Upstream vs Pipeline Flow Computer

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As presented at Entelec...Understand the differences between Upstream vs Pipeline flow computer.

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Upstream vs Pipeline Flow Computer

  1. 1. Pipeline Vs. Upstream Flow Computers Understanding the Differences Grant Van Hemert, P.E.
  2. 2. Flow Computation • Very Important Process Criteria • Used In A Variety Of Industries • Flow Is Determined By Two Means – Flow Meter – Flow Computers
  3. 3. Flow Computers vs. Flow Meters Flow Computer Flow Meter Flow Direction Leak Detection Flow Total Flow Composition Determination Revenue Billing Oil & Gas Drinking Water, Steam, etc. Revenue Billing Based on Flow Composition Needs Flow Meter to Function Not Applicable
  4. 4. Flow Computer Uses • Oil or Gas Well Measurement • Pipeline Applications • STAR (Ship, Truck, Airplane, Rail) loading • WAGES (Water, Air, Gas, Electric, Steam) billing • Others We Will Focus On Well and Pipeline Applications
  5. 5. O&G Flow Computer Differences • Gas – Measures 1 or more types of gasses – Must preserve records – Interfaces with Gas Chromatograph – Typically compliant with API-21.1 • Liquid – Measures 1 or more types of liquids – Must preserve records – Interface with Density Meters – Typically compliant with API-21.2
  6. 6. Gas Measurement • Easily Separates From Oil And Water • Natural Gas Has Multiple Components – Natural Gas Found At Production Well • Transmission Can Be Pure, Or Natural Gas • Gas Chromatograph Can Determine Composition • Governed By API-21.1 Transportation and Production Product Is Similar
  7. 7. Liquids Measurement • Does Not Separates Easily From Water • Refined Liquids ≠ Unrefined Liquids • Volume Varies By Temp Not Pressure • Different Liquids Applications • Governed by API-21.2
  8. 8. Liquid Pipeline Application Transportation Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Pipeline Same Pipeline could be used to Transport Different Liquids
  9. 9. Liquid Pipeline Application Transportation Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Pipeline Same Pipeline could be used to Transport Different Liquids
  10. 10. Liquid Pipeline Application Transportation Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Pipeline Same Pipeline could be used to Transport Different Liquids
  11. 11. Production Pipeline Application • Same Liquid • Multiple Destinations (Refinery) • Multiple Sources (Batteries & Fields) • Custody Transfer At Input and Output
  12. 12. Upstream Application • Only Three Products – Liquid (Sellable) – Gas (Sellable – Water (Non-Sellable) • No Change To – Source (Always the Same Wells) – Destination (Same Tank or Pipeline) – Pipeline Contents Water Must Be Accounted For and Managed
  13. 13. Upstream Application • Separation Measurement – Test Separators – Portable Separators – Continuous Net Oil Measurement • Calculations – Allocation • Estimate of Actual Production Assigned to Each Well – Proration • Estimate of Forecast Production From Each Well Allocation and Proration Balanced at end of Month Sporadic Well Testing Result is Rounding and Estimating
  14. 14. Pipeline Versus Upstream Pipeline Upstream • Permanent Provers • Pure Liquid • High Accuracy Measurement • Not Tolerant of Instrument Errors • Small Volume Temporary Provers • Mix of Water and Oil • Harder To Measure • Tolerant of Instrument Errors
  15. 15. About API-21.2 “…apply to new metering systems that performs continuous on-line gross standard volume (GSV) calculations.”
  16. 16. About API-21.2 “…apply to new metering systems that performs continuous on-line gross standard volume (GSV) calculations.” Upstream Allocation ≠ Continuous Measurement •Test Separator •Portable Separators
  17. 17. About API-21.2 “Single-phase liquid hydrocarbon streams may include permissible amounts of water or other nonsalable components. Measurement of gas/liquid two-phase mixtures is not covered
  18. 18. About API-21.2 “Single-phase liquid hydrocarbon streams may include permissible amounts of water or other nonsalable components. Measurement of gas/liquid two-phase mixtures is not covered Upstream: •Too Much Water For “Permissible” Clause •Water & Oil = Two Phase mixture
  19. 19. What about API21.2 in Upstream • Theory: – Does Not Apply • Reality: – Must Conform to Record Keeping and QTR – Required by BLM, and others. Upstream = Accurate Low Cost Measurement of 3 Phase Liquids
  20. 20. Other Upstream Considerations? • More tolerant – Meter failure – Impurities • Simpler to use and configure • Less Expensive Then Pipeline Upstream = Accurate Low Cost Measurement of 3 Phase Liquids
  21. 21. Conclusion • Flow Meters ≠ Flow Computers • Many Flow Computers Designed for Pipelines • Not Suited for Upstream Applications – Allocation Determination – Tolerant of Impurities – Ease of Use – Lower Cost

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