabout goals & KPIs,what actions do wewant to encourage? or stop?
  24. 24. desired actions +• use voucher early, but not during a spike• find merchant without hassle• give voucher as a gift to someone else• redeem for paid value if expired
  25. 25. how do we change behavior?(first, understand what makes a behavior happen)
  26. 26. the behavior model bj fogg (stanford university)
  27. 27. behaviors = motivations abilities triggers at the same moment
  28. 28. core motivatorspleasure painhope fearsocial acceptance rejection
  29. 29. motivators +what motivates me to redeem? pleasure of experiencing the restaurant, spa, etc. pleasure of checking it off to-do list social acceptance of <going to a restaurant> with someone special or a group hope of finding a new favorite spot fear of wasting money if I don’t redeem
  30. 30. motivators +... at a time that’s good for me and good for themerchant? hope that the merchant won’t be slammed social acceptance by the merchant when they are free to spend more time with you fear that I’ll forget if I wait any longer
  31. 31. motivators +what motivates me to let a deal expire? nothing (I forgot) fear of not having someone to go with (see also: rejection) fear of being part of the last-minute rush fear of my own dissatisfaction
  32. 32. abilities(time/money, willingness, brain power, social friction)
  33. 33. abilities +what makes it simple for me to redeem at aoptimal time? understanding how vouchers work, when they expire, and where to find the ones I own knowing where the merchant is located and how to contact them if needed knowing when the merchant is least busy (or vibrant)
  34. 34. triggers (do it! now.)
  35. 35. activation threshold (Fogg behavior model) high ✔ triggers succeedmotivation ✘ low triggers fail hard to do ability easy to do
  36. 36. choose types of triggers thatmatch motivation and ability
  37. 37. types of triggers (Fogg behavior model) high facilitator signalmotivation spark low hard to do ability easy to do
  38. 38. types of triggers (Fogg behavior model) high facilitator signalmotivation spark low hard to do ability easy to do
  39. 39. triggers +what triggers me to redeem a voucher at a goodtime? memory that I own the voucher reminder email from LivingSocial app or site notification mobile OS notification (e.g., apple iOS passbook push notif based on location)
  40. 40. behavior chains (trigger small actions first)
  41. 41. how do weprioritize?
  42. 42. 1) what is the likelihood we’llchange/create/stop the behavior?
  43. 43. 2) if the behavior changes,what is the relative impact to KPIs?
  44. 44. 15 types of behavior change do do new familiar increase decrease stop behavior behaviorone timeperiodof timefrom now on (source: Fogg behavior model)
  45. 45. find the right mix of triggers, ability, motivators credit: flickr user rosa y dani
  46. 46. want to increase a behavior? +++ motivators +++ triggers make it easier
  47. 47. want to stop a behavior?de-motivate remove triggers make it harder
  48. 48. design solutions +• use voucher early, but not during a spike send reminder emails/notifications a few weeks after purchase, but stagger who gets them when
  49. 49. design solutions +• find merchant without hassle make it easy to find the merchant location (e.g., better mapping features on mobile app)
  50. 50. design solutions +• give voucher as a gift to someone else present gift options after purchase, especially in reminders motivate with the pleasure of gift-giving
  51. 51. design solutions +• redeem for paid value if expired send reminders/notifications even after expiration explaining paid value reissue a voucher for paid amount after expiration educate merchants on how to redeem vouchers post- expiration
  52. 52. how do we know if our design solutions actuallychanged behavior?
  53. 53. measure real world actions.
  54. 54. how do we know ifchanged behaviors lead to desired outcomes?
  55. 55. measure KPIs.
  56. 56. our current world » hypothesis » research » analyze » report » design » launch » measure
  57. 57. our new world» define KPIs & user goals» define target actions» understand» design for desired behaviors» measure actions» measure KPIs
  58. 58. our new world» user research organizes findingsaccording to b =» product owners & designers havea mixing board» focus on user actions that moveKPIs
  59. 59. discussion

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