Einaudi Gruppo 2003 Insieme Per La Ricerca Milano 21 Settembre

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Giorgio Einaudi. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A.

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Einaudi Gruppo 2003 Insieme Per La Ricerca Milano 21 Settembre

  1. 1. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A. Giorgio Einaudi Professore di Fisica Università di Pisa e Direttore Scientifico Italian Scientists and Scholars in North America Foundation INSIEME PER LA RICERCA Scienziati italiani d’Italia e USA per una nuova governance Milano, 21 settembre 2009 Università Luigi Bocconi
  2. 2. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A.
  3. 3. La governanceAdvanced Studies: Institute for della ricerca in U.S.A. Science for Global Policy ( (IAS/SGP)
  4. 4. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A.
  5. 5. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A.
  6. 6. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A.
  7. 7. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A. Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Office of Management and Budget ( (OMB) Congress Agencies: DoD, DHHS-NIH, NASA, NSF, DoE-Science, , DoC-NIST, DoC-NOAA, EPA NOAA,
  8. 8. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A. 142.7 billions, 0.5 billions more than in FY 2007 (+ 0.4%) • Defense (77.8) 54.6% • Health (29.80) 20.9%, 95.5% to NIH, • Space (12.2) 8.6%, • NSF (4.4) 3.1% • Energy&Envir. (9.7) 6.8% • All other (8.55) 6%. Basic Research 28.7 billions ~ 20%, Applied Research 28.8 billions ~ 20%, Development 80.6 billions ~ 57% Infrastructures 4.4 billions ~ 3%.
  9. 9. La governanceAdvanced Studies: Institute for della ricerca in U.S.A. Science for Global Policy ( (IAS/SGP) 54% of U.S. Federal R&D is for Defense
  10. 10. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A. NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) Department of Health and Human Services Agency Activity: “intra moenia” and “extra-moenia” research in bio moenia” bio-medicine Budget 2007: 27.8 billions, doubled in 5 years, ½ total civil , Organization: Office of the Director coordinates 27 Institutes and Centers, including: : NCI (National Cancer Institute), NEI (National Eye Institute), NHGRI (National Human Genome Research Institute), NIA (National Institute of Aging) e NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)
  11. 11. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Activity: : Space&Astrophysics Research, Space Technology, Space Robotic&Man Missions Budget 2007: 16.8 billions, + 3.2% with respect 2006 : 76.7 billions, +4.8%, for R&D. Organization: Independent Federal Agency with about 18.000 employees and a great number of “contractors” , and 10 Research Centers, including: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 5.000 employees, managed by California Institue of , Technology (FFRDC), robotic exploration od the Solar System; Johnson Space Center, 3.300 employees, management of human flight, i.e. Gemini, Apollo, Shuttle; Kennedy Space Center , 1.700 employees management of launches; employees, Goddard Space Flight Center, 3.000 employees and 6.000 contractors, the most important scientific Center, studies Earth and its environment, solar system, universe through observations from space space.
  12. 12. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A. National Science Foundation (NSF) Activity: : Support Basic Scientific Research to Improve Society Welfare and Ensure National Defense Budget 2007: 4.2 billions (200 millions for its management), ~ : ~-20% with respect 2006 Organization: IndependentFederal Agency with 7 Directorate: Biological Sciences, Computer & Information Science & Engineering, Education & Human Resources, Engineering, Geosciences, Mathematical & Physical Sciences, Social, Behavior & Economic Sciences. No laboratories, finances projects selected trough a “peer review” process. 1200 employees (600 scientists 50% contractors from Universities etc., 600 administrative 30% contractors)
  13. 13. La governance della ricerca in U.S.A. Department of Energy (DoE) Activity:Defense Strategic Goal: To protect national security by applying advanced science and nuclear technology to the Nation’s defense. Energy Strategic Goal: To protect national and economic security by promoting a diverse supply and delivery of reliable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy. Science Strategic Goal: To protect national and economic security by providing world-class scientific research capacity and advancing scientific class knowledge. Environment Strategic Goal To protect the environment by Goal: providing a responsible resolution to the environmental legacy of the Cold War and by providing for the permanent disposal of the Nation’s high high-level radioactive waste. Budget 2007: 23.5 billions, 8.7 billions( 4 for defense) for R&D : Organization: One Under Secretary for Energy, Environment, Science; one Under Secretary and Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration Technological
  14. 14. Università: Università Organizzazione, Reclutamento e Carriere. 3700 Istituti di Formazione Superiore, di cui solo circa 260 (7%) “Università Di Ricerca”. Poca differenza tra Universitá pubbliche e private.
  15. 15. Università: Università Institute for Advanced Studies: Organizzazione, Reclutamento e Carriere. Science for Global Policy ( (IAS/SGP) Le assunzioni avvengono localmente: un errore di scelta ha conseguenze economiche per l’Università. I Ricercatori nei Laboratori anche con posto di Laboratori, ruolo, devono avere finanziamenti propri. Molti sono su soft money ( (Precari?). Alta mobilità tra Universit e il private sector. Università
  16. 16. Università: Università Organizzazione, Reclutamento e Carriere.
  17. 17. Università: Università Organizzazione, Reclutamento e Carriere.
  18. 18. Università: Università Organizzazione, Reclutamento e Carriere. Harvard University Dotazione patrimoniale: circa 35 miliardi di dollari : Bilancio 2006: circa 3 miliardi di dollari Entrate: 36% da proventi degli investimenti investimenti, 7% da donazioni per il 2006, 21% da tasse studentesche, 21% da grants di ricerca (82% federale 12% fondazioni, 6% federale, private sector) 15% da attività universitarie (prestazioni mediche, royalties, prestazioni editoria, etc.)
  19. 19. Università: Università Organizzazione, Reclutamento e Carriere. Harvard University Dotazione patrimoniale: circa 35 miliardi di dollari : Bilancio 2006: circa 3 miliardi di dollari Spese: 50% in stipendi e benefits, 22% spese per ricerca, 10% borse di studio per studenti studenti, 7% acquisto strumentazioni ed apparecchiature, 11% costruzioni e servizi
  20. 20. Università: Università Organizzazione, Reclutamento e Carriere. MIT Faculty, Staff, Students 598 Professors 184 Associate Professors 192 Assistant Professors 2700 graduate research assistants 787 teaching assistants 4112 undergraduate students (330 international) 6228 graduate students (2242 international)
  21. 21. Università: Università Organizzazione, Reclutamento e Carriere. Research at MIT, Cambridge Campus - FY 2003 - Total: $471.754 millions 19.8% 13.8% US Department of US DoE M$ 65.2 Health&HumanServic es M$93.3 18.2% 7.6% US DoD M$ 85.9 NASA M$35.7 2.5% MIT InternalM$13.3 12.2% NSF M$57.7 3.9% 2.8% Other Nonprofits Other Federal M$13.1 3.4% M$18.3 Local, State,Foreign 15.5% Governments Industry M$73.2 M$15.9

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