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Vs199 hd/data essentials sc master rev3_10_2013_compressed_4_slideshare

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Vs199 hd/data essentials sc master rev3_10_2013_compressed_4_slideshare

  1. 1. Instructor: Scott Carrey Course Evaluation: www.vs.edu/survey
  2. 2. Instructor: Scott Carrey Course Evaluation: www.vs.edu/survey
  3. 3. A high definition TV is one that offers significantly higher resolution as compared to the traditional prevailing system.
  4. 4. A high definition TV is one that offers significantly higher resolution as compared to the traditional prevailing system. It’s essentially a marketing term more than any one specific standard. If a capture or playback device can do so with higher quality than what we have been considering standard def, then it can be deemed hi-def. For our purposes though we are going to focus on media Traditionally HDTV was analog, then digital, and in both cases comprised of data.
  5. 5. Key Moments In HD History
  6. 6. Key Moments In HD History -1936 Britain/1938 France, start transmitting in what they refer to as HDTV. Earlier systems had as few as 30 lines of resolution, these ran 240(p) described as sequential, 377i, 441i, & in ’48, 768i(HD by today but b/w only)
  7. 7. Key Moments In HD History -1936 Britain/1938 France, start transmitting in what they refer to as HDTV. Earlier systems had as few as 30 lines of resolution, these ran 240(p) described as sequential, 377i, 441i, & in ’48, 768i(HD by today but b/w only) -1958, U.S.S.R creates ―Transformator‖ the first high resolution television capable of producing an image composed of 1,125 lines. Aimed at teleconferencing for military command, ended up a research project never deploying in the military or broadcasting.
  8. 8. Key Moments In HD History -1936 Britain/1938 France, start transmitting in what they refer to as HDTV. Earlier systems had as few as 30 lines of resolution, these ran 240(p) described as sequential, 377i, 441i, & in ’48, 768i(HD by today but b/w only) -1958, U.S.S.R creates ―Transformator‖ the first high resolution television capable of producing an image composed of 1,125 lines. Aimed at teleconferencing for military command, ended up a research project never deploying in the military or broadcasting. -1960’s, Development (on what we consider HDTV today) began by Japanese state broadcaster NHK. In 1979 marketed to consumers as ―Hi-Vision‖ or MUSE (multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding) (1080i/1125 lines)
  9. 9. Key Moments In HD History -1936 Britain/1938 France, start transmitting in what they refer to as HDTV. Earlier systems had as few as 30 lines of resolution, these ran 240(p) described as sequential, 377i, 441i, & in ’48, 768i(HD by today but b/w only) -1958, U.S.S.R creates ―Transformator‖ the first high resolution television capable of producing an image composed of 1,125 lines. Aimed at teleconferencing for military command, ended up a research project never deploying in the military or broadcasting. -1960’s, Development (on what we consider HDTV today) began by Japanese state broadcaster NHK. In 1979 marketed to consumers as ―Hi-Vision‖ or MUSE (multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding) (1080i/1125 lines) -1981 MUSE demo’d in the US, Regan declares “a matter of national interest” to develop HDTV in the USA
  10. 10. Key Moments In HD History -1936 Britain/1938 France, start transmitting in what they refer to as HDTV. Earlier systems had as few as 30 lines of resolution, these ran 240(p) described as sequential, 377i, 441i, & in ’48, 768i(HD by today but b/w only) -1958, U.S.S.R creates ―Transformator‖ the first high resolution television capable of producing an image composed of 1,125 lines. Aimed at teleconferencing for military command, ended up a research project never deploying in the military or broadcasting. -1960’s, Development (on what we consider HDTV today) began by Japanese state broadcaster NHK. In 1979 marketed to consumers as ―Hi-Vision‖ or MUSE (multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding) (1080i/1125 lines) -1981 MUSE demo’d in the US, Regan declares “a matter of national interest” to develop HDTV in the USA -1986 First commercial introduction of HDTV production equipment in the US begins. (1990 first broadcasts, 1996+ Mainstream Adoption)
  11. 11. Key Moments In HD History -NHK: In 1988, Olympic Games shot in HDTV. Bell Systems ships HD signal over fiber optics.
  12. 12. Key Moments In HD History -NHK: In 1988, Olympic Games shot in HDTV. Bell Systems ships HD signal over fiber optics. Parallel Present Day Moment (look @ where we came from to see where we are going) -Beijing Olympics first to Stream
  13. 13. Key Moments In HD History -NHK succeeded in showing the world's first Hi-vision (HDTV) pictures of our planet, taken from the space shuttle "Discovery" which went into orbit on October 29, 1998.
  14. 14. Key Moments In HD History -NHK succeeded in showing the world's first Hi-vision (HDTV) pictures of our planet, taken from the space shuttle "Discovery" which went into orbit on October 29, 1998. Parallel Present Day Moment (look @ where we came from to see where we are going) -Skype Call From Space Lab
  15. 15.  We Sample the world around us (encoding) and Process as DATA (replicating human functions), or in the case of documents, texts, CGI, etc. generated as DATA, directly within a Software Tool.  DATA is Created & Read as Binary Information  This Binary Info is what makes up Any & All media  It is the DNA of DATA!
  16. 16. BIT (short for ―binary digit‖) is the smallest unit of measurable data and contains two possible states represented by a 1 or 0 - sometimes referred to as On or Off, High or Low, True or False
  17. 17. Measuring, Converting & Communicating in Bits!
  18. 18. 1 Byte = 8-bits Byte is short for ―Binary Term‖
  19. 19. 1 Byte = 8-bits Byte = Binary Term Byte
  20. 20. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = ????-bits
  21. 21. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = 8192-bits
  22. 22. 1KB = 1024 Bytes = 8192 Bits
  23. 23. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = 8192-bits 1 Megabyte = 8388608-bits or 1024KB
  24. 24. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = 8192-bits 1 Megabyte = 8388608-bits 1 Gigabyte = 8589934592-bits
  25. 25. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = 8192-bits 1 Megabyte = 8388608-bits 1 Gigabyte = 8589934592-bits 1 Terabyte = 1099511627776-bits
  26. 26. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = 8192-bits 1 Megabyte = 8388608-bits 1 Gigabyte = 8589934592-bits 1 Terabyte = 1099511627776-bits 1 Petabyte = 1125899906842624-bits
  27. 27. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = 8192-bits 1 Megabyte = 8388608-bits 1 Gigabyte = 8589934592-bits 1 Terabyte = 1099511627776-bits 1 Petabyte = 1125899906842624-bits 1 Exabyte = 1152921504606846976-bits
  28. 28. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = 8192-bits 1 Megabyte = 8388608-bits 1 Gigabyte = 8589934592-bits 1 Terabyte = 1099511627776-bits 1 Petabyte = 1125899906842624-bits 1 Exabyte = 1152921504606846976-bits 1 Zettabyte = 9444732965739290427392-bits
  29. 29. 1 Byte = 8-bits 1 Kilobyte = 8192-bits 1 Megabyte = 8388608-bits 1 Gigabyte = 8589934592-bits 1 Terabyte = 1099511627776-bits 1 Petabyte = 1125899906842624-bits 1 Exabyte = 1152921504606846976-bits 1 Zettabyte = 9444732965739290427392-bits 1 Yottabyte = 9671406556917033397649408-bits
  30. 30. ADDED SINCE Early 2000’s (Though Not Standardized) Brontobyte 1 Brontobyte = 1024 Yottabytes or 1237940039285380274899124224 Bytes or Multiply the above by 8 = # of bits
  31. 31. ADDED SINCE 2011 (Though Not Standardized) Geopbyte 1 Geopbyte = 1024 Brontobytes Or 1267650600228229401496703205376 Bytes or Multiply the above by 8 = # of bits
  32. 32. Bits that are processed per unit of time (bps or bpm). In General the higher the Bit Rate = higher Quality (requiring more bandwidth to deliver.)
  33. 33. Bits that are processed per unit of time (bps or bpm). In General the higher the Bit Rate = higher Quality (requiring more bandwidth to deliver.) BANDWIDTH The term Bandwidth or Throughput, denotes the achieved Bit Rate a computer network over a logical or physical communication link can deliver. Bandwidth must be high enough to meet the Data Rate, in order to carry enough info to sustain the succession of images required by video. Communication paths usually consist of a series of links, each with their own bandwidth. If one of these is much slower than the rest, it is said to be a Bandwidth Bottleneck.
  34. 34. 1,024 bit/s = 1 Kbit/s (one kilobit or one thousand bits per second) 1,048,576 bit/s = 1 Mbit/s (one megabit or one million bits per second) 1,073,741,824 bit/s = 1 Gbit/s (one gigabit or one billion bits per second)
  35. 35. AUDIO
  36. 36. AUDIO 32 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality
  37. 37. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality
  38. 38. AUDIO 32 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality 96 kbit/s — FM quality 128–160 kbit/s — Standard Bitrate quality
  39. 39. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality.
  40. 40. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality.
  41. 41. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech
  42. 42. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. 800 bit/s 8 kbit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech — telephone quality (using speech codecs)
  43. 43. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.)
  44. 44. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio
  45. 45. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio VIDEO 16 kbit/s — videophone quality
  46. 46. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. VIDEO 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio 16 kbit/s — videophone quality 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing
  47. 47. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. VIDEO 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio 16 kbit/s — videophone quality 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing 1.25 Mbit/s — VCD quality
  48. 48. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. VIDEO 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio 16 kbit/s — videophone quality 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing 1.25 Mbit/s — VCD quality 5 Mbit/s — DVD quality
  49. 49. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. VIDEO 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio 16 kbit/s — videophone quality 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing 1.25 Mbit/s — VCD quality 5 Mbit/s — DVD quality 15 Mbit/s — HDTV quality
  50. 50. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. VIDEO 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio 16 kbit/s — videophone quality 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing 1.25 Mbit/s — VCD quality 5 Mbit/s — DVD quality 15 Mbit/s — HDTV quality 36 Mbit/s — HD DVD quality
  51. 51. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. VIDEO 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio 16 kbit/s — videophone quality 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing 1.25 Mbit/s — VCD quality 5 Mbit/s — DVD quality 15 Mbit/s — HDTV quality 36 Mbit/s — HD DVD quality 54 Mbit/s — Blu-ray Disc quality
  52. 52. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. VIDEO 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio 16 kbit/s — videophone quality 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing 1.25 Mbit/s — VCD quality 5 Mbit/s — DVD quality 15 Mbit/s — HDTV quality 36 Mbit/s — HD DVD quality 54 Mbit/s — Blu-ray Disc quality
  53. 53. AUDIO 32 kbit/s 96 kbit/s 128–160 kbit/s 192 kbit/s 224–320 kbit/s — MW (AM) quality — FM quality — Standard Bitrate quality — DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) quality. — Near CD quality. VIDEO 800 bit/s — minimum necessary for recognizable speech 8 kbit/s — telephone quality (using speech codecs) 500 kbit/s–1 Mbit/s — lossless audio (FLAC, WMA LossL, etc.) 1411 kbit/s — PCM sound format of Compact Disc Digital Audio 16 kbit/s — videophone quality 128 – 384 kbit/s — business-oriented videoconferencing 1.25 Mbit/s — VCD quality 5 Mbit/s — DVD quality 15 Mbit/s — HDTV quality 36 Mbit/s — HD DVD quality 54 Mbit/s — Blu-ray Disc quality 140 – 230MB/s — Uncompressed HD @ 8b/24p/1080 – 10b/29.97
  54. 54. USB 2.0 USB 3.0 FIREWIRE FIREWIRE 480 Mbp/s (60MB/s) 5 Gbp/s (625MB/s) 400 Mbps (50MB/s) 800 Mbps (100MB/s) FireWire S1600 (1.6Gb), S3200 (3.2Gb) &IEEE P1394d (6.4Gb) SATA/ESATA THUNDERBOLT 325 MB/s (1.5-3Gbp/s) esata3=6Gb 10 Gbp/s - Bi-Directional (up/down) ―Transfer a full-length HD movie in less than 30 seconds".
  55. 55.  HD Component  Serial Digital Interface & HD-SDI  Dual Link HD-SDI (for uncomp. RGB/4:4:4/10bit & DCP)  HDMI
  56. 56.  HD Component  Serial Digital Interface & HD-SDI  Dual Link HD-SDI (for uncomp. RGB/4:4:4/10bit & DCP)  HDMI
  57. 57.  HD Component  Serial Digital Interface & HD-SDI  Dual Link HD-SDI (for uncomp. RGB/4:4:4/10bit & DCP)  HDMI
  58. 58.  HD Component  Serial Digital Interface & HD-SDI  Dual Link HD-SDI (for uncomp. RGB/4:4:4/10bit & DCP)  HDMI
  59. 59.  HD Component  Serial Digital Interface & HD-SDI  Dual Link HD-SDI (for uncomp. RGB/4:4:4/10bit & DCP)  HDMI
  60. 60. Break Time
  61. 61. SMPTE 259M STANDARD Describes 10-Bit Serial Digital Operating at 143/270/360 Mb/s.
  62. 62. KEY SMPTE HD STANDARDS
  63. 63. KEY SMPTE HD STANDARDS SMPTE 274M
  64. 64. KEY SMPTE HD STANDARDS SMPTE 274M SMPTE 292M
  65. 65. KEY SMPTE HD STANDARDS SMPTE 274M SMPTE 292M SMPTE 296M
  66. 66. KEY SMPTE HD STANDARDS SMPTE 274M SMPTE 292M SMPTE 296M SMPTE 370M
  67. 67. KEY SMPTE HD STANDARDS SMPTE 274M SMPTE 292M SMPTE 296M SMPTE 370M SMPTE 372M
  68. 68. ATSC DIGITAL FORMATS The HD choices began when the ATSC created the digital television table of 36 digital broadcast (DTV) formats. Of those 36 formats, 12 are high definition. These are the formats that the United States government has determined will be the standard for digital broadcasting. HD/essentials
  69. 69. COMPONENTS OF HD/DATA FILES
  70. 70. COMPONENTS OF HD/DATA FILES • Frame size
  71. 71. COMPONENTS OF HD/DATA FILES • Frame size • Frame rate
  72. 72. COMPONENTS OF HD/DATA FILES • Frame size • Frame rate • Frame recording method
  73. 73. COMPONENTS OF HD/DATA FILES • Frame size • Frame rate • Frame recording method • Color Space/Encoding Method
  74. 74. COMPONENTS OF HD/DATA FILES • Frame size • Frame rate • Frame recording method • Color Space/Encoding Method • Bit depth
  75. 75. COMPONENTS OF HD/DATA FILES • Frame size • Frame rate • Frame recording method • Color Space/Encoding Method • Bit depth • Compression (Data Reduction)
  76. 76. COMPONENTS OF HD/DATA FILES • Frame size • Frame rate • Frame recording method • Color Space/Encoding Method • Bit depth • Compression (Data Reduction) • MetaData
  77. 77. Frame Size Considerations  Screen Aspect Ratio  Pixel Aspect (Square 1 vs Non-Sq .9)  Frame Size = Screen/Display Resolution  Screen Dimension  Screen Real-Estate
  78. 78. ASPECT RATIO The ASPECT RATIO of an IMAGE is its WIDTH divided by its HEIGHT. H W
  79. 79. ASPECT RATIO The ASPECT RATIO of an IMAGE is its WIDTH divided by its HEIGHT. X:Y (pronounced "x-to-y") and XxY (pronounced "x-by-y")
  80. 80. ASPECT RATIO The ASPECT RATIO of an IMAGE is its WIDTH divided by its HEIGHT. X:Y (pronounced "x-to-y") 4:3 1.33:1 and XxY (pronounced "x-by-y") 4x3 1.33x1
  81. 81. IMAGE ASPECT RATIO The ASPECT RATIO of an IMAGE is its WIDTH divided by its HEIGHT. 4x3 1.33:1 16x9 1.78:1
  82. 82. PIXEL ASPECT RATIO
  83. 83. PIXEL ASPECT RATIO Pixel Aspect Ratio (PAR) is the ratio of width to height of ONE PIXEL in an image
  84. 84. PIXEL ASPECT RATIO What is a Pixel? In digital video images - a pixel, or pel, (both short for ―picture element‖) are a single point in a raster image; the smallest addressable screen element in a display device; the smallest unit of a picture that can be represented by a single color; and it generally is the smallest unit we can control in an image (however there are high-end systems that allow for subpixel based manipuliation, which take averages of neighboring pixels, for microprecision). Pixels are arranged in a two-dimensional grid, and are often represented using dots or squares. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original. Groups of Pixels together form the images we see, the shape, smoothness, size & color tones. PIXEL ASPECT RATIO effects the Shape of our Image.
  85. 85. PIXEL ASPECT RATIO Pixel Aspect Ratio (PAR) is the ratio of width to height of ONE PIXEL in an image Square vs Non-Square (Rectangular) Pixels
  86. 86. PIXEL ASPECT RATIO Pixel Aspect Ratio (PAR) is the ratio of width to height of ONE PIXEL in an image Square vs Non-Square (Rectangular) Pixels
  87. 87. PIXEL ASPECT RATIO More about Pixels The intensity of each pixel is variable. In color image systems, a color is typically represented by three or four component intensities such as red, green, and blue, or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.
  88. 88. PIXEL ASPECT RATIO Bits per pixel The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a pixel depends on the number of bits per pixel (bpp). A 1 bpp image uses 1-bit for each pixel, so each pixel can be either on or off. Each additional bit doubles the number of colors available, so a 2 bpp image can have 4 colors, and a 3 bpp image can have 8 colors: 1 bpp, 21 = 2 colors (monochrome) 2 bpp, 22 = 4 colors 3 bpp, 23 = 8 colors ... 8 bpp, 28 = 256 colors 16 bpp, 216 = 65,536 colors ("Highcolor" ) 24 bpp, 224 ≈ 16.8 million colors ("Truecolor")
  89. 89. ASPECT RATIO HISTORY
  90. 90. ASPECT RATIO HISTORY • Edison, Eastman, Dickson + Scissors = 35mm/1.33 (officially adopted as a standard in 1917)
  91. 91. ASPECT RATIO HISTORY • Edison, Eastman, Dickson + Scissors = 35mm/1.33 (officially adopted as a standard in 1917)
  92. 92. ASPECT RATIO HISTORY • Edison, Eastman, Dickson + Scissors = 35mm/1.33 (officially adopted as a standard in 1917) • 1st Sound Stripe on Film (Movietone) = 35mm/1.16
  93. 93. ASPECT RATIO HISTORY • Edison, Eastman, Dickson + Scissors = 35mm/1.33 (officially adopted as a standard in 1917) • 1st Sound Stripe on Film (Movietone) = 35mm/1.16 • Academy Aperture – 35mm/1.37 (1931-1952 Standard) Filmed Projected
  94. 94. ASPECT RATIO HISTORY • Edison, Eastman, Dickson + Scissors = 35mm/1.33 (officially adopted as a standard in 1917) • 1st Sound Stripe on Film (Movietone) = 35mm/1.16 • Academy Aperture – 35mm/1.37 (1931-1952 Standard) • First Projected Widescreen – 35mm/1.66 (1953 Paramount Release of ―Shane‖ – this paralleled the release of Color TV Broadcast) Filmed Projected
  95. 95. ASPECT RATIO HISTORY • Edison, Eastman, Dickson + Scissors = 35mm/1.33 (officially adopted as a standard in 1917) • 1st Sound Stripe on Film (Movietone) = 35mm/1.16 • Academy Aperture – 35mm/1.37 (1931-1952 Standard) • First Projected Widescreen – 35mm/1.66 (1953 Paramount Release of ―Shane‖ – this paralleled the release of Color TV Broadcast) • MGM & Disney intro 1.75, followed by Uni & Columbia Pictures use of what became Theatrical Standard 1.85 – using ―Soft Mattes‖ (exposing Full Academy Ap/Protected for 1.85) & ―Hard Mattes‖ (exposing just 1.85)
  96. 96. COMMON ASPECT RATIOS 1.44: 1 15:9 4:3 1.66:1 1.33/1.37: 1 16:9 1.77/1.78: 1 1.85 16.7: 9 Standard US Cinema Widescreen (A compromise between the 1.85:1 theatrical ratio and the 1.33:1 ratio used for home video. Originally a flat ratio invented by Paramount Pictures, now a standard among several European countries; native Super 16 mm frame ratio. Sometimes this ratio is rounded up to 1.67:1, this format is also used on the Nintendo 3DS's top screen as well. IMAX 70mm - runs thru camera & projector Horizontally, allowing for larger image area 16:10 1.60:1 Apple Cinema Displays??? (As of 2010, TVs have been 2.35/2.39/2.40: 1 Anamorphic introduced with A 2.37 aspect ratio marketed as "21:9 cinema displays". This aspect ratio is not recognized by storage and transmission standards.)
  97. 97. ASPECT RATIO Problems Arising From Multiple Aspect Ratios
  98. 98. ASPECT RATIO Problems Arising From Multiple Aspect Ratios Original aspect ratio (OAR) Vs. Modified aspect ratio (MAR)
  99. 99. ORIGINAL ASPECT RATIOS
  100. 100. MODIFIED ASPECT RATIOS
  101. 101. FRAME SIZE (Resolution) The Number of Pixels a Display System Can Display
  102. 102. 640x480 1920x1080
  103. 103. SD FRAME SIZES 720 x 480 NTSC DV 720 x 576 PAL
  104. 104. HD FRAME SIZES 1280 x 720 720 Horizontal by 1280 Vertical Lines of Resolution
  105. 105. HD FRAME SIZES 1280 x 720 720 Horizontal by 1280 Vertical Lines of Resolution 1920 x 1080 1080 Horizontal by 1920 Vertical Lines of Resolution
  106. 106. HD FRAME SIZES 1280 x 720 720 Horizontal by 1280 Vertical Lines of Resolution 1920 x 1080 1080 Horizontal by 1920 Vertical Lines of Resolution FULL RASTER vs. SQUEEZED
  107. 107. HD FRAME SIZES 960 x 720p DVCPro HD 1280 x 1080i DVCPro HD
  108. 108. HD FRAME SIZES 1440 x 1080i Sony HDV 960 x 720p Old JVC HDV
  109. 109. Some popular dimensions: Standard Def = 4:3 (width:height) = 320x240, 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768 Widescreen or HD = 16:9 (width:height) = 640x360, 800x450, 960x540, 1024x576, 1280x720, and 1920x1080 SCREEN DIMENSION & ASPECT RATIO CALCULATOR http://www.silisoftware.com/tools/screen.php http://andrew.hedges.name/experiments/aspect_ratio
  110. 110. “The Available Display Area And How Content is Arranged within it”
  111. 111. Data Calculators AJA DataCalc Software Tool (Desktop & iPhone)  http://www.aja.com/en/products/software/ MPC Digital Data Rate/Storage Calculator (Online & iPhone)  http://www.movingpicture.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=614&catid=13&Itemid =853 File Size/Data Rate Calculator (On-line Tool)  http://www.hdslr-cinema.com/tools/filesize.php?w Digital Glossaries  http://www.quantel.com/repository/files/library_DigitalFactBook_20th.pdf  http://www.learn.usa.canon.com/dlc/glossary/listing.spr Kodak Site  http://motion.kodak.com/motion/ Digital Cinema Society (DCS) Tech Tips  http://www.digitalcinemasociety.org/TechTips.php
  112. 112. Break Time
  113. 113. STANDARD FRAME RATES Interlaced
  114. 114. STANDARD FRAME RATES Interlaced 60i (actually 59.94, or 60 x 1000/1001 to be more precise; 60 interlaced fields = 29.97 frames)
  115. 115. STANDARD FRAME RATES Interlaced 60i (actually 59.94, or 60 x 1000/1001 to be more precise; 60 interlaced fields = 29.97 frames) 50i (50 interlaced fields = 25 frames)
  116. 116. STANDARD FRAME RATES Progressive
  117. 117. STANDARD FRAME RATES 24p Progressive (Usually 23.976-frame progressive / also referred to as 23.98)
  118. 118. STANDARD FRAME RATES 24p Progressive (Usually 23.976-frame progressive / also referred to as 23.98) 25p (25-frame progressive)
  119. 119. STANDARD FRAME RATES 24p Progressive (Usually 23.976-frame progressive / also referred to as 23.98) 25p (25-frame progressive) 30p (Usually 29.97-frame progressive)
  120. 120. STANDARD FRAME RATES 24p Progressive (Usually 23.976-frame progressive / also referred to as 23.98) 25p (25-frame progressive) 30p (Usually 29.97-frame progressive) 60p (Usually 59.94-frame progressive)
  121. 121. ATSC FRAME RATES 36 Formats, Two For Each When One Considers the NTSC-compatible frame rates as well as integer frame rates.
  122. 122. ATSC HD FRAME RATES 12 High-Definition Formats Designed to Integrate with NTSC
  123. 123. UNIVERSAL FORMAT
  124. 124. US BROADCASTER HDTV
  125. 125. More on Reducing the Amount of Data Using Frame Rate
  126. 126. KEY CONCEPTS FOR WORKING WITH HD (DATA) INFORMATION
  127. 127. R G B The Video image is sampled at a sample rate and per pixel. Each Pixel has a Color Channel Value for each of the R, G & B. (white=R100,G100,B100 / Black=R0,G0,B0) These sampled pixels represent the original image and when muxed (combined) together from each color channel = SUM OF FINAL IMAGE (Color Value + Intensity-brightness, contrast, gamma) A 4th Channel or ―Alpha‖ is often present as well, and controls Transparency for each pixel. The pass-thru or hold-out aspects of this channel produce the matte that allows for what is displayed from the other 3 channels**
  128. 128. Y Pb Pr (or Analog Component) LUMA BLUE - LUMA (C-Y) RED - LUMA (R-Y)
  129. 129. Y Cb Cr (or Digital Component) LUMA BLUE - LUMA (C-Y) RED - LUMA (R-Y)
  130. 130. ENCODING Via Color Differencing
  131. 131. Differences in reacting to light and color Monitors are Linear & Film is Logarithmic On a monitor, there is a one-to-one correspondence between energy (think exposure) and brightness. Each time you increase the signal to the monitor by 1 volt, you get exactly the same incremental increase in brightness. On film, however, the increase in brightness (emulsion density) is a result of the logarithm of the increase in Original Image Linear image in Log Log image in Linear Viewer Viewer exposure. Accurate tonality Lows suppressed and highs accentuated. Highs flattened and lows boosted.
  132. 132. YIQ & YU V (or rec601) Video Profiles - Rec601 & Rec709 ITU Recomendations
  133. 133. Video Profiles - Rec601 & Rec709 ITU Recomendations
  134. 134. RAW Profiles - Log-C & Bayered Images ARRI Alexa & RED One & Epic Native RAW Image With LUT Applied
  135. 135. (S-Log) S-Gamut & A.C.E.S
  136. 136. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING X:X:X
  137. 137. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING X:X:X
  138. 138. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING X:X:X
  139. 139. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING X:X:X
  140. 140. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING X:X:X
  141. 141. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING X:X:X
  142. 142. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING X:X:X
  143. 143. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING X:X:X
  144. 144. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING Practice of encoding images by implementing less resolution for Chroma information than for Luma information.
  145. 145. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING 4:4:4
  146. 146. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING 4:4:4 R’G’B’
  147. 147. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING 4:4:4 R’G’B’ NO SUBSAMPLING
  148. 148. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING 4:4:4 Y:Cb:Cr
  149. 149. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING
  150. 150. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING 4:2:2
  151. 151. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING Luma horizontal sampling reference (originally, luma f as multiple of 3 s 4:2:2 MGz)
  152. 152. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING Luma horizontal sampling reference (originally, luma f as multiple of 3 s MGz) Chroma decreased by 50%, Bandwidth decreased by 1/3 4:2:2
  153. 153. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING Luma horizontal sampling reference (originally, luma f as multiple of 3 s MGz) Chroma decreased by 50%, Bandwidth decreased by 1/3 4:2:2:4 If present, same as luma digit; indicates alpha (key) component
  154. 154. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING
  155. 155. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING
  156. 156. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING
  157. 157. CHROMA SUBSAMPLING
  158. 158. More on Reducing the amount of Data using CHROMA SUBSAMPLING
  159. 159. 4:4:4 10-Bit 4:2:2 8-Bit 4:2:2 10-Bit
  160. 160. R 8 G B 8 8 Bits Per Pixel (Sometimes referred to as 24-bit on 3-color composite) Allows 256 Colors to represent each color channel 16,777,216 Colors Possible 8
  161. 161. R 10 G B 10 10 10 Bits Per Pixel (Sometimes referred to as 30-bit on 3-color composite) Allows 1024 Colors to represent each channel 1,073,741,824 Colors Possible
  162. 162. Effect of Bit-Depth (bpp = # tones)
  163. 163. Why is Bit-Depth Important?
  164. 164. High Bit Depth Low Bit Depth
  165. 165. Bit-Depth & Displays
  166. 166. Michael Cioni www.lightirondigital.com
  167. 167. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION
  168. 168. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION
  169. 169. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION
  170. 170. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION
  171. 171. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION
  172. 172. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION Codec A combination of the words compression and decompression. A codec is mathematical algorithm, designed to reduce the amount of data in a file or stream by eliminating redundancy, and then later restore that file or stream back to its original form as closely as possible. – (Show 10100101001 eg.)
  173. 173. Codecs vs. Containers/Wrappers Acquisition Codecs, Editing Codecs, Distribution Codecs h.264 & mpeg AVCHD, mpeg4 –IN- QT/.mov, .Mp4, .M4p, FLV, F4V, 3GP un-comp, DV, mpeg IMX & AVCHD, Pro-res –IN- MXF, QT/.Mov, AVI mpeg2, h.264, AAC –IN- QT/.mov, VOB, .mpeg2 & BDAV (bluray), Mp4, Mp3 VP8, ACM, Vorbis, VC-1 –IN- WebM, WMV/WMA QT & AVI Containers each support over 160 different Codecs
  174. 174. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSY vs. LOSSLESS
  175. 175. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSY vs. LOSSLESS LOSSY – A form of data compression where the decoded information IS NOT exactly the same as the originally encoded file. Data is lost.
  176. 176. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSY vs. LOSSLESS LOSSY – A form of data compression where the decoded information IS NOT exactly the same as the originally encoded file. Data is lost. LOSSLESS – A form of data compression where the decoded information IS exactly the same as the originally encoded file. No data is lost.
  177. 177. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSY IMAGE FORMATS Cartesian Perceptual Compression: Also known as CPC DiVx Fractal compression HAM, hardware compression of color information used in Amiga computers ICER, used by the Mars Rovers: related to JPEG 2000 in its use of wavelets JPEG JPEG 2000, JPEG's successor format that uses wavelets, for Lossy or Lossless compression. JBIG2 PGF, Progressive Graphics File (lossless or lossy compression) Wavelet compression S3TC texture compression for 3D computer graphics hardware
  178. 178. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSY VIDEO FORMATS H.261 H.263 H.264 MNG (supports JPEG sprites) Motion JPEG MPEG-1 Part 2 MPEG-2 Part 2 MPEG-4 Part 2 and Part 10 (AVC) Ogg Theora (noted for its lack of patent restrictions) Sorenson video codec VC-1
  179. 179. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSY AUDIO FORMATS AAC ADPCM ATRAC Dolby AC-3 MP2 MP3 Musepack Ogg Vorbis (noted for its lack of patent restrictions) WMA
  180. 180. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSLESS IMAGE FORMATS ABO – Adaptive Binary Optimization GIF – (lossless, but contains a very limited number color range) JBIG2 – (lossless or lossy compression of B&W images) JPEG-LS – (lossless/near-lossless compression standard) JPEG 2000 – (includes lossless compression method, as proven by Sunil Kumar, Prof San Diego State University) JPEG XR - formerly WMPhoto and HD Photo, includes a lossless compression method PGF – Progressive Graphics File (lossless or lossy compression) PNG – Portable Network Graphics TIFF - Tagged Image File Format
  181. 181. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSLESS VIDEO FORMATS Animation codec CorePNG FFV1 JPEG 2000 Huffyuv Lagarith MSU Lossless Video Codec SheerVideo
  182. 182. THE DOWN & DIRTY GUIDE TO COMPRESSION LOSSLESS AUDIO FORMATS Apple Lossless – ALAC (Apple Lossless Audio Codec) ATRAC Advanced Lossless Audio Lossless Coding – also known as MPEG-4 ALS MPEG-4 SLS – also known as HD-AAC Direct Stream Transfer – DST Dolby TrueHD DTS-HD Master Audio Free Lossless Audio Codec – FLAC Meridian Lossless Packing – MLP Monkey's Audio – Monkey's Audio APE OptimFROG RealPlayer – RealAudio Lossless Shorten – SHN TTA – True Audio Lossless WavPack – WavPack lossless WMA Lossless – Windows Media Lossless
  183. 183. COMMON VIDEO COMPRESSION FORMATS • AVC • VCEG & MPEG • AVR Apple • Avid Technology • DVC DNxHD • H.264 • JFIF • JPEG • JPEG 2000 JPEG MPEG-4 VCEG & MPEG • JPEG • MPEG-2 MPEG JPEG/Avid Technology • MPEG MPEG VCEG & MPEG • M-JPEG 2000 JPEG Avid Technology • M-JPEG JPEG SMPTE • ProRes VC-1 SMPTE • WMV 9 Microsoft Corp.
  184. 184. Format H.264 MP4 AVI QuickTime MOV MKV WMV WebM File Size 8.92MB 15.00 MB 15.20 MB 15.50 MB 18.40 MB 30.20 MB Video Quality better inferior inferior inferior inferior best Video bitrate 768 1200 768 1200 1200 1200
  185. 185. INTRAFRAME Intraframe compression refers to video where each frame is compressed independently of nearby frames.
  186. 186. INTRAFRAME Intraframe compression refers to video where each frame is compressed independently of nearby frames. 1. Used in formats like DV, DNxHD, ProRes, Animation, and M-JPEG.
  187. 187. INTRAFRAME Intraframe compression refers to video where each frame is compressed independently of nearby frames. 1. Used in formats like DV, DNxHD, ProRes, Animation, and M-JPEG. 2. Can be lossy or lossless. Most common in editing and graphics work. Can create very large files and not always ideal for real-time playback.
  188. 188. INTERFRAME Intrerframe compression refers to video where some frames are compressed based on frames either before or after it in the video stream.
  189. 189. INTERFRAME Intrerframe compression refers to video where some frames are compressed based on frames either before or after it in the video stream. 1. Used in formats like HDV, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.264, and XD-CAM.
  190. 190. INTERFRAME Intrerframe compression refers to video where some frames are compressed based on frames either before or after it in the video stream. 1. Used in formats like HDV, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.264, and XD-CAM. 2. Almost always lossy. Most commonly used as camera formats or delivery formats. Capable of much smaller files, but difficult to edit with.
  191. 191. More about Inter & Intra-Frame Compression
  192. 192. Other Compression Schemes
  193. 193. DCT A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a sequence of finitely many data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies.
  194. 194. DCT A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a sequence of finitely many data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies. ―BLAH BLAH BLAH‖
  195. 195. DCT A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a sequence of finitely many data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies. 1. DCT is used in nearly all common video formats like JPEG, MPEG, DV, DNxHD, ProRes, etc.
  196. 196. DCT A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a sequence of finitely many data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies. 1. DCT is used in nearly all common video formats like JPEG, MPEG, DV, DNxHD, ProRes, etc. 2. Can be lossy or lossless. Highly compressed images will often have artifacts along edges, lose color fidelity, and/or become blocky and pixelated.
  197. 197. WAVELET A technique for video compression that treats the image like a series of waves, known as wavelets, starting with large waves and progressively getting smaller based on the level of compression desired.
  198. 198. WAVELET A technique for video compression that treats the image like a series of waves, known as wavelets, starting with large waves and progressively getting smaller based on the level of compression desired. 1. Wavelet is a newer technology used in compressions like JPEG 2000 and CineForm.
  199. 199. WAVELET A technique for video compression that treats the image like a series of waves, known as wavelets, starting with large waves and progressively getting smaller based on the level of compression desired. 1. Wavelet is a newer technology used in compressions like JPEG 2000 and CineForm. 2. Can be lossy or lossless. Highly compressed images will rarely create artifacts, but can become soft/blurry.
  200. 200. MPEG BASICS In MPEG encoding, a group of pictures, or GOP, specifies the order in which intra-frames and inter frames are arranged. The GOP is a group of successive pictures within an MPEG-coded video stream. Each MPEGcoded video stream consists of successive GOPs. From the MPEG pictures contained in it the visible frames are generated.
  201. 201. THE 3 PRIMARY FRAME COMPRESSIONS
  202. 202. THE 3 PRIMARY FRAME COMPRESSIONS • I-Frames (I-Picture, Intra Frames)
  203. 203. THE 3 PRIMARY FRAME COMPRESSIONS • I-Frames (I-Picture, Intra Frames) • P-Frames (Predicted Frames)
  204. 204. THE 3 PRIMARY FRAME COMPRESSIONS • I-Frames (I-Picture, Intra Frames) • P-Frames (Predicted Frames) • B-Frames (Bi-Directional Frames)
  205. 205. MPEG-2 BIT RATE DETAILS 4 Mbit/s - Low Level Encoding 5 Mbit/s - DVD 15 Mbit/s - Main Level 60 Mbit/s - High-14 80 Mbit/s - High Level ATSC Broadcast Standards - 19.4 Mbit/s for Low HD and 38 Mbit/s for High End.
  206. 206. KEY MASTERING COMPRESSIONS
  207. 207. KEY MASTERING COMPRESSIONS • DNxHD AVID TECHNOLOGY
  208. 208. KEY MASTERING COMPRESSIONS • DNxHD AVID TECHNOLOGY • ProRES 422, ProRES 444 APPLE
  209. 209. KEY MASTERING COMPRESSIONS • DNxHD AVID TECHNOLOGY • ProRES 422, ProRES 444 APPLE • Prospect HD/4K, Neo HD/4K/3D CINEFORM
  210. 210. NEW TECHNOLOGY Thunderbolt Solid State Drives Cloud Encoding Connected TV’s
  211. 211. TeraDisc All of us are acquiring and creating more and more high-density, high-resolution content. Collect, store and find your valuable personal and commercial content using a single 1TB TeraDisc. 250 hours of HDTV or 300,000 digital photos. Empowering the Enterprise The healthcare, public, entertainment, security, financial and business sectors can inexpensively archive vast amounts of data at the desktop. Totally meeting compliance regulations with bit-by-bit WORM recording. Readily integrates into today’s archiving solutions. Longevity of greater than 50 years. 1 Trillion Bytes on a Single Disc Enables the reading and writing of 200 layers of data on a single DVD-size disc. Uses advanced material polymer technology engineered to create an optical media with unique light-sensitive properties. Inexpensive drives able to reach consumer form factor and pricing. Mempile’s game-changing 2-photon technology revolutionizes consumer and enterprise archiving – the removable TeraDisc offers high capacity, low cost, permanence and ease of use.
  212. 212. NEW TECHNOLOGY 50 terabyte flash drive made of bug protein This idea first started out by coating DVDs with a layer of protein so that one day solid state memory could hold so much information that storing data on your computer hard drive will be obsolete
  213. 213. NEW TECHNOLOGY 3D Stereoscopic
  214. 214. Webisodes & Mobisodes 10/6/11
  215. 215. Interactive TV 10/6/11
  216. 216. Gaming 10/6/11
  217. 217. Social Media & TV 10/6/11
  218. 218. Emerging Media 10/6/11
  219. 219. 199 HD/ DATA Essentials Scott Carrey Course Evaluation: www.vs.edu/survey scott@scarrey.com

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