Sangiovanni Vincentelli Gruppo 2003 Insieme Per La Ricerca Milano 21 Settembre


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Alberto Sangiovanni Vincentelli. Università e industria in USA

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Sangiovanni Vincentelli Gruppo 2003 Insieme Per La Ricerca Milano 21 Settembre

  1. 1. UNIVERSITA’ E INDUSTRIA IN US Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli Vincentelli The Edgar L. and Harold H. Buttner Chair of EECS University of California at Berkeley Co-Founder, CTA and Member of the Board Founder, Cadence Design Systems
  2. 2. DISCLAIMER • Le mie considerazioni si basano su osservazioni personali maturate in 35 anni di permanenza a Berkeley relative principalmente – Alle relazioni Industria-Universita’ nella Silicon Valley (e Universita’ nella regione di Boston) – All’Ingegneria
  3. 3. A personal view of US University System 3
  4. 4. Silicon Valley: The land of Innovation
  5. 5. Silicon Valley: The land of Innovation
  6. 6. Pasteur’s Quadrant Considerations of Use? NO YES Pure Basic Use-Inspired YES Research Basic Research (Bohr) (Pasteur) Quest for Fundamental Understanding ? Pure Applied NO Research (Edison) D. Stokes
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. Job Creation from Start-ups ups
  9. 9. Organizing for High-Impact R&D Impact Shared Vision: “The Moon Shot” Sponsor Sponsor Group Group Project Project Project Project
  10. 10. The “Moon Shot” Approach Use an overarching, long-range goal to organize and loosely long- direct the research Usually application-driven application- Organize the effort as a loose confederation of tightly-knit tightly- sub- sub-projects Even if you don’t reach the moon, lots of good results will be produced
  11. 11. The demise of great private research centers Bell Labs Xerox PARC
  12. 12. Sea Change in Research Support • Research support has been changing • Support is shifting from Federal to Industrial / Private • What are the implications? • What are the innovative business models for above critical mass research? • How do we best adopt to the new landscape?
  13. 13. Overall Berkeley COE Research Support
  14. 14. Federal support is changing
  15. 15. Industrial Support in % including sub-awards EECS: 48,763,000 Industry 7.109.000 15% Industry Private Private 11.213.000 23% Individual All Else All Else 28.751.000 59% Individual 1.690.000 3% COE EECS Industry + Private + Individual = 26% Industry + Private + Individual = 41%
  16. 16. R&D Gap is in the Private Sector R&D as% of GNL Private Companies State and P.A. Svezia Giappone Stati Uniti ) Germania Francia Canada UK Italia 0 1 2 3 4 Fonte: Intesa Sanpaolo, Servizio Innovazione della Divisione Corporate su dati OECD 2005 - The Economist - August , 2007 18
  17. 17. Great Works and Grand Challenges as an organizing principle “Use Inspired Basic Research” as a Framework – Energy — e.g. Zero Energy Buildings – Health— e.g. Curing malaria with synthetic biology – Education — e.g. ICT for the developing world
  18. 18. Example of Grand Challenges Challenges-Use Inspired Research •ARPA-E is a bold concept that will provide access to the E funding needed to bring the next generation of energy technologies to fruition. Specifically ARPA-E aims to: •Enhance our economic security by identifying technologies with the Enhance potential to reduce energy imports from foreign sources; reduce energy-related greenhouse gas emissions; and improve efficiency related across the energy spectrum. •Ensure we remain a technological leader in developing and deploying Ensure advanced energy technologies. •ARPA-E will uniquely focus on high risk, high payoff concepts - E technologies promising true energy transformations. Barack Obama and Steven Chu addresses
  19. 19. Energy Collaborative Research: Government, Industry, University Researchers at U.S. universities, led by Berkeley, Stanford University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are targeting the $2 billion in Technology, energy research funds contained in the House recovery bill. The research dollars will produce jobs, reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and stem the production of greenhouse gases, according to the Association of American Universities, a group of 62 schools that conduct research. , Obama’s New Energy for America Plan, as explained on the White House Web site, calls for creating five million jobs by spending $150 billion, over 10 years, “to catalyze private efforts to build a clean energy future.” Two major energy initiatives were launched in 2007: the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI), a partnership of UC Berkeley, Berkeley Lab, and the University of Illinois, funded by BP with $500 million over ten years; and the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), a partnership of three national labs and ), three research universities in the San Francisco Bay Area, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy with $125 million over five years.
  20. 20. Industry and US Universities • Pure local decisions based on accomplishments and feedback from peers • Ranking determines rigor in promotion criteria • Ranking are essential – To attract the best students world world-wide – To obtain grants and awards – To have an impact • Professors are promoted on the basis of their contributions in all areas, including professional activities • Reciprocal respect and attention to respective roles Industry Industry- Academia • Unrestricted grants: “speed not patents” • “Transfer of technology” through visiting professionals and summer students • Formation of new companies favored 22
  21. 21. Implementing a Local Research Laboratory • There are many possible models models—some Berkeley-located examples for discussion: – Cadence Berkeley Laboratories – The Siemens Berkeley Technology Technology-to-Business Center – ST Microelectronics Berkeley Laboratory (transformed in UPEK Start-up) – Kawasaki Steel Corporation Berkeley Labs (transformed in Comsilica Start-up) – Ericcson Berkeley Laboratories – Hughes Research Labs – AT&T – Intel Berkeley Labs – Pirelli-Telecom Italia Berkeley Labs Telecom – GM Berkeley Labs – Toyota Berkeley Labs – UTC Berkeley Labs
  22. 22. How Can Industry Leverage University Research • Place a small number of large bets and a larger number of smaller ones – In today’s IT world, the long-term impact of many research projects are term strongly influenced by an expensive commercial context – Identify the key schools, the key faculty in specific areas, and make them successful • Employ an intellectual property policy that maximizes the impact of the research and maximizes your access to results – In information technology, that usually demands a very open (“public domain”) approach! – In other areas of research, e.g. biological sciences, a more restrictive approach might be better—no one no one-size-fits-all! • Couple the research closely to your own business units – “One-week-per-month” visitor approach month” – Build a small research laboratory adjacent to the University – Invest in a local, independent technology incubator to obtain an “unfair advantage.”
  23. 23. The SCIENCE-Application Dilemma Application Raffaello Sanzio, The Athens School