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Monitoring and Evaluation Plan (Theory of change, results framework, Logframe, MEAL plan, Accountability plan, Learning Plan)_PPT.pdf

This ppt is a comprehensive presentation on how to build a monitoring, evaluation, accountability and learning plan document. It includes, The Theory of Change, Result Framework, Logical Framework, monitoring and evaluation (MEAL) plan, Learning Plan, and Accountability plan.

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Monitoring and
Evaluation (M&E)
Plan
& its components
Scoffy N. Wangang,PMP®
Regional MEAL Advisor
scoffyndi@gmail.com
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
By the end of the
session, participants
will understand the
MEAL plan and its
components and be
able to conceive and
use MEAL Plans
By the end of the
session, participants
will understand the
MEAL plan and its
components and be
able to conceive and
use MEAL Plans
Specific Objectives
✓Understand BMZ/GFFO projects
in relation to the logic models
(ToC, RF and LogFrames)
✓Understand how to and develop
MEAL Plans
✓Update MEAL work plans
✓Understand the GFFO/BMZ
MEAL Plans
✓Make Updates to the GFFO and
BMZ MEAL Plans
Components of
a MEAL Plan
Depending on the project and
the context, a MEAL Plan
document can include the
following:
• Theory of Change
• Results Framework
• Logical Framework (with
sub-components)
• Risk Management Plan
• Feedback and Response
Plan (training for another day)
• Learning/Capitalization
Plan (training for another day)
• MEAL Workplan
• Indicators Tracking
Sheet/Table (ITS)
• Measurement methods
The MEAL plans start with the ToC
It is a strategic planning document mostly developed
during project development and looks at the long-
term outset of the project.
The ToC describes a process of desired change and
tries to determine the logic of the results and how the
achievement of one level of results contributes to the
achievement of the next level of results
It contains a set of hypotheses and critical
assumptions that make up causal pathways of change
needed to bring about a desired long-term goal
Theory of
Change
Theory of
Change
As a strategic planning tool, it looks at achieving
the long-term goals of the project, chooses a
different course of action to ensure the best
chances of achieving the goal
It ranges from simple to complex depending on
the designer and the nature of the
project/programme

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Monitoring and Evaluation Plan (Theory of change, results framework, Logframe, MEAL plan, Accountability plan, Learning Plan)_PPT.pdf

  • 1. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan & its components Scoffy N. Wangang,PMP® Regional MEAL Advisor scoffyndi@gmail.com
  • 2. Learning Objectives Learning Objectives By the end of the session, participants will understand the MEAL plan and its components and be able to conceive and use MEAL Plans By the end of the session, participants will understand the MEAL plan and its components and be able to conceive and use MEAL Plans
  • 3. Specific Objectives ✓Understand BMZ/GFFO projects in relation to the logic models (ToC, RF and LogFrames) ✓Understand how to and develop MEAL Plans ✓Update MEAL work plans ✓Understand the GFFO/BMZ MEAL Plans ✓Make Updates to the GFFO and BMZ MEAL Plans
  • 4. Components of a MEAL Plan Depending on the project and the context, a MEAL Plan document can include the following: • Theory of Change • Results Framework • Logical Framework (with sub-components) • Risk Management Plan • Feedback and Response Plan (training for another day) • Learning/Capitalization Plan (training for another day) • MEAL Workplan • Indicators Tracking Sheet/Table (ITS) • Measurement methods
  • 5. The MEAL plans start with the ToC It is a strategic planning document mostly developed during project development and looks at the long- term outset of the project. The ToC describes a process of desired change and tries to determine the logic of the results and how the achievement of one level of results contributes to the achievement of the next level of results It contains a set of hypotheses and critical assumptions that make up causal pathways of change needed to bring about a desired long-term goal Theory of Change
  • 6. Theory of Change As a strategic planning tool, it looks at achieving the long-term goals of the project, chooses a different course of action to ensure the best chances of achieving the goal It ranges from simple to complex depending on the designer and the nature of the project/programme
  • 7. ACTIVITY In your personal time; REVISE the methodology for developing ToC taught during the Review Meetings
  • 8. Results Framework and Logical Framework Logical Framework Results Framework
  • 9. RESULTS FRAMEWORK The Results Framework was introduced in the mid-1990s by the USAID A results framework is a planning, communications, and management tool that emphasizes results to provide clarity around key project objectives.
  • 10. RESULTS FRAMEWORK The Results Framework was introduced in the mid-1990s by the USAID A results framework is an explicit articulation (graphic display, matrix, or summary) of the different levels or chains of results expected from a particular intervention—be it a project, program, or development strategy.
  • 11. RESULTS FRAMEWORK The Results Framework was introduced in the mid-1990s by the USAID It is a logic model that organizes the results of a project into a series of if–then relationships.
  • 12. RESULTS FRAMEWORK The Results Framework was introduced in the mid-1990s by the USAID The statements in the RF articulate the project’s hierarchy of objectives, describing the causal (or vertical) logic of the project.
  • 13. The Results Framework was introduced in the mid-1990s by the USAID Goal: This is the overall long-term ▪ Reason ▪ Purpose or ▪ transformation Of why the project is being implemented. ➢It answers the question of “what do we desire to change or transform? ” by taking the core problem and turning it into a desired positive impact. RESULTS FRAMEWORK
  • 14. RESULTS FRAMEWORK The Results Framework was introduced in the mid-1990s by the USAID The Strategic Objectives express the central purpose of the project. They describe the significant benefits that are anticipated by the end of the project.
  • 15. RESULTS FRAMEWORK The Results Framework was introduced in the mid-1990s by the USAID The Intermediate Results express the expected change(s) in behaviours, systems, policies or institutions as a result of project outputs and activities. The Outputs results are the deliverables resulting from project activities. They include products, goods, services, knowledge, skills and attitudes.
  • 17. RESULTS FRAMEWORK Why do we need the Results Framework? ▪Maps out the Project/Programme logic ▪It illustrates the causal relationships that are within the project/programme teams’ responsibilities. ▪Supports to map out the visions and the strategic objectives of the project team, thus providing a direction.
  • 18. RESULTS FRAMEWORK Why do we need the Results Framework? ▪Provides one of the main steps towards evidence- based decision-making ▪Supports the project teams to articulate their responsibilities, ▪Thus is the basis to enable the choice of key indicators for monitoring, evaluation, accountability and learning.
  • 19. HOW DOES THE RESULTS FRAMEWORK LINKS TO THE ToC?
  • 20. Visualisation of the BMZ and GFFO projects on the Results Framework Activity Use your project logframes and transfer all the results into the different levels of the Result Framework 30 mins Group work
  • 21. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ✓Understand the relationship of a logframe to the Result Framework and the Theory of Change ✓Understand how to develop a Logframe ✓Review the BMZ/GFFO MEAL Logframes
  • 22. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK What is a Logical Framework? How does it relate to the ToC and the RF?
  • 23. ✓A Logical Framework is a logic model that describes the key features of the project (objectives, indicators, measurement methods and assumptions) and highlights the logical linkages between them. ✓As a rigorous methodology, it provides causal linkages (relationships) between project/inputs, activity, outputs, and desired outcome (or Goal) ✓This makes the logframe a powerful operational tool and an input for the development of the MEAL plan. What is a Logical Framework?
  • 24. ✓The distinct from ToC in that Logframe focuses on the project/programme’s operational strategies required to achieve the different hierarchy of results in the RF and the ToC. ✓It operationalizes the causal pathways defined in the logframe in an attempt to achieve the different result levels (Outputs, Intermediate, strategic and goal) of the intervention. How does it relate to the ToC and the RF?
  • 25. ✓Each assumption/hypothesis defined in the ToC is monitored in the logframe, to ensure that the conditions are either occurring in the external environment or not occurring and their effects on the project that lead to ▪ the achievement of the results ▪ or the non-achievement of results from one level to another. How does it relate to the ToC and the RF?
  • 26. COMPONENTS of a LOGICAL FRAMEWORK What is a Logical Framework? How does it relate to the ToC and the RF?
  • 27. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK A logical framework is traditionally a 4x4 table with different result levels on the first leftmost column and under the objective statements and the control features (indicators, means of measurements and assumptions on the right columns from the first.
  • 28. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS INDICATORS MEANS OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS GOAL STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES INTERMEDIATE RESULTS OUTPUTS ACTIVITIES
  • 29. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ❖ The result levels that where first created in the ToC, transferred to the RF are to be used here under that different objective statements column for further diagnosis in relation to the rest of the columns of the framework matrix NOTE
  • 30. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ❖ The objective statements columns define the flow of the logic of the intervention ❖ In addition to the result levels seen under the Result framework, the LOGFRAME introduces the project ACTIVITIES in the Objective Statements column NOTE
  • 31. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Project/Programme Indicators: ▪ 2nd Column of the logframe ▪ Indicators are realistic smart instruments for tracking/measuring a project/programme progress, in reflecting changes or assess performance. ▪ Indicators are means to determine the realization of project results not an end in itself.
  • 32. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Project/Programme Indicators: ▪ The focus should be on using the indicators to who the results are being achieved or not and not on achieving the indicators ▪ Indicators should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, relevant and time- bound)
  • 33. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Project/Programme Indicators: ▪ When properly measured support evidence-based decision-making, support adaptive management, learning and accountability ▪ The measurement methods must align to the indicators for best results
  • 34. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Project/Programme Indicators: Indicators could ❑Quantitative: ❑Qualitative:
  • 35. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Project/Programme Indicators: Indicators could ❑Quantitative: countable subject to statistical analysis for comparison and clear measurements ❑Qualitative: captures experiences using words, pictures and stories, triggers reflection, ideas and discussion, analysed by identifying themes, topics and keywords
  • 36. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK When identifying indicators for the Logical Framework, start by asking “What information do I need and why do I need it?” Ask yourself, do I need data to: ❖ Comply with donor reporting requirements? ❖ Appreciate the level of project progress and achievement. ❖ Analyze any variance between expected and actual performance. ❖ Understand how change is happening. ❖ Understand why change is happening. ❖ Share and discuss results with community groups, government agencies or other organizations?
  • 37. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Means of Verification/Measurement Methods: ▪ 3rd column of the logframe ▪ It identifies the measurement methods that will be used to collect data about your ▪ Measurement methods identify how the project will gather the data to track the indicators
  • 38. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Means of Verification/Measurement Methods: ▪ Measurement methods can be divided into two categories ✓ Quantitative and ✓ Qualitative (provide valuable insights beyond numbers) ▪ Qualitative indicators allow us to explore the perceptions, and behaviours related to a specific issue/subject/intervention
  • 39. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK They often include: • Baseline/Endline assessments • Post-distributions monitoring • FGDs • One-on-one interviews (sometimes called KII) • Observations, • Attendance sheets • Checklists • Pictures • Reports etc. Means of Verification/Measurement Methods:
  • 40. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Hypothesis/Assumptions: ▪ This is the 4th column in the logframe ▪ These are external factors that are not under the control of the project team but have great potential in affecting the project/programme’s success or failure. ▪ Assumptions need to be in place for the causal logic to work
  • 41. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Hypothesis/Assumptions: ▪ It is advisable to identify the assumptions/hypothesis before identifying the programme/project indicators to account for them ▪ Assumptions are important in the Logical Framework because they complement the vertical logic of the hierarchy of objectives by introducing the horizontal logic of the project.
  • 42. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS INDICATORS MEANS OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS GOAL STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES INTERMEDIATE RESULTS OUTPUTS ACTIVITIES Horizontal logic of the intervention Vertical logic of the intervention
  • 43. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Hypothesis/Assumptions ▪ Making the assumptions/hypothesis explicit provides a reality check by pointing out that The vertical logic succeeds if and only if the assumptions at each level of the Logical Framework hold true.
  • 44. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Hypothesis/Assumptions ▪ A project can fail because the external assumptions did not occur
  • 45. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK What happens if the Hypothesis/Assumption holds true in the following situations? o Spending the budget but not carrying out activities is a sign of o If the activities are undertaken and the results are not achieved, it is because of o If the results are achieved and not the specific objective, it is because of o If the specific objective is achieved and not the overall objective, it is because of CORRUPTION POOR IMPLEMENTATION OR COORDINATION OF THE ACTIVITIES. POOR MANAGEMENT OR POOR DESIGN OF THE PROJECT. POOR PROJECT DESIGN
  • 46. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Code/ID OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS INDICATORS MEANS OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS GOAL By the end of the session, participants will understand the MEAL plan and its components and be able to conceive and use MEAL Plans % of participants who are able to independently develop MEAL Plans, use it to monitor, control and evaluate project Ex-post survey to show Improvement, project reports, MEAL team gains management support to make use of knowledge gained STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE The knowledge and competence of 9 MEAL staff in Nigeria is improved % of MEAL staff reporting improving knowledge in the use of MEAL Plans Pre-and-post tests, deliverables from the MEAL team (ToC, RF, Logframes, MEAL plans) Modules are designed in a simple and understandable manner for easy understanding INT. RESULT 1 Access to training and capacity strengthening is improved % of MEAL staff who report that the training content helped improved their understanding of the BMZ/GFFO project MEAL plans MEAL training PPTs, MEAL training modules are made accessible and open to all personnel OUTPUTS 1. 9 Staff actively participate in MEAL training on the development and use of MEAL plans Number of MEAL staff who report above 90% understanding of the training content Staff attendance sheets, photo evidence MEAL staff are willing and actively participate in MEAL capacity-building sessions ACTIVITIES 1. Develop content for MEAL training on the MEAL Plan 2. Send out a training programme 3. Deliver Training etc. N/A Costs/inputs N/A
  • 47. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Similarities to the ToC/RF: ✓ Links the ToC and the RF in an operations strategic document ✓ Intended to communicate the purpose and main components of a project as clearly and simply as possible
  • 48. COMPONENTS OF A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Differences to the RF: ✓ Includes operational information missing in the ToC and RF e.g., activities (not present in the RF) ✓ It is an operational document while the ToC and RF have a more long-term strategic view
  • 49. DEVELOPMENT OF MEAL PLANS ✓Understand how to develop MEAL Plans ✓How to use and update the MEAL Plans ✓Update BMZ/GFFO MEAL Work Plans
  • 50. OBJECTIVE STATEMENT S INDICATORS DATA COLLECTION MEANS OFANALYSIS Use of information for communication and decision- making Methods Freq Persons who will collect data Respondents (target groups) Method of analysis Subgroups (Disag) Goal Strategic objectives 1 Strategic objectives 2 Int. R. 1 Int. R. 2 Output 1 Output 2 Key Assumptions Assumptions 1 Assumptions 2 DEVELOPMENT OF MEAL PLANS
  • 51. Depending on the complexity of the project and the organization's requirements, an MEAL plan can range from one page to several pages with different components in the MEAL plan document such as the ✓Theory of Change ✓Results Framework, ✓Logical framework ✓Indicators Matrix/indicators definition ✓Accountability Plan ✓Learning Plan ✓Risk Management Plan ✓MEAL work plan as well as the ✓Data Analysis Plan DEVELOPMENT OF MEAL PLANS This is how the CG’s Partners’ MEAL is designed
  • 52. OBJECTIVE STATEMENTS INDICATORS DATA COLLECTION MEANS OFANALYSIS Use of information for communication and decision- making Methods Freq Persons who will collect data Respondents (target groups) Method of analysis Subgroups (Disag) Goal Strategic objectives 1 Strategic objectives 2 Int. R. 1 Int. R. 2 Output 1 Output 2 Key Assumptions Assumptions 1 Assumptions 2 DEVELOPMENT OF MEAL PLANS Copy and paste the overall goal from the ToC/RF here & do same for the result levels from the RF The How often will the KPI/indicators be measured? Does this align with donor requirements? How will the research team collect the data? What type of analysis? Descriptive prescriptive, inferential, cumulative results? Which groups of affected persons will act as sources of information? How will you breakdown the data? Does the breakdown align with donor requirements for decision-making? How will the information be used for decision-making? Does it align with donor requirements? Does it provide the right use for improvement of services,
  • 53. What are the take homes from the 3 logic models seen?
  • 54. What are the take homes from the 3 logic models seen? • The ToC is a strategic document with a long-term view of the causal relationship required to achieve the overall goal • The Result Framework shows the hierarchy of results planned for achievement. Implementation should always check to see if one level of results truly leads to the realization of a higher level of results • The Logframe is an operational document for the implementation of the project. It builds from the ToC and the RF • The MEAL plan is the most important planning tool for result- based management • The 3 logic models are living documents and should be reviewed and updated when need arises
  • 55. REFERENCES & FURTHER READING 1. https://www.activityinfo.org/support/webinars/2023-02-02-from- ToC-to-database-design-for-evidence-based-decision-making- results-framework-and-logframe.html 2. Practical Guidance on Developing a Project’s Theory of Change https://www.crs.org/our-work-overseas/research- publications/practical-guidance-developing-projects-theory-change 3. MEAL DPro Guide https://www.pm4ngos.org/meal-dpro-guide 4. https://www.usaid.gov/basic-page/results-framework-rf 5. The Handbook on Qualitative Indicators (HQI) https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNAEB361.pdf 6. CG INTERNAL PROJECT RESOURCES
  • 56. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR KEEN ATTENTION AND PARTICIPATION
  • 57. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR KEEN ATTENTION AND PARTICIPATION
  • 58. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR KEEN ATTENTION AND PARTICIPATION