All about Passive agglutination

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All about Passive agglutination

  1. 1. PASSIVE AGGLUTINATIONGROUP-K
  2. 2. • What is passive agglutination?• What are various types of passive agglutination tests?AREAS OF INTERESTS…
  3. 3. LET’S GET STARTED…What is agglutination?Particulate antigen + itsspecific antibodyElectrolytes at an optimaltemperature and pHVisible clumping of particles
  4. 4. LET’S GET STARTED…What is precipitationreaction?Soluble antigen + its specificantibodyElectrolytes at an optimaltemperature and pHInsoluble precipitate
  5. 5. LET’S GET STARTED…And what is PassiveAgglutination??Precipitation reactionAgglutination testsBy attaching soluble antigens tothe surface of carrier particlessuch as latex particles, bentonite,RBCs, etc.
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES OF PASSIVE AGGLUTINATIONAdvantage of Passive agglutination overprecipitation tests are:• More convenient• More sensitive for detection ofantibodies• More sensitive for detection of antigens(Reverse passive)
  7. 7. REVERSE IS POSSIBLE…When instead of antigen, the antibody isadsorbed on the carrier particles forestimation of antigens, it is known asReverse passive agglutination
  8. 8. LATEX(0.8-1µ)ANTIBODYLATEX LATEXLATEX LATEXANTIGEN (in patient serum)LATTICEFORMATIONREVERSE PASSIVE AGGLUTINATION…
  9. 9. Simplifying the course of study...PassiveagglutinationCoagglutinationtestLatexagglutination testHemagglutinationtestOn basis of carrierparticle used
  10. 10. COAGGLUTINATION TESTStaphylococcus aureus (Cowan 1 strain) used
  11. 11. COAGGLUTINATION TESTS.Aureus(Cowan 1)FcFabFabANTIBODY (IgG)ANTIGEN (in patient sreum)PROTEIN AY
  12. 12. COAGGLUTINATION TESTS.Aureus(Cowan 1)ANTIBODY (IgG)S.Aureus(Cowan 1)ANTIGEN (in patient sreum)LATTICEFORMATIONS.Aureus(Cowan 1)S.Aureus(Cowan 1)S.Aureus(Cowan 1)PROTEIN AHow it works?
  13. 13. LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST...The carrier particle is Latex or polystyrene latexBrains behind this: C M Plotz and J M SingerAccidently discovered IgG adsorbed naturallyto polystyrene latex particles (1953)
  14. 14. LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST...How it works?LATEX(0.8-1µ)Antigen LATEXLATEXLATEXLATEXLATTICEFORMATIONANTIBODYANTIGEN
  15. 15. LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST- USES• Carrier + Antibody- detection of antigens-CRP,RA factor, HCG, Hepatitis B• Carrier + Antigen- antibodies to meningococci,H.influenzae type b
  16. 16.  Large number of antigens can adsorbed on carrier Better visualization of Ag-Ab reaction due to largerparticle size of Latex beads preventing previouscumbersome process involved in precipitationreactions (no sophisticated equipments required) Latex particles do not cross-react with otherantibodies Less time consumingLATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST- ADVANTAGES
  17. 17. HEMAGGLUTINATION TESTThe carrier particle is Red Blood Cell/Tannedblood cell (Goose RBCs preferred)Brain behind this: George Hirst (1942)
  18. 18. HEMAGGLUTINATION TEST...How it works?RBCAntigen RBCLATTICEFORMATIONANTIBODYANTIGENRBCRBC RBC
  19. 19. HEMAGGLUTINATION TEST- Examplifiedby Rose Waaler Test (Carrier-RBC )RBCAmboceptor(subagglutinating dose)RBCLATTICEFORMATIONRA FACTOR (in patient serum)AMBOCEPTOR (Rabbit anti-sheep erythrocyte antibody)RBCRBC RBC
  20. 20. HEMAGGLUTINATION TEST- Examplified byTPHA (Carrier-Tanned RBC )TannedRBCAntigen(T.pallidum extract)TannedRBCLATTICEFORMATIONANTIBODIES against T.pallidum(in patient serum)ANTIGEN (T.pallidum extract)TannedRBCTannedRBCTannedRBC
  21. 21. VIRAL HEMAGGLUTINATION ANDHEMAGGLUTINATION INHIBITION TESTWhat isViral Hemagglutination?RBCVirus RBCLATTICEFORMATIONVIRUSRBCRBC RBC
  22. 22. VIRAL HEMAGGLUTINATION ANDHEMAGGLUTINATION INHIBITION TESTWhat is Hemagglutinationinhibition ?VirusNO LATTICEFORMATIONVIRUSRBCAb againstVIRUSRBCRBC
  23. 23. AGGLUTINATION TESTS IN OUR LAB IN ABIRD’S EYE VIEWASO titreRA factor detectionCRPKIT- SyphicheckInfectious mononucleosis (Immutex)
  24. 24. LET’S END BY LOOKING AT RECENT ADVANCES• Determination of anti-streptolysin O antibody titer by anew passive agglutination method using sensitizedtoraysphere particles.
  25. 25. THANKYOU References from:Anantnarayan andPaniker’s Textbook ofmicrobiologyC.P. Baweja’s Textbookof MicrobiologySubhash ChandraParija’s Textbook ofmicrobiology andImmunologyAmerican Society formicrobiolgy-Journal of ClinicalMicrobiology

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