Making research relevant for policy and development
Making research relevant for policy and developmentEnhancing the role and capacity of women scientists to influence change Training workshop The art of influencing policy change: Tools and strategies for researchers February 12-14, 2013 12- Margaret Kroma
Ag ricu ltu ra l Eco n o m ics Ag ro n o m y An im a l Bio d ive rs ity C ro p S cie n ce E co lo g y E n to m o lo g y E xte n s io n Fis h e rie s Fo o d /N u tritio n Fo re s try Mo le cu la r B io lo g yN a tu ra l R e s o u rce Ma n a g e m e n t S o il S cie n ce W a te r/Irrig a tio n Oth e r 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Fe m a le Ma le
Distribution of Female shares of professional staff by discipline mix,2007/08 Agricultural economics Agronomy Animal science Biodiversity Crop science Ecology Entomology Extension Fisheries Food/nutritional science Forestry Molecular biologyNatural resource management Soil science Water/irrigation Other Total 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Female shares in total research staff (percentage) Adapted from Beintema and DiMarcantino, 2010 based on ASTI/IFPRI data
Why it matters: Women in science and technology Shared culturalHalf human locationcapitalpotential Representation Women scientistsunderutilized challenge Bring a unique insights to Relevance research challenge Research problem Science and focused and Technology Research aligned to Need increase in challenges women number of routinely face in women development scientists around Sustainability policy table challenge
Challenges women scientists face in science andtechnology research• Institutional challenges: – Exclusionary institutional networks – Review and promotion committees –The Gate-keeper challenge:• Social and culturally nuanced challenges: – Social alienation – Work-life balance challenges:
Women scientists: The gap in Africa’s policy arena• Policy is central to the capacity of countries and their public as well as private sectors to use science and technology for sustainable development;• However, the effectiveness of the policy in driving sustainable change is directly correlated to the quality (both in terms of relevance, diversity and inclusiveness) of the knowledge and ideas supplied;• The exclusion of African women scientists and practitioners from both the supply and demand side of policy making has until recently been glaring.
Shares of female students enrolled and female in professional staff, 2007/8 ■ Proportion of women studying agricultural sciences is higher than the share of female agricultural scientists South Africa Mozambique Botswana Kenya Uganda Nigeria Burundi Zambia Senegal Ghana Malawi Ethiopia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Female share (%) In total students enrolled In total professional staff Adapted from Beintema and DiMarcantino, 2010 based on ASTI/IFPRI data
Shift in gender gap with career advancement (10 countries), 2007/8 100 Male Female 85% 80 72% 71% Female share (percentage) 65% 65% 60 40 34% 35% 35% 27% 20 17% 0 Students (10) Graduates (10) PS/ST (10) SPL (10) M (10)PS/TS indicates professional and technical support staff; SPL includes scientists, (assistant) professors, and(senior) lecturers not in management positions; and M indicates management and includes directors, deans,and department heads. When including all 15 countries, the female share in management positions is lower at14 percent ( Adapted from Beintema and DiMarcantino, 2009 based on ASTI/IFPRI data)
Supply side implications for increase in women scientists and researchers• Types of knowledge produced and the relevance of that knowledge for particular groups in society;• Linking scientific and local knowledge to decision making will ensure a more grounded policy making process;• The nature of the research conducted; inclusive research methods that bridge knowledge domains• Making science responsive to the needs of a more inclusive society; “local knowledge systems and innovation will more likely be enabled to inform decision making.
On the demand side, increasing the numbers of women scientistsaround the policy table ensures that • Policy interests and priorities often missing from the policy debates and decisions can have “voice” around the policy table; • Policy options are made more gender responsive; e.g. Gender equity in science and technology education; Making the science and technology decision-making more gender responsive.
Closing the information and knowledge gap on African women inS&T I Sample Ghana factsheet: 2008 Track-Learn-Adjust Benchmarking study Distribution of l science researchers by discipline in on status of African the NARS women scientists in A g r i c u l tu r a l E c o n o m i c s SSA (ASTI-IFPRI) Ag ro n o m y A n im a l B i o d i v e r s i ty C ro p S c ie n c e E c o lo g y E n to m o l o g y E x te n s i o n F is h e rie s F o o d /N u tr i ti o n F o r e s tr y M o le c u la r B io lo g y N a tu r a l R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t S o il S c ie n c e W a t e r /I r r i g a ti o n O th e r 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% F e m a le M a le