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Revision Lesson: Making crude oil useful (Fractional Distillation and Cracking) Part 1

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This is a draft copy prepared for a lower ability group Core Science lesson...

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Revision Lesson: Making crude oil useful (Fractional Distillation and Cracking) Part 1

  1. 1. Making Crude Oil Useful Learning Intention We are learning about how Crude oil is separated into fractions and why. How and why fractional distillation works. To use data to evaluate the use of different fuels Keywords & Phrases Starter Activity Look at the following formula displayed on your starter activity sheet. Write down two facts about each molecule from its formula (3 marks) Fractions Distillation Fuels Crude Oil Evaluate
  2. 2. Starter Activity Look at the following formula displayed on your starter activity sheet. Write down two facts about each molecule from its formula (3 marks) Temperature Saturated Unsaturated Family name What Group? General Formula Bromine water More reactive Density Intermolecular-force
  3. 3. Why is crude oil separated into Fractions? Watch video clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=26AN1LfbUPc
  4. 4. Fractional Distillation i. ii. What is fractional distillation? Explain why crude oil is separated by fractional distillation. Use ideas about  Size of molecules  Forces between molecules and how these affect boiling point. May 2012 GCSE Q1 b) http://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/135630-mark-scheme-unit-b641-02-unit-01-modules-c1-c2-c3-higher-tier-june.pdf
  5. 5. Fractional Distillation Crude Oil Mixture Fractions Boiling points Large molecules Small molecules i. What is fractional distillation? ii. Explain how and why fractional distillation works.
  6. 6. More on properties of fractions 1. What can you say about the fractions that are at the top of the column (in terms of its boiling point – low or high?) 2. What can you say about bigger molecules and its forces?
  7. 7. Properties of fractions 1. What can you say about the fractions that are at the top of the column (in terms of its boiling point – low or high?) 2. What can you say about bigger molecules and its forces?  Name the force between them  Intermolecular forces  Strong attractive forces or weak attractive forces?  Easily separated or not?  High boiling point  Low boiling point-
  8. 8. The Fractions In Crude Oil Petrol contains the alkane with 8 carbons. i. Can you guess its name? ii. Draw a picture of the molecule.
  9. 9. Cracking Cracking is used to make ethene. Cracking needs a high temperature and a catalyst. Write about cracking. Your answers should include  What happens to hydrocarbon molecules during cracking.  Why cracking is a useful reaction May 2010 GCSE H-Tier Q 3(d) http://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/61307-mark-scheme-unit-b641-02-unit-01-modules-c1-c2-c3-higher-tier-june.pdf
  10. 10. Cracking Large Molecules The large molecules from crude oil can be broken down (or cracked) into smaller, more useful molecules.
  11. 11. Comparing Fuels – Peer Assessment Task You are going to peer assess your work titled: Comparing Fuels, based on the following success criteria/benchmark.
  12. 12. Why Is Cracking Important?
  13. 13. Why Is Cracking Important? Fuels made from oil mixtures containing large hydrocarbon molecules are not efficient. They do not flow easily and are difficult to ignite. Crude oil often contains too many large hydrocarbon molecules and not enough small hydrocarbon molecules to meet demand - this is where cracking comes in.
  14. 14. Plenary 60 seconds challenge – Sum Up
  15. 15. Self Assessment You have 7 minutes Self assessment – record what you’ve learnt, any difficulties you have had and set your personal targets.
  16. 16. Cracking of Hexane Hexane C₆H₁₄  Butane + Ethene
  17. 17. Comparing Fuel Assessment Task My Improvement target 5 minutes Task Now your work has been assessed, choose one or two improvement targets using green pen and the template provided.
  18. 18. Best Plenary tips See tips shown in the link http://www.teach-ict.com/teacher/plenary/plenaries.htm
  19. 19. Is used to separate c…………… o………. into u………………..substances called f……………. in a fractionating column. Each fraction is a mixture of h……………………… with similar b………….. p……………… Fraction Uses
  20. 20. Starter Activity Look at the following formula displayed on your starter activity sheet. Write down two facts about each molecule from its formula (3 marks)
  21. 21. Making Crude Oil Useful Learning Intention We are learning about how crude oil can be separated into fractions. How and why fractional distillation works. How the forces between molecules affect their boiling points. i. ii. Know how fractional distillation works because of differences temperature. To label fractional distillation apparatus. Explain Understand and apply the concept of intermolecular forces. Explain why cracking matches the supply and demand of petrol.
  22. 22. Success Criteria  Know how fractional distillation works because of differences temperature.  To label fractional distillation apparatus. Explained that cracking converts large alkanes into smaller ones. Showed detailed knowledge and understanding of extraction methods and how this relates to the reactivity series Used equations where appropriate to explain to the concept of cracking.  Understand and apply the concept of intermolecular forces.  Used equations where appropriate to explain to the concept of cracking.  Evaluate the use of different fuels
  23. 23. Making Crude Oil Useful Learning Intention We are learning about how Crude oil are separated into fractions and why. How and why fractional distillation works. To interpret and evaluate data to choose the best fuel for a particular purpose.

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