QUEENSBOROUGH COMMUNITY COLLEGE
THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND GEOLOGY
GENERAL BIOL...
2
FACULTY
The best time to meet with faculty is during their regularly scheduled
office hours. Messages for faculty may be...
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Course Prerequisites & Description…………………………………. 4
Required Books & Materials ………………………………….. 4
Policy...
4
Course Prerequisites:
BE-112 (or 205) and BE-122 (or 226). Corequisite: BE-123, or satisfactory score on
the English Pla...
5
POLICY ON CHEATING
Instructors of this course are required to implement the College policy regarding
cheating on examina...
6
Grading Procedures And Criteria:
The final grade is a combination of the grades earned in the lecture and laboratory
seg...
7
For example:
Exam/Quiz grades AVG Final Grade
lecture 70 84 82 78 85 80 80 x 0.7 = 56
lab 60 75 82 85 90 83 83 x 0.3 = 2...
8
Study Tips
I. Preliminary steps prior to studying:
A. Make a weekly schedule - include classes, work and family obligati...
9
you clearly understand what you have read. This is to be expected in a science
course. Make reading an active process:
a...
10
I. Take advantage of peer tutoring: Tutoring is available in the Student Learning
Center, L-125 (first floor of the lib...
11
BI-201 LECTURE SYLLABUS
AND
APPROXIMATE SCHEDULE
Textbook
Lecture Topic Reading Assignment
UNIT I: EVOLUTION & CHEMISTR...
12
BI-201 LABORATORY SYLLABUS
Lab # Manual
Pages
Topic Text
Reference
1 1-11 Scientific Method Ch. 1
2 12-22 pH, buffers &...
13
COURSE OBJECTIVES
These learning objectives represent goals to be achieved after reading the text
and attending lecture...
14
3. Explain how water’s high specific heat, high heat of vaporization and expansion
upon freezing affect both aquatic an...
15
3. Describe factors that affect the selective permeability of a membrane.
4. Explain passive transport: diffusion, osmo...
16
Ch. 9 - Cellular Respiration (pp. 163-183)
1. Define and use these terms:
cellular respiration, NAD+
, FAD, CoA, matrix...
17
UNIT IV: CLASSICAL GENETICS
Ch. 13 - Meiosis (pp. 248-261)
1. Define and use these terms:
somatic cell, karyotype, homo...
18
6. Distinguish among deletions, duplications, translocations and inversions.
7. Describe the chromosomal alterations in...
19
4. Give examples of transcriptional control, posttranscriptional control, translational
control, and posttranslational ...
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Bio 201 course information syllabus qcc

  1. 1. QUEENSBOROUGH COMMUNITY COLLEGE THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND GEOLOGY GENERAL BIOLOGY I BI-201 COURSE INFORMATION Spring 2013 NAME ______________________________ SECTION ___________________________ https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology Use this website to help you youtube is a great tool as well Hard course, grades are not curved. BI-202 is easier and more intresting Pre for BI-202 is Bi201 The book cost is about $ 200 Ask prof. if you can use an older version which u can buy online Lab book is cheap: about $ 20 from when I took the class took the class
  2. 2. 2 FACULTY The best time to meet with faculty is during their regularly scheduled office hours. Messages for faculty may be left with the secretaries in the department office: M-213 (631-6335). Course Coordinators Dr. P. Schneider Dr. U. Golebiewska Office: M-208 Office: M-428 Your Lecturer: ________________________________ Office: ______________________________________ Office Hours: ________________________________ Your Lab Instructor: ____________________________ Office: _______________________________________ Office Hours: _________________________________
  3. 3. 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Course Prerequisites & Description…………………………………. 4 Required Books & Materials ………………………………….. 4 Policy on Cheating ……………………………………………. 5 Grading Procedures and Criteria ……………………………… 6 INC, ABS, W and WU; Early Grade Notification …………… 7 Attendance Policy ……………………………………………… 7 Study Tips ………………………………………………………. 8 Lecture Syllabus ……………………………………………….. 11 Laboratory Syllabus …………………………………………… 12 Course Objectives ……………………………………………… 13
  4. 4. 4 Course Prerequisites: BE-112 (or 205) and BE-122 (or 226). Corequisite: BE-123, or satisfactory score on the English Placement Test. Course Description: 4 credits, 6 class hours per week: 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. BI-201 is the first semester of a one-year course in General Biology. This course is designed for science majors. It serves as a preparation for the pursuit of a bachelor’s degree in Biological Sciences, and equally well as a foundation for professional programs (physical therapy, occupational therapy, physician’s assistant, medical laboratory technology, environmental health, medicine etc.). All these scientific and para-medical programs are rigorous and highly competitive; students will need a C or better in BI-201 in order to be admitted. The course also fulfills the lab science requirement for other students, but is not recommended, since there are lab science courses designed for the non-scientist, which are less challenging and of more general interest. Required Books and Materials: Campbell Biology, (9th Edition), Reece. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2011. BI-201: General Biology I, Laboratory Manual with Computer Exercises, QCC Press. Recommended: Mastering Biology: The textbook web site provides 24/7 review, tutorials, animations and practice tests. Your access code and instructions to register, log in, and use the site are on an insert at the front of the text. If you did not purchase a new copy of the text, you will have to pay $50 for access www.masteringbiology.com  Career information: Occupational Outlook Handbook www.bls.gov/oco/ describes the job duties, working conditions, education requirements, earnings, and employment prospects for hundreds of jobs grouped by area of interest such as, math, science, or nature.
  5. 5. 5 POLICY ON CHEATING Instructors of this course are required to implement the College policy regarding cheating on examinations and assignments. For a complete list of the standards of academic integrity consult the College Catalog or the Student Handbook. A synopsis of prohibited conduct is as follows: 1. Obtaining answers to exam questions by looking at devices (e.g. cell phones, calculators), notes or another student’s paper during an exam. 2. Allowing another student to see and copy answers from your papers. 3. Talking or passing notes, information or objects while taking an examination. 4. Writing notes on your table or desk prior to receiving exam papers. 5. Taking an examination for another student or allowing someone else to take an exam for you. 6. Attempting to obtain or disseminate the content of an examination of any kind prior to distribution by the instructor. 7. Copying another person’s ideas, words or data and handing them in as your own. Penalties for deviation from these rules of conduct include, but are not limited to: 1) Submission of an Incident Report to the Department Chair and the Dean of Students. 2) Assignment of a failing grade (F) for the work in question. 3) Dismissal from the course and assignment of an F. 4) Expulsion from the college and CUNY.
  6. 6. 6 Grading Procedures And Criteria: The final grade is a combination of the grades earned in the lecture and laboratory segments of the course. The lecture average accounts for 70% and the laboratory average accounts for 30% of the final grade. Laboratory performance is considered in borderline cases, but no grades are curved. Students are required to pass both lecture and lab independently. A lecture (or lab) average below 60 automatically results in failure of the course. Lecture Exams % of Final Grade 4 Unit Exams 56% Final Exam (on Unit V) 14% 70% Five multiple choice exams (50 minutes) will be given in lecture. None of these exam grades will be dropped. Make-up exams for absent students are given only under extreme circumstances and at the instructor’s discretion. Make-ups are administered at the end of the semester and may vary in format from the regularly scheduled exams. Under no circumstances will a student be permitted to take more than one make-up exam. Students who miss more than one exam will be assigned a final grade of INC, WU or F based upon the nature of the circumstances and whether or not they are passing the course (see the descriptions on the following page). Laboratory Exams % of Final Grade 4 Quizzes (lowest grade dropped) 22.5% Final Exam 7.5% 30% Five exams will be administered in lab: 4 Written Quizzes + Final Exam. The four lab quizzes (30 minutes) will include short answers, fill-ins, definitions, problems, and short essays. At the end of the semester, only your three highest quiz scores will count toward your final grade. Because of this generous drop policy, there will be no make-up lab quizzes. The final exam grade is not dropped. Final letter grades are assigned by the lecturer as follows: A …………… 96-100 C …………… 74-76 A- …………… 90-95 C- …………… 70-73 B+…………… 87-89 D+…………… 67-69 B …………… 84-86 D …………… 64-66 B- …………… 80-83 D- …………… 60-63 C+ ………… 77-79 F ………… 0-59
  7. 7. 7 For example: Exam/Quiz grades AVG Final Grade lecture 70 84 82 78 85 80 80 x 0.7 = 56 lab 60 75 82 85 90 83 83 x 0.3 = 25 56 + 25 = 81 B- INC - given under extraordinary circumstances to students who are passing the course. All grades for completed exams remain as part of the student’s record, and are incorporated into the final grade. The student has until the end of the following semester to make-up the missed exams; NO EXAMS ARE RETAKEN. Note: a student with an INC cannot register for BI-202 or any other course for which BI-201 is a prerequisite. W - assigned by the administration (not the instructor) to a student who has submitted the proper form before the end of the official withdrawal period (from the fourth to eighth week of the semester). WU - unofficial withdrawal, assigned for excessive absences (equivalent to an F) Grade Notification: CUNY policy prohibits the posting of grades; giving out grades by instructors over the phone; and distribution of grades by department secretaries. Students can view their grades in CUNYfirst accessible from the College web site www.qcc.cuny.edu Attendance Policy: Students are expected to attend all lecture sessions. Text study alone is not sufficient! Many topics are complex and additional material may be introduced in lecture. Because of the accelerated pace of this course, there is little time to catch up on missed work. Excessive absences will result in your becoming hopelessly behind. Laboratory attendance is mandatory and excessive absences will result in a WU (unofficial withdrawal) being assigned for the entire course. An absent student must take the initiative for remaining up to date in the course and is responsible for all covered material and assigned work.
  8. 8. 8 Study Tips I. Preliminary steps prior to studying: A. Make a weekly schedule - include classes, work and family obligations. Set flexible priorities. Then, workout a regular pattern or even a written schedule for study. B. Read assigned material before class. This reading provides background in the topics covered and makes it easier to: a) understand the lecture b) concentrate and take clear concise notes c) ask better questions C. Attend all classes and arrive on time. D. Take organized, concise lecture notes: a) keep a separate notebook for biology; a ring binder will allow you to revise & insert material while preserving the lecture sequence b) take notes in an outline format; use roman numerals for major points, letters for supporting factors and so on c) write on only one side of the paper, leaving the other side for additions, corrections & comments d) as you take notes leave a 2 inch margin on the left-hand side for clue words, questions & comments E. Review notes as soon as possible after class while the material is still fresh in you mind. a) make corrections (spelling, definitions etc.) b) fill in the “blanks” and revise portions as necessary to create a smooth- flowing outline c) clarify difficult concepts by adding comments & clue words in the margins d) use underlining, highlighting or asterisks to call attention to important ideas e) write down questions that you need to research in the text or ask during the next class F. Use the text to clarify, reinforce and supplement the material your instructor covered in class. Reread the text carefully, keeping in mind the learning objectives (pp. 13-19). Science textbooks contain a lot of information on each page and you may find it necessary to read a section a number of times before
  9. 9. 9 you clearly understand what you have read. This is to be expected in a science course. Make reading an active process: a) write brief notes, comments & questions in the margins b) underline or highlight sparingly & selectively or take brief concise notes c) enrich your notes with information from the text, creating your own “text book” d) be prepared to note where the lecturer disagrees with the book or presents more up-to-date information G. Get help if you need it. Ask the instructor to clarify material you do not fully understand. II. Studying for exams: (begin several days in advance) A. All textbook reading & lecture note revision must be completed prior to studying. B. Find a quiet place to study where you will not be disturbed. C. Work from your notebook: a) condense & summarize your notes on blank sheets of paper b) review these sheets a little at a time until you have mastered the information D. Try to predict exam questions: a) devise your own questions & compile a list of key terms b) try to answer these questions & explain these terms without looking at your notebook E. Practice tests available in the computer lab (p. 20) will help you determine how well prepared you are. Review your answers and learn why they are correct or incorrect. F. Evaluate your exam performance by reviewing previous quizzes. G. Do not study for more than several hours at a time. Take short (15 min.) breaks. H. Form a study group with two to five students whose goals and objectives are similar to yours. The group should meet for at least two hours a week. It is important that each member of the group prepare for the session by reviewing, correcting and clarifying his or her notes.
  10. 10. 10 I. Take advantage of peer tutoring: Tutoring is available in the Student Learning Center, L-125 (first floor of the library). J. Cramming is no substitute for continued review. K. You are responsible for your own learning. No teacher can assume that responsibility. Only you can control how well and how completely you study. Students who succeed in General Biology are those who attend class regularly, ask questions, come to office hours, study outside class both alone and in study groups, make use of campus resources (computer lab, tutorial center, writing center etc.), seek to understand methods and overarching principles rather than specific answers, teach or tutor others, and discuss concepts with fellow students. Good Luck! What tutors can do: • Review course outlines and objectives • Clarify information provided by the instructor • Help you understand the textbook and utilize the information it contains • Help you identify and understand major topics What are your responsibilities for tutoring? • Prepare for the tutoring session • Have a positive attitude • Understand that the work is your responsibility, not the tutor’s What tutors cannot do: • Teach you material that you have not read or heard in class • Provide help with graded homework assignments (lab graphing assignment, pre-labs & lab report). To do so would be a violation of the academic honesty policy & you both would suffer consequences. • Complete work for you
  11. 11. 11 BI-201 LECTURE SYLLABUS AND APPROXIMATE SCHEDULE Textbook Lecture Topic Reading Assignment UNIT I: EVOLUTION & CHEMISTRY (9 lectures) A. Evolution Chapter 22 B. Basic Chemistry & Water Chapter 2 & 3 C. Carbon & Macromolecules Chapter 4 & 5 UNIT I EXAM (approximately 2/11-2/15) UNIT II: CHEMISTRY & CELL STRUCTURE (8 lectures) A. Macromolecules (continued) Chapter 5 B. Biological Membranes Chapter 7 C. Organization of the Cell Chapter 6 UNIT II EXAM (approximately 3/11-3/15) UNIT III: METABOLISM (7 lectures) A. Metabolism Chapter 8 B. Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 C. Photosynthesis Chapter 10 UNIT III EXAM (approximately 4/8-4/12) UNIT IV: CLASSICAL GENETICS (7 lectures) A. Meiosis Chapter 13 B. Mendel & Basic Principles of Heredity Chapter 14 C. Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Chapter 15 UNIT IV EXAM (approximately 4/29-5/3) UNIT V: MOLECULAR GENETICS (7 lectures) A. Molecular Basis of Inheritance Chapter 16 B. From Gene to Protein Chapter 17 C. Gene Regulation & DNA Technology Chapter 18 & 20 FINAL EXAM on UNIT V (week of 5/17-5/23)
  12. 12. 12 BI-201 LABORATORY SYLLABUS Lab # Manual Pages Topic Text Reference 1 1-11 Scientific Method Ch. 1 2 12-22 pH, buffers & Introduction to PreLab Ch. 3 3 23-35 1st PreLab due Biological Molecules Ch. 5 4 36-42 Quiz I on labs 1, 2 & 3 Movement of Molecules Ch. 8 5 43-55 Microscope and Cell Structure Ch. 7 6 56-63 2nd PreLab due; Quiz II on labs 4 & 5 Enzyme I Ch. 6 7 64-70 3rd PreLab due Enzyme II; LabWrite continued Ch. 6 8 71-79 Lab Report & 4th PreLab due Glucose Oxidation - Fermentation Ch. 9 9 80-88 5th PreLab due; Quiz III on labs 6, 7, 8 Photosynthesis Ch. 10 10 89-109 Mitosis Ch. 12, 13 11 110-120 Quiz IV on labs 9 & 10 Monohybrid Cross; Pedigrees Ch. 14, 15 12 121-122 Genetics; BioLab Fly Ch. 14, 15 13 Hand out Molecular Genetics Ch 16, 20 14 Final Exam on labs 11,12 & 13
  13. 13. 13 COURSE OBJECTIVES These learning objectives represent goals to be achieved after reading the text and attending lectures. The objectives are not a cataloging of everything to be learned in each unit. Rather, they emphasize the important facts, topics and concepts to be covered. They provide a basic framework to which additional material will be added by the individual lecturer. UNIT I: EVOLUTION AND CHEMISTRY Ch. 22 – Descent with Modification : Darwinian Evolution (pp. 452-468) 1. Define and use these terms: natural selection, homology, adaptation, mutation 2. Define evolution in your own words. 3. List the five observations on which the theory of evolution by natural selection is based. 4. Explain the following evidence for the occurrence of evolution - artificial selection, fossil record, comparative anatomy, embryology, biogeography, and molecular biology. 5. Describe one case of natural selection in the wild that has been documented by observation and experimentation. Ch. 2 – Chemistry of Life (pp. 30-45) 1. Define and use these terms: element, proton, neutron, electron, trace element, Nobel gas, compound, isotope, radioactive, electronegativity, ion, mole, cohesion, surface tension, adhesion, hydrophilic, hydrophobic, solution, solute, solvent, dissociation 2. Describe the structure of an atom; draw and interpret a Bohr model 3. Which elements make up 96% of living matter ? 4. Define and distinguish between atomic number and atomic mass. 5. Explain how electron configuration influences the chemical behavior of an atom. 6. Distinguish among ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, and hydrogen bonds. Ch. 3 – Water (pp. 46-57) 1. Describe the structure and geometry of a water molecule, and explain what properties emerge as a result of this structure. 2. List and explain five characteristics of water that result from hydrogen bonding.
  14. 14. 14 3. Explain how water’s high specific heat, high heat of vaporization and expansion upon freezing affect both aquatic and terrestrial environments. 4. Explain the basis of the pH scale and compare the properties of acids, bases, and salts. 5. Using the bicarbonate buffer system as an example, explain how buffers work. Ch. 4 – Carbon & Molecular Diversity (pp. 58-67) 1. Define and use these terms: isomer, organic compounds, functional groups 2. Describe the importance of the carbon atom to biochemistry. Ch. 5 – Structure & Function of Large Biomolecules (pp. 68-77) 1. Define and use these terms: monomer, polymer, macromolecule, dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis 2. List the four main classes of biological macromolecules, stating their chemical elements, subunits and the role they play in living systems. 3. Discuss the structure and importance of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. 4. Contrast the chemical structure and functions of saturated fats, unsaturated fats, phospholipids, and steroids. UNIT II: CHEMISTRY & CELL STRUCTURE Ch. 5 – Biomolecules (continued) (pp. 77-91) 1. Define and use these terms: conformation, denaturation 2. Describe the characteristics and biological functions of proteins. 3. Describe the four levels of protein structure. 4. Compare the structure and functions of DNA and RNA. Ch. 7 – Structure 7 Function of Membranes (pp. 125-141) 1. Define and use these terms: phospholipid bilayer, integral proteins, peripheral proteins, selective permeability, carrier-mediated transport, passive transport, active transport, concentration gradient, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, sodium-potassium pump, endocytosis, exocytosis 2. Describe the Fluid Mosaic Model of the plasma membrane.
  15. 15. 15 3. Describe factors that affect the selective permeability of a membrane. 4. Explain passive transport: diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion. 5. List the factors that affect the rate of diffusion. 6. Explain how active transport differs from facilitated diffusion. 7. List and explain the three types of endocytosis. Ch. 6 - Tour of the Cell (pp. 94-124) 1. Define and use these terms: cytoplasm, cytosol, chromatin, chromosome, vesicles, smooth ER, rough ER, endomembrane system 2. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 3. Describe the structure and function of the following organelles: nucleus, nucleolus, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex, lysosome, peroxisome, mitochondria, chloroplast, amyloplasts, chromoplasts, centriole, cilia, flagella and cell wall. 4. Describe the structure and functions of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. 5. Describe the major structural differences between animal and plant cells. 6. Describe the structure and function of intercellular junctions found in plant and animal cells. UNIT III: METABOLISM Ch. 8 – Metabolism (pp. 142-162) 1. Define and use these terms: metabolism, catabolic pathways, anabolic pathways, kinetic energy, potential energy, entropy, heat, free energy, equilibrium, oxidation, reduction, catalyst, activation energy, substrate, active site, cofactors, coenzymes, feedback inhibition 2. State the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and explain how they relate to living things. 3. Compare exergonic and endergonic reactions. 4. Describe the function of ATP in the cell. 5. Relate the transfer of electrons (or hydrogen atoms) to the transfer of energy. 6. Describe the function of enzymes in biological systems. 7. Explain the induced fit model of enzyme function. 8. Describe how enzyme activity is influenced by enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, temperature, pH, inhibitors and allosteric regulators.
  16. 16. 16 Ch. 9 - Cellular Respiration (pp. 163-183) 1. Define and use these terms: cellular respiration, NAD+ , FAD, CoA, matrix, cristae, intermembrane space, cytochrome, chemiosmosis, ATP synthase, aerobic, anaerobic, oxygen debt 2. Distinguish between oxidative phosphorylation and substrate-level phosphorylation. 3. Write an overall reaction for aerobic respiration. 4. Name the starting materials and important end products of: a) glycolysis b) acetyl CoA production c) Krebs Cycle d) electron transport chain 5. Explain how the movement of electrons down the electron transport chain is linked to production of ATP by chemiosmosis. 6. Explain how other nutrients, such as polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins enter into cellular respiration. 7. Contrast aerobic respiration with yeast fermentation and muscle fermentation. Ch. 10 - Photosynthesis (pp. 184-205) 1. Define and use the following terms: autotrophic, heterotrophic, stroma, thylakoid membrane, thylakoid space, wavelength, electromagnetic spectrum, chlorophyll a, accessory pigments, P700, P680, photophosphorylation, light reaction, dark reaction, carbon fixation 2. State which colors (wavelengths) of light are most important for photosynthesis, and explain why. 3. Write an overall reaction for photosynthesis. 4. Describe Photosystem I and Photosystem II. 5. Compare cyclic and noncyclic electron flow. 6. Describe the important differences in chemiosmosis between oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and photophosphorylation in chloroplasts. 7. Summarize the light reactions and describe where they occur. 8. Summarize the Calvin Cycle, include ATP, NADPH, ribulose biphosphate, RuBP carboxylase (rubisco) and PGAL (G3P).
  17. 17. 17 UNIT IV: CLASSICAL GENETICS Ch. 13 - Meiosis (pp. 248-261) 1. Define and use these terms: somatic cell, karyotype, homologous chromosome, haploid, diploid, gamete, zygote, tetrad, synapsis, polar body 2. Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. 3. Distinguish among the life cycle patterns of animals, fungi and plants. 4. List the phases of meiosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase. 5. Describe the key differences between mitosis and meiosis. 6. Explain how independent assortment, crossing over and random fertilization contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. Ch. 14 – Mendel & the Gene Idea (pp. 262-285) 1. Define and use these terms: P generation, F1 generation, F2 generation, homozygous, heterozygous, autosome, locus, carriers, amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling 2. Describe Mendel’s experiments and give reasons why he was successful. 3. State Mendel’s Laws. 4. Use a Punnett square to predict the results of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, giving both genotypic and phenotypic ratios. 5. Explain what is meant by a test cross and discuss its significance as a genetic tool. 6. Explain how phenotype is affected by complete dominance, incomplete dominance and codominance. 7. Define and give examples of multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, and polygenic inheritance. 8. Describe the inheritance and expression of cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, Huntington’s disease, hemophilia and phenylketonuria (PKU). 9. Describe the inheritance of the ABO blood group. Ch. 15 – Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance (pp. 286-304) 1. Define and use these terms: triplet repeats, linkage, recombinant, Barr body 2. Explain why linkage interferes with independent assortment. 3. Describe sex determination in humans. 4. Describe the inheritance of a sex-linked gene such as color-blindness. 5. Distinguish among nondisjunction, aneuploidy, and polyploidy; explain how these chromosomal changes occur and describe the consequences.
  18. 18. 18 6. Distinguish among deletions, duplications, translocations and inversions. 7. Describe the chromosomal alterations in the following disorders: Down Syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Turners syndrome, extra Y, triple-X syndrome and cri du chat syndrome. UNIT V: MOLECULAR GENETICS Ch. 16 – Molecular Basis of Heredity (pp. 305-324) 1. Define and use these terms: purine, pyrimidine, 3ʹ′ and 5ʹ′ ends, antiparallel, semiconservative replication, nucleoside triphosphate, origin of replication, leading and lagging strands, replication fork, replication bubble, Okazaki fragment 2. Describe and explain the evidence that DNA is the genetic material. 3. Describe the structure of a nucleotide. 4. Describe the structure of DNA. 5. Describe the process of DNA replication and explain the roles of helicase, single strand binding proteins, DNA polymerase, primase and ligase. Ch. 17 – From Gene to Protein (pp. 325-350) 1. Define and use these terms: codon, mRNA, promoter, terminator, tRNA, anticodon, rRNA, reading frame, intron, exon, CAP (in RNA), Poly-A tail 2. Explain how RNA differs from DNA. 3. Describe the genetic code and explain how the code is degenerate and nearly universal. 4. Explain the process of transcription including initiation, elongation and termination. 5. Explain the process of translation including initiation, elongation and termination. 6. Describe how eukaryotic mRNA is processed before it leaves the nucleus. 7. Explain why base-pair insertions usually have a greater effect than base pair substitutions. 8. Describe how mutagenesis can occur. Ch. 18 - Gene Regulation (prokaryotic) (pp. 351-356) 1. Using the trp operon as an example, explain the concept of an operon and the function of the operator, repressor and corepressor. 2. Describe how the lac operon functions and describe the role of the inducer allolactase.
  19. 19. 19 4. Give examples of transcriptional control, posttranscriptional control, translational control, and posttranslational control of eukaryotic genes. Ch. 20 – DNA Technology (pp. 396- 398; 405-407; 417-422) 1. Describe and use these terms: restriction enzymes, genetic engineering, cloning vectors 2. List some practical applications of DNA technology.

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