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What Faculty Need to Know About Open Access & Increasing Their Publishing Impact by Ben Wagner


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What Faculty Need to Know About Open Access & Increasing Their Publishing Impact by Ben Wagner

  1. 1. What faculty need to know about Open Access & increasing their publishing Impact A. Ben Wagner, Sciences Librarian University at Buffalo
  2. 2. The Message <ul><li>Used to be Publish or Perish . </li></ul><ul><li>Now it’s increasingly Get Cited or Perish . </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access: more readers, more citations, more impact </li></ul><ul><li>It’s your work; retain a few rights, at least posting manuscript to repository. </li></ul><ul><li>Sure you publish for prestige, but you also publish to be read! </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Classic: Journal Impact Factors <ul><li>The number everyone knows when they see it, but can’t really define it. </li></ul><ul><li>Reported in Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database < > </li></ul><ul><li>Reports the number of times the average article is cited in a given journal by subsequent articles in the body of scholarly journal literature. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2005-2006 Child Abuse & Neglect (journal) 158 articles 2007 All scholarly articles in journals covered by SSCI 238 Cites 2007 Impact = 238 2007 cites = 1.506 Factor 158 2005-06 articles
  5. 5. Journal Impact Factor (JIF) Definition <ul><li>The journal impact factor is the average number of times articles from a given journal published in the past two years have been cited in the JCR year. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated by dividing the number of citations from the entire body of scholarly articles in the JCR [current] year by the total number of articles published in a given journal in the two previous years. </li></ul>
  6. 6. So what? <ul><li>JIF is a measure of extreme currency – 2 year window. </li></ul><ul><li>JIF is a GROSS average. Ave. article in Child Abuse & Neglect cited 1.506 times, but the citations RANGE from 0-25 times. </li></ul><ul><li>Never ever intended to measure quality of an individual article or author. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dirty little secrets <ul><li>Impact factors can be manipulated by journal editors by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing more review articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging citations to one’s own journal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only journal article-to-journal article citations are counted. Book, report, conference paper citations ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>The data is dirtier and less complete than generally believed. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two Questions <ul><li>Citation patterns and nature of research differ across disciplines. How can we compare JIF from different disciplines? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a better citation metric than JIF that can be used as a component in evaluating a scholar’s work? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Comparing Journal Impact Factors <ul><li>Normalize them within discipline (top journal=100%, bottom journal=0%) </li></ul><ul><li>Every discipline has top journal and a bottom journal. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Work – top journal – JIF 2.352 </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatry – top journal – JIF 15.97 </li></ul><ul><li>Details in my article: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Top 5 Social Work Journals by NIF Abbreviated Title JIF NIF Child Maltreatment 2.352 100% Trauma Violence Abus 1.806 96% Child Abuse Neglect 1.506 92% Soc Work Res 1.200 88% J Soc Policy 1.117 85%
  11. 11. Same journal in multiple JCR subject categories Child Abuse Neglect JIF NIF Social Work Category 1.506 92% Sociology Category 1.506 88% Psychology Category 1.506 65%
  12. 12. A Better Citation Metric <ul><li>H-Index (Hirsch Index) </li></ul><ul><li>An H-Index of 11 means a person (or dept.) has 11 articles cited at least 11 times. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily calculated from Web of Science </li></ul>
  13. 13. Critique of H-Index <ul><li>Rewards longevity, but not least-publishable-unit or sheer quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent and old work rewarded equally </li></ul><ul><li>Does not reward highly cited papers </li></ul><ul><li>Many variants (g-index, m-index, etc. proposed to weight age, recent work, & highly cited papers) – see bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively insensitive to manipulation. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other alternatives to JIF <ul><li>Eigenfactors - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New, open access direct competitor to JIF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports to “rank journals much as Google ranks websites” by analyzing the vast network of citations in scholarly web documents. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other JCR metrics including 3 new ones as of this year. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Citation Indexes – Many more players -1 <ul><li>SciFinder </li></ul><ul><li>NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon (Search inside this book) </li></ul><ul><li>Google Scholar/Harzing’s POP </li></ul><ul><li>Scitation/Spin Web/PROLA </li></ul><ul><li>Citation Bridge (US Patents) </li></ul><ul><li>USPTO </li></ul><ul><li>Optics InfoBase </li></ul>
  16. 16. Citation Indexes – Many more players -2 <ul><li>CiteSeer (primarily computer & info sci) </li></ul><ul><li>ScienceDirect </li></ul><ul><li>PsycInfo </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Xplore </li></ul><ul><li>Spires (High Energy Physics </li></ul><ul><li>IOP Journals </li></ul><ul><li>CrossRef </li></ul>
  17. 17. My Take <ul><li>For an individual or department: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H-Index plus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total cites to all published articles plus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citation Report graphs from appropriate the citation databases (SCI, SSCI, AHCI,+?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give a pretty good take on the impact of one’s journal articles within the limits of available citation data. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrably superior to JIF </li></ul>
  18. 18. A Free, New Citation Tool <ul><li>Harzing’s Publish or Perish </li></ul><ul><li>Install from: </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically analyzes citations from Google Scholar for any author. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting to compare Web of Science citation report with Harzing’s report. </li></ul><ul><li>Warning: Dirty data, don’t take at face value. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Harzing’s POP Statistics <ul><li>Total number of papers & citations </li></ul><ul><li>Ave. number of citations per paper & per author </li></ul><ul><li>Ave. number of papers per author & per year </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsch's h-index and related parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Egghe's g-index </li></ul><ul><li>Other variations on the h-index </li></ul><ul><li>Age-weighted citation rate </li></ul><ul><li>Number of authors per paper </li></ul>
  20. 20. Primer on Open Access (OA) <ul><li>OA simply means free-to-read. </li></ul><ul><li>OA is fully compatible with rigorous peer review. </li></ul><ul><li>OA does not necessarily mean author-pay (there are many models being tested). </li></ul><ul><li>OA journals can be low or high quality, just like subscription journals. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Can OA have Prestige? <ul><li>PLOS Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JIF=13.5 (7 th out of 263 biochem journals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in October 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future of Children (Princeton Univ.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JIF=4.76 (Top Family Studies Journal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLOS One (in 2010 will be the largest science journal in the world) – est. 8,000 articles </li></ul>
  22. 22. OA – a flash in the pan? <ul><li>More than 4,000 fully OA, peer reviewed journals </li></ul><ul><li>2 new titles per day </li></ul><ul><li>1,500 OA repositories, new repository every day. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Commons – 30 million OA items. </li></ul><ul><li>20% medical lit avail. Free within 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 OA publication mandates </li></ul>
  23. 23. SO WHAT! <ul><li>We publish for prestige, but we also publish to be read & cited. </li></ul><ul><li>What if I point you to actual research that shows OA articles are cited 25-250% more than toll access (TA) articles? </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Some OA Cite Advantage Studies (OA-CA) <ul><li>88% OA-CA in Sociology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Norris & Rowland, 2008) The citation advantage of open-access articles. JASIST, 59 (12), 1963-1972. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OA-CA: Math (91%), PolSci (86%); Philosophy (45%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( Antelman 2004) Do open-access articles have a greater research impact? College & Research Libraries. 65 (5): p. 372-382. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. And what you’ve been waiting for <ul><li>OA Citation Advantage for Social Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64% OA vs. non-OA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hajjem, C., et al. Open access to research increases citation impact . 2005. Available from: </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. What you should know about OA <ul><li>Know what your OA options are. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OA journal not the whole story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional and discipline repositories (IR/DR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UB institutional repository – any day now </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most non-OA journals allow authors to deposit their articles in an IR/DR. </li></ul><ul><li>See </li></ul>
  27. 27. More on Institutional Repositories <ul><li>You have rights! Retain right to mount your hard work to an IR/DR. </li></ul><ul><li>Done right it will be visible to Google Scholar, OAIster, & other OAI harvestors. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of formats & document types </li></ul>
  28. 28. The OA Advantage <ul><li>As scholar, enlarge your audience/impact. </li></ul><ul><li>As reader, enjoy free online access to the literature. </li></ul><ul><li>As teacher, your students have free, liability-free access (fair use, course pack). </li></ul><ul><li>Moving away from an unsustainable journal publishing system. </li></ul>
  29. 29. 6 Things Researchers Need to Know about OA – P. Suber <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>What OA journals exist in your field? </li></ul><ul><li>OA more than journals. Also OA archives/repositories. </li></ul><ul><li>OA archiving only takes a few minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most non-OA journals allow authors to deposit their postprints in an OA repository. </li></ul><ul><li>Journals w/Ingelfinger Rule - shrinking minority. (7%) </li></ul><ul><li>OA enlarges your audience and citation impact. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Check out: <ul><li>Open the channels of communication in your field. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Create Change (SPARC) </li></ul><ul><li>Making Change Work for You </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical steps as faculty, researcher, reviewer, editor, society member, teacher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. From Opportunity Assessment Instrument <ul><li>ACRL Scholarly Communication Toolkit: </li></ul><ul><li>“ 10 Things You Should Know About Scholarly Communication” . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Open Access Overview” (Peter Suber): </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook: Practical Steps for Implementing Open Access: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Transforming Scholarly Communication and Publishing” (UB Libraries – for faculty and students): . </li></ul><ul><li>ScholCom Staff Wiki (UB Libraries – internal): </li></ul>
  32. 32. Personal Story <ul><li>Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling Article </li></ul>