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  1. 1. Dimensions of Learning Authors : Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. Pickering with Daisy E. Arredondo, Guy J. Blackburn, Ronald S. Brandt, Cerylle A. Moffett, Diane E. Paynter, Jane E. Pollock, and Jo Sue Whisler Microsoft images and clipart used with permission.
  2. 2. Dimensions of Learning <ul><li>Maureen Bagg ( </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Kotz ( </li></ul><ul><li>Sharon Miller ( </li></ul>Jan Dahlstrom ( Louise Mattioli ( Diana Pearson( This Microsoft Powerpoint presentation collection was created by these Kenosha Unified School District No. 1 Dimensions of Learning Trainers:
  3. 3. Use Knowledge Meaningfully Extend and Refine Knowledge Acquire and Integrate Knowledge Habits of Mind Attitudes and Perceptions Dimensions of Learning
  4. 4. Dimension 2 <ul><li>Thinking Involved in Acquiring and Integrating Knowledge </li></ul>
  5. 5. What do we ask students to know and be able to do? Total Body of Content Knowledge Essential, Enduring Content We Plan For and Assess
  7. 7. CONTENT STANDARDS What are the ESSENTIAL and ENDURING skills and knowledge a student should know and be able to do?
  8. 8. CONTENT BENCHMARKS At each grade level, what are the ESSENTIAL AND ENDURING skills and knowledge a student should know and be able to do?
  9. 9. What Do You Teach ? Total Body of Content Knowledge Essential, Enduring Content We Plan For and Assess
  10. 10. What have you learned lately?
  11. 11. Dimension 2
  12. 12. Declarative Knowledge <ul><li>“ Know stuff” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Declarative Knowledge “Know Stuff” What are the rules? What type of equipment do I need? What is the purpose of the game? What strategies are effective? <ul><li>Constructing Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Storing Information </li></ul>
  14. 14. Procedural Knowledge <ul><li>Know “how to do stuff” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Procedural Knowledge “Know How To Do Stuff” How do I pass the ball? How do I shoot a free throw? Do I have other skills that are similar to the new ones I’m learning? <ul><li>Constructing Models </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Internalizing </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dimension 2 <ul><li>Declarative Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>“ Know stuff” </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Storing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>“ Know </li></ul><ul><li>how to do stuff” </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing Models </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Internalizing </li></ul>
  17. 17. Declarative or Procedural? <ul><li>List the characteristics of a short story </li></ul><ul><li>Write a haiku poem </li></ul><ul><li>Write down the four major causes of air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on and shut down a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a slide for use on a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Point to the constellation Orion </li></ul><ul><li>Solve for x, given y </li></ul><ul><li>Write a unit plan </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dimension 2 <ul><li>Declarative Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts/ Generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>Organized Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Factlets </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Macroprocesses </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Directions </li></ul>
  19. 19. Declarative Procedural <ul><li>KWL </li></ul><ul><li>Three Minute Pause </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Representations </li></ul><ul><li>Linking </li></ul><ul><li>Access a Variety of Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Before, During, and After </li></ul><ul><li>Think aloud as you </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrate a skill or </li></ul><ul><li>process </li></ul><ul><li>Students create flow </li></ul><ul><li>charts </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul>
  20. 20. On a sheet of paper, classify examples of content knowledge in your unit: Declarative Procedural
  21. 21. Planning for Declarative Knowledge Unit Topic Topic Topic Topic Which general topics will be the focus of the unit?
  22. 22. What specific key information should be integrated and acquired? Specific Information Specific Information Specific Information Specific Information Topic
  23. 23. Identifying Specific Information Within a General Topic <ul><li>descriptions of specific people, places, and things ? </li></ul><ul><li>time sequences ? </li></ul><ul><li>processes or casual networks? </li></ul><ul><li>problems and solutions? </li></ul><ul><li>generalizations or principles? </li></ul><ul><li>concepts ? </li></ul>In this topic are there: Specific Information Specific Information Specific Information Specific Information Topic
  24. 24. At the end of a poorly planned unit, “factlets” are randomly stored in the student’s brain. f ff ff ff ff ff f f f F F F F,f= factlets
  25. 25. A better organized unit will lead students to an awareness of key ideas and the relationship among these ideas. Time Sequence Problems and Solutions F F F Problems f f f
  26. 26. When information goes beyond facts and includes concepts and generalizations, transfer occurs from topic to topic. Generalization Concepts f f f
  27. 27. Colorado History <ul><li>Concepts: Topography, natural resources, </li></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizations: Topography and natural resources influence the culture of a region. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized Facts: Sequence of Events </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Factlets: There are mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Miners came. There was gold. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Why is it important to construct meaning?
  29. 29. Constructing Meaning For Declarative Knowledge
  30. 30. Constructing Meaning <ul><li>Use the three-minute pause </li></ul><ul><li>Experience content using a variety of senses </li></ul><ul><li>KWL strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Before, During, After </li></ul>
  31. 31. 3 Minute Pause <ul><li>Ask students to do the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize what they just experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Identify interesting aspects of what they just experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Identify confusions and try to clear them up </li></ul>
  32. 32. Access a Variety of Senses
  33. 33. K-W-L What I Know or What I Think I Know What I Want To Know or What I Think I’m Going To Find Out What I Learned
  34. 34. Concept Attainment Exercise: Examples: Nonexamples:
  35. 35. Organizing Declarative Knowledge
  36. 36. Organizing Declarative Knowledge
  37. 37. Organizing Declarative Knowledge
  38. 38. Dimension 2 Acquiring and Integrating Knowledge Organizing <ul><li>Alcohol is a dangerous drug. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support 1 __________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support 2 __________________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support 3 __________________ </li></ul></ul>ALCOHOL Brain Liver Circulation Stomach
  39. 39. Pictographs can organize information graphically
  40. 40. Pictograph Recycle Saves Saves
  41. 41. Graphic Organizer Alcohol Circulation Stomach Brain Liver
  42. 42. Graphic Organizer Alcohol is a Dangerous Drug: Support 1: Support 2: Support 3:
  43. 43. Visual Organizer <ul><li>With your partner, select a concept that is often difficult to teach in your area. Prepare a visual representation or graphic that will help students better understand that concept. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Storing Declarative Knowledge
  45. 45. Storing Declarative Knowledge
  46. 46. Think, Pair, Share <ul><li>With your tablemates, discuss some of the strategies you use to encourage students to remember important factual knowledge or concepts and ideas? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Mnemonic Strategies <ul><li>HOMES </li></ul><ul><li>My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas. </li></ul><ul><li>ROY G BIV </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Link Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Chunking </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Systems for Storing Info </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rhyming pegword </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>number/picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>familiar place </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Link Strategy <ul><li>Create this picture in your head: </li></ul><ul><li>A brown Jersey cow </li></ul><ul><li>A Jersey cow named Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>See her standing on one hind leg, balancing on “The Big Apple” </li></ul><ul><li>She is wearing yellow underwear </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>She is singing Christmas Carols, hear them. </li></ul><ul><li>Under her right foot is a Virginia ham; smell and taste it. </li></ul><ul><li>In her left hand is a pen. </li></ul><ul><li>With her pen she is connecting dots in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>The picture formed by the dots is becoming clear. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a long winding road. On the road is Marilyn Monroe going to Mass. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Link Strategy for the 13 Colonies <ul><li>George = Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Jersey Cow = New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Apple = New York </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas Carols = North and South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow underwear = Delaware </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia ham = Virginia and New Hampshire </li></ul><ul><li>pen = Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>connecting dots = Connecticut </li></ul><ul><li>road = Rhode Island </li></ul><ul><li>Marilyn = Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Mass = Massachusetts </li></ul>
  52. 52. Loci Strategy
  53. 53. Pegword Strategy <ul><li>one bun </li></ul><ul><li>two shoe </li></ul><ul><li>three tree </li></ul><ul><li>four door </li></ul><ul><li>five hive </li></ul><ul><li>six sticks </li></ul><ul><li>seven heaven </li></ul><ul><li>eight plate </li></ul><ul><li>nine line </li></ul><ul><li>ten hen </li></ul>
  54. 54. Which is easier to store? <ul><li>5039429706 </li></ul><ul><li>fbimtvjfkhifi </li></ul><ul><li>689345290 </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>503-942-9706 </li></ul><ul><li>fbi mtv jfk hifi </li></ul><ul><li>689-34-5290 </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>Pat Wolfe
  55. 55. The Brain Looks For Chunks <ul><li>A chunk is a group of items we can remember as if it were a single item. Short term memory can remember about 5 to 7 chunks </li></ul>
  56. 56. Organizing and Storing Declarative Knowledge <ul><li>With your partner, develop an example for organizing or storing declarative knowledge in your content area. </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to share your idea with the group </li></ul>
  57. 57. Dimension 2
  58. 58. Procedural Knowledge <ul><li>Constructing Models </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Internalizing </li></ul>
  59. 59. Constructing Models for Procedural Knowledge <ul><li>Use “thinking aloud” to demonstrate a new skill or process </li></ul><ul><li>Use a list of steps </li></ul><ul><li>Use/create flow charts </li></ul><ul><li>Use mental rehearsal of steps involved in a skill or process </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Demonstrate and provide practice in the important variations of the skill or process </li></ul><ul><li>Point out common errors and pitfalls </li></ul><ul><li>Practice the procedure in many different ways </li></ul>Shaping Procedural Knowledge
  61. 61. Internalizing Procedural Knowledge <ul><li>Help students set up a practice schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students chart their accuracy when practicing new skills or process. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students chart their speed when learning a new skill or process. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Internalizing Procedural Knowledge Practice Does Not Make Perfect, But Permanent
  63. 63. Planning for Procedural Knowledge <ul><li>Think of a procedure you’ll be teaching this week and answer the following 4 questions: </li></ul>
  64. 64. 1.Which skill and processes do students really need to master? 2.How will students be aided in constructing models? 3.How will students be aided in shaping the skill or process? 4. How will students be aided in internalizing the skill or process?
  65. 65. Declarative Procedural <ul><li>KWL </li></ul><ul><li>Three Minute Pause </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Representations </li></ul><ul><li>Linking </li></ul><ul><li>Access a Variety of Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Before, During, and After </li></ul><ul><li>Think aloud as you </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrate a skill or </li></ul><ul><li>process </li></ul><ul><li>Students create flow </li></ul><ul><li>charts </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul>