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How green standards are changing data center design and operations


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An effort is underway to harmonize certain energy-efficiency standards. Could global standardization ultimately diminish the technical effectiveness of such standards? Which will emerge as the de facto standards? This session will explore these questions, as well in data center efficiency and sustainability guidelines.

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How green standards are changing data center design and operations

  2. 2. Agenda• Data Center Green Standards• Government Efforts–Energy Star, Dept of Energy• Building Rating Systems–LEED• Industry–ASHRAE, ISO• Hallmarks of a “Green” data center2
  3. 3. Data Center Green StandardsEPA ENERGY STARRatings/CertificationsLEED for DataCentersRating/CertificationFederal EnergyManagementProgramEO 13514-2009Industry Consortium Industrial technologiesProgram e.g.,Energy Base-liningDCEP programEU Code of Conductfor Data Centres15+ codes, programsand directives390.1-2010-Appendix G2011 Environmental classes90.4 EstablishedSingapore Standardfor green data centres-energyand environmental monitoringsystems© 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.
  4. 4. Key attributes of EO 13514Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance4Builds upon past policy & regulatory framework: Energy Independence & Security Act, EO13423, and Energy Policy Act 2005Defined Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions (e):• Scope 1 – direct GHG-e from sources owned orcontrolled by a Federal agency.• Scope 2 – direct GHG-e resulting from generation ofelectricity, heat, or steam purchased by a Federalagency.• Scope 3 – GHG-e from sources not owned or directlycontrolled by a Federal agency but related to agencyactivities such as vendor supply chains, deliveryservices, employee travel and commuting.
  5. 5. Enterprise Greenhouse Gas ProgramsCarbon Disclosure Project(CDP)The Climate Registry(TCR)Climate Action Reserve(CAR)Global reporting Initiative(GRI)EPA Climate LeadersVOLUNTARYRegional GreenhouseGas Initiative (RGGI)Reduce GHG by 10% frompower sector by 2018EPA Mandatory ReportingGHG Rule (2010)Facilities > 25000 MT GHGsubmit annual reportREGULATORY2010 California AB-32Reduce GHG by 2020to 1990 levelsEU Emission TradingScheme (EU ETS)UK Carbon reductionCommitment (UK CRC)Reduce GHG by 80% in 2050Vs 1990National Greenhouse andEnergy ReportingStreamlining protocolInternational Regulatory & Policy Gaining Momentum
  6. 6. • Based on actual as-billed energy data• Serves as a whole building indicator• Peer group comparison of data center’s energyperformance• Mix of fuels• ENERGY STAR label to data centers with arating of 75 or higher (scale of 0-100)• 39 data centers certified to date (June 2013)ENERGY STAR certification for datacenters6
  7. 7. ENERGY STAR - Portfolio Manager7• New versioncoming outJuly 10, 2013
  8. 8. 8 HP ConfidentialENERGY STAR rating/certificationData Submissionfor Potential certificationStep-4Initiation4 weeksStep-1Rating Initiation:• Send proposal to client• Decision to apply for EnergyStar rating.• Define Energy Star ratingobjectives• Define Energy Star rating scope• Determine key clientinformation: name, site, location• Determine key technicalinformation: building area, datacenter area, other spaces area• Client approval• Select certification team• Notify the team to perform thefacility survey and datacollectionRating Preparation:• Verify eligibility• Read service data sheet andservice delivery guide• Define Survey date andduration.• Request facility Electrical &Mechanical documents• Utility bills –current/past 12months or next 12 months• Conduct preliminary dataanalysis• Understand preliminary elect.& mechanical subsystems• Understand meteringrequirementsExecution:• Site Visit and kick-offmeeting/presentation• Educate the client about theprocess & interview• Conduct initial walk-through &ensure as-built condition• Define building total energy• Define data center total ITloads/UPS output• Determine mechanical loadspower panels or if any is on UPS• Determine/Verify energymetering for total building anddata center• Install energy meters indesignated locations ifnecessaryData submission:• Create an account in portfoliomanager• Submit all required monthlyenergy data for the building andthe data center• If rating is >75%; apply forEnergy Star• Generate energy use statement• Populate all data in the reporttemplate• Certify, Stamp and Finalize andsubmit to Energy Star• Handover portfolio manageraccount after training to client forfuture management• If rating is <75%; implementECMs and re-apply.PreparationStep-2ExecutionStep-36 WEEKS-1 year +
  9. 9. DoE On-line Profiling Tool: Data Center Pro9INPUTS• Description• Utility bill data• System information• IT• Cooling• Power• On-site genOUTPUTS• Overall picture ofenergy use andefficiency• End-use breakout• Potential areas forenergy efficiencyimprovement• Overall energy usereduction potential
  10. 10. DC Profiler ToolTo download the DC Profiler tool:
  11. 11. DoE- Air Management Energy Assessment Tool• Air management recommendations(actions)• Potential for reducing the supply airflow rate• Potential for increasing the supply airtemperature• Estimates of the % energy reduction forsupply fans and chillersThe AM-Tool is a free Excel toolfor assessing the data center air-management status andproviding actions and energysavings.11
  12. 12. To download tool and documentation Program StepAHU Airflow cfm Step 1 AHUAHU Supply Air Temperature F Step 1 AHUAHU Return Air Temperature F Step 1 AHUEquipment Temperature Rise F Step 2 EquipEquipment Airflow cfm Step 2 EquipNumber of Equipment Units - Step 2 EquipEquipment Power W Step 2 EquipIT-Equipment Intake Temperature F Step 3 RCITypical Max IT-Equipment IntakeTemperatureF Step 4 Main InputTypical Min IT-Equipment IntakeTemperatureF Step 4 Main InputRecommended IT-Equipment IntakeTemperature RangeF Step 4 Main InputAllowable IT-Equipment IntakeTemperature RangeF Step 4 Main InputOUTPUTS• Provide air-managementrecommendations• Estimate thepotential for reducingsupply airflow rateand increasingsupply airtemperature• Estimate thepercentage of energyreduction for fansand chillersDoE AM Tool-Required Inputs12INPUTS• Air-handler unit data forcalculating ReturnTemperature Index(RTI) (energy metric)• IT-equipment data forcalculating the RTImetric• IT-equipment intaketemperatures forcalculating RackCooling Index (RCI)(equipment coolingmetric)• Main input withquestions fordetermining energysavings andrecommendations
  13. 13. DoE Electrical Assessment ToolTo download the tool and user manual to help assess the potential savings from efficiency actions in theelectrical power chain of a data centerINPUTS• Basic configuration andefficiency information onelectrical systemcomponents such astransformers, generators, uninterruptible power supply(UPS), power distributionunit (PDU) devices, andlighting• Energy use of electricalsystemsOUTPUTS• Estimate potentialsavingsfor various electricalsystem efficiency actions.• UPS efficiencycomparison /benchmarking• Energy efficiency metrics13
  14. 14. DoE Assessment Process14Process Step Current Tools/Resources1. Use DC Pro Profiling tool for preliminary assessment. Complete on-line survey of profilingtool.Profiling Tool2. Hold kickoff conference call to review goals and scope; Identify needed information anddocumentsUse report from Profiling toolas a discussion prompter3. Compile existing information from drawings, trend logs, etc. Enter available information intotools/worksheetsAssessment Tools orWorksheets4. On-site meeting with all stakeholders: Site tour (if needed) / Overview presentation (ifneeded) / Review, confirm and document efficiency actions to be studied, metrics to beanalyzed, and measurement plan (assign roles and responsibilities)Assessment Tools orWorksheets5. Conduct on-site measurements as needed to complete inputs for assessment tools.Assessment Tools orWorksheets6. Estimate savings for actions in each assessment area: Electrical power chain / ITequipment and software / Air Management / HVAC / On-site generation (Can be done off-site)Assessment Tools7. Estimate costs for each action in conjunction with site personnel (can be done off-site)8. Compile assessment report and present to site Report Template9. Provide report to DOE (sanitized if necessary, and if site approves) and provide feedbackon overall assessment process1wk2wk1wk3wk14
  15. 15. DoE Master List of ActionsTo download the master list of actions “energy conservation measures”
  16. 16. Building Rating SystemsSustainable Building Rating Systems Development BasisBREEAM (Building Research Establishment’s EnvironmentalAssessmentMethod)OriginalBREEAM Canada BREEAMBREEAM Green Leaf BREEAM, Green Leaf™Calabasas LEED LEED®CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for BuildingEnvironmentalEfficiency)OriginalCEPAS (Comprehensive Environmental Performance AssessmentScheme)LEED®, BREEAM, HK-BEAM, IBIEarth Advantage Commercial Buildings (Oregon) UndisclosedEkoProfile (Norway) UndisclosedESCALE UndisclosedGBTool OriginalEPC for Data Centers (developed by California EnergyCommission and LBNL)*GEM (Global Environmental Method) For Existing Buildings(Green Globes) –LEED®UK Green Globes CanadaGOBAS (Green Olympic Building Assessment System) CASBEE, LEED®Green Building Rating System – Korea BREEAM, LEED®, BEPACGreen Globes Canada BREEAM Green LeafGreen Globes™ US Green Globes CanadaGreen Leaf Eco-Rating Program OriginalGreen Star Australia BREEAM, LEED®HK BEAM (Hong Kong Building Environmental AssessmentMethod)BREEAMHQE (High Environmental Quality) UndisclosediDP(Integrated Design Process) OriginalLabs21 OriginalLEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) OriginalLEED Canada LEED®LEED India LEED®LEED Mexico LEED®MSBG (The State of Minnesota Sustainable Building Guidelines)98, and BREEAMLEED®, Green Building ChallengeNABERS (National Australian Built Environment Rating System) UndisclosedPromisE UndisclosedProtocol ITACA GBToolSBAT (Sustainable Buildings Assessment Tool) OriginalScottsdales Green Building Program UndisclosedSPiRiT (Sustainable Project Rating Tool) LEED®TERI Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment OriginalTQ Building Assessment System (Total Quality BuildingAssessmentSystem)Original* The only rating system specifically developed for data center projectsMost common rating systemsare LEED, BREEAM andGreen Globes16
  17. 17. U.S. GBC LEED Introduction17• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) - recognizedas the most prominent third-party green building certification system inthe US and derivations are widely used abroad.• LEED basics:• concise framework for measurable green building performance, including:energy savings, water efficiency, construction methods, building materials,and more.• can be applied to any building type, from residential homes to officebuildings to hospitals to data centers.• 4 levels of certification: Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum.• The latest release, Version 3, was released on April 27, 2009.• Future versions are consensus based, transparent, ongoing developmentcycle.• LEED certification leads to:• Lower operating costs Increased asset value Reduce landfill waste• Conserve energy and water Healthier and safer environments for occupants• Reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions• Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances and other incentives in hundreds of cities.• Demonstrates a commitment by the owner toward a more efficient, environmentally-friendly future.
  18. 18. LEED Adaptations for Data CentersNew Construction Energy and Atmosphere• EA prerequisite 1: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems (NC)• EA prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance (NC)• EA credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance (NC)• EA credit 3: Enhanced Commissioning (NC)• EA credit 5: Measurement and Verification (NC)Existing Buildings Energy and Atmosphere• EA prerequisite 1: Energy Efficiency Best Management Practices – Planning, Documentation and Opportunity Assessment (EB)• EA credit 2.1: Existing Building Commissioning – Investigation and Analysis (EB)• EA credit 3.1: Performance Measurement – Building Automation System (EB)New Construction Water Efficiency (NEW CREDIT)• EA credit #: Cooling Tower Water Management (NC)18Final Modified / Added CreditsCertified: 40 – 49 ptsSilver: 50 – 59 ptsGold: 60 – 79 ptsPlatinum: 80+ ptsTotal Possible Points=110
  19. 19. LEED Changes – 201323 credits havesubstantivechanges upcoming19Version 4
  20. 20. LEED Changes – 2013Energy performance: Determine PUE 5% improvement in design; 2% ofthe 5% is to be frominfrastructure ASHRAE 90.1-201020Version 4
  21. 21. PUE Usage and public reporting guidelinesGuidance on topics:• Data Collection and Metrics Calculations• Reporting Result Timescale and Data Collection Details• Reporting Results to The Green Grid• Common Issues with Reporting or Interpreting PUE• Infrastructure vs. IT• Power vs. Energy• “Better-than-Perfect” PUE Measurements• Comparing Results Calculated over Different Timeframes at Different Granularity Levels• Comparing PUE Results Between Data Centers21
  22. 22. 22Plus CUE, WUE, ERE, ERF….and Data Center Maturity Model “DCMM”PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness)EmergencygeneratorUtilitytransformerPUE Total data center energy from all fuels (kWh)Total IT energy (kWh)MainpowerHousepowerMisc.powerITpowerInMech.powerTotal datacenter energyHouseenergy=DatacenterMainservicePP-GenserviceLightingpanelGeneratorblockHeaters &lightingLighting,Exitlights,BMS,EPMS &securityHousepanelsUPSSTSPDUsRPPsMech. SwgearData centerCRAC units,AHUs, Chillers& Dry coolersFuelMisc. support Mech. supportPowerToITIT-criticalloadDistrictchilled waterDistrictsteamNatural gasCO2NOxTotal Direct WaterConsumptionFuelERFERETotal datacenterenergyCUEWUE
  23. 23. 23ENERGY STAR Rating Vs. PUE≤ 1.5Monitoring/Measurement Requirements• 1–49: Low cost operational changes + improving ITefficiency + lowering the heat load +reductions to thecooling load• 50–74: Simple, low-cost changes + equipment upgrades• 75–100: ENERGY STAR certification
  24. 24. • 100,000 square foot, tier 4 datacenter• 10 MW IT load• LEED Silver• Detailed energy modeling• Base case and proposedenergy end uses (demand andannual)LEED Example: Global Bank – New Data Center
  25. 25. 25LEED Example: Global Bank continuedPage 6Performance Rating TableBaseline Building Energy Summary by End UseEnergy Peak Energy Peak EnergyKWHx000,000 kW x000 106Btu 106Btuh 106Btu 106Btuh %Interior Lighting Electricity 0.78 1.38 2662.14 4.71 2% 4163.86 8.16 2% 36.07%Interior Lighting (Process) Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Exterior Lighting Electricity 0.08 0.04 273.04 0.14 0% 477.82 0.00 0% 42.86%Space Heating (fuel 1) Natural Gas 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Space Heating (fuel 2) Electricity 2.13 1.55 7269.69 5.29 2% 6757.74 5.87 2% -7.58%Space Cooling Electricity 10.26 13.73 35017.38 46.85 20% 102253.48 203.01 60% 65.75%Pumps Electricity 8.36 37.67 28532.68 128.53 55% 443.69 0.00 0% -6330.77%Heat Rejection Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Fans - Interior Electricity 7.82 10.96 26689.66 37.40 16% 79147.47 108.50 32% 66.28%Fans - Parking Garage Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Service Water Heating (fuel 1) Natural Gas 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Service Water Heating (fuel 2) Electricity 2.37 3.25 8088.81 11.09 5% 8088.81 11.06 3% 0.00%Receptacle Equipment Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Refrigeration (food, etc.) Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Cooking (commercial, fuel 1) Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Cooking (commercial, fuel 2) Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%Elevators and Escalators Electricity 0 0 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00 0.00 0% 0.00%31.8 68.58 108533.4 233.99496 100% 201332.87 336.59006 100% 46.09%Note: Energy Consumption is listed in units ofsite energy106Btu = kWh x 3.413 x 1000 103Btu = therms / 100Performance Rating Method Compliance ReportTotal Building ConsumptionBaseline BuildingProposed BuildingEnergy TypeProcessEnd Use• 46% reduction in annual energy use for infrastructure systems (as compared toashrae energy standard 90.1)• 41% annual water savings (as compared to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 )• Improved ventilation rates by 32% (compared to ASHRAE Std. 62.1)
  26. 26. ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Compliance optionsEnergy code compliance options• Prescriptive option• Trade-off option• Energy cost budgetMost compliant options are Trade-off optionSelect approved addenda• Demand control ventilation requirements• Fan power limitations• Alternative compliance path for water-cooled chillerswith VFD/efficient part load performance28 addenda identified as energy-relatedMandatory Provisions• Minimum HVAC equipment efficiency• Load calculations• Controls• Construction & insulationOverall impact: higher efficiencies, thermalperformance, and documentation30% Energy progress• 6 prototypes in 17 climate zones, based on 2004• More prototypes to be examined• Envelope R-values increaseResults are preliminary26 HP Confidential
  27. 27. ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Appendix G ImpactsClarifying existing items• Ventilation cfm of proposed = baseline• Exception – EQc2 increased ventilation doesn’tchange baseline• Purchased CHW now coveredSummary: Eliminating confusion for calcsData Center economizer exceptions• 3 MMBtuh with or without central plant• 0.6 MMBtuh or less being added to existing building• 0.6 MMBtuh or less with central plant• Local authority prohibits cooling towersSummary: Only small data centers meetexemption criteriaWater-side items• VFD required on pump motors >10 HP• Maximum flows per pipe sizes• Heat exchanger test procedure• Pump head calcs requiredSummary: More stringent requirements toincrease efficiencyAir-side items• Exhaust air energy recover exception: flammable• Two new baseline systems 10 & 11• Supply resets• Demand control ventilationSummary: Greater efficiency on most airsystems27
  28. 28. 28 HP ConfidentialTC 9.09 recommendations at computer equipment air intakesASHRAE: Indoor Temperature and Moisture LevelsMAXIMUM80°F dry-bulb67°F wet-bulb60°F dew pointMINIMUM65°F dry-bulb53°F wet-bulb43°F dew pointAlternate Description Dry Bulb (°F)RelativeHumidity (%)W et Bulb (°F) Dew Point (°F)Chilled W aterSupply TempCondenserW aterSupply Temp(for W SE)MaximumOutdoor W etBulb Temp (forW SE)70F SA Conditions - Low Humidity 70.0 37.6 54.9 43.070F SA Conditions - High Humidity 70.0 58.9 60.6 55.072F SA Conditions - Low Humidity 72.0 35.1 55.7 43.072F SA Conditions - High Humidity 72.0 61.4 63.0 58.075F SA Conditions - Low Humidity 75.0 31.8 56.9 43.075F SA Conditions - High Humidity 75.0 59.6 65.1 60.080F SA Conditions - Low Humidity 80.0 26.9 58.8 43.080F SA Conditions - High Humidity 80.0 50.5 66.7 60.0#1#2#3#458.
  29. 29. 50001 – Energy Management System• Designed to be used independently, yet can be aligned or integratedwith other management systems (e.g., ISO 9001) and environmental(ISO 14001). Applicable to all organizations.• Requires an organization to establish, implement, maintain, and improvean energy management system, enabling systematic achievement ofcontinual improvement in energy performance, energy efficiency, andenergy conservation.• Imposes requirements on energy supply and consumption:− Measurement− Documentation and reporting− Design and procurement practices forenergy-using equipment and systems− Processes and personnel• Applies to all factors that can be monitored and influenced by theorganization to affect energy use.• Does not prescribe specific performance criteria with respect to energy.International Organization for Standardization ISO29 HP Confidential
  30. 30. Hallmarks of a “Green” data center• Standards/Metrics for whole building performance• Demand for high temperature server operation will continue, changing the waydata centers are designed• Advances in using outdoor air for cooling will dramatically reduce energy use• Based on industry design criteria and best practices, Climate and geographyleveraged to minimize GHG emissions• Facility responds to site constraints and advantages• Designed using rigorous whole-building energy modeling• Optimization of energy and water use• Life cycle approach used in decision making• Thorough and transparent reporting of energy use – Energy &Sustainability Management (ESM)30