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[Oil & Gas White Paper] Gas Production Measurement System

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A comprehensive measurement data management system that collects data from multiple sources in natural gas pipeline and distribution operations, performs value-added functions, and then makes that data available across the enterprise in real time can significantly improve accounting and overall business efficiency.

This automated information management solution centralizes the database of field measurements, standardizing all readings in one consistent set of units and base conditions. It recognizes data that does not meet expected operational values to identify when device adjustments are needed. It estimates missing values to allow continued processing for accounting close and system balance. A Gas Quality Manager interfaces with online gas chromatographs to provide correct gas quality values to the flow computer in real time, or as periodic reports, to capture gas composition variations.

Flow editing with documentation makes correction of volume errors efficiently. True representation of both volume flows and energy content enables system balances of both parameters for accurate account processing. Robust validation identifies problem areas to make the most of analyst time and optimize subsequent processing. Finally, comprehensive data tracking allows full reporting and a complete, auditable log of all adjustments, data edits, production and fuel costs, and gas quality. An integral Human Machine Interface (HMI) and integrated geographic information system (GIS) allows clear visualization of network status indicators and values. With separation of powers between data adjustment and data validation, and all data available in the host system, the operator is prepared for internal and external governance audits.

While this system significantly reduces errors and makes more adjustments possible during the open business period to improve accounting processes, this automated measurement system also supports decision making and nearly all processes and positions throughout the enterprise. Benefits realized include improved workflow and fewer maintenance costs; reduced penalties for over/under nominating; reduced risks in making capital decisions; improved regulatory reputation; reliable and traceable emissions reporting; and value assurance that protects revenues.

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[Oil & Gas White Paper] Gas Production Measurement System

  1. 1. Gas Production Measurement System Advanced data management serves all operations and business efficiency 2010 / White paper Make the most of your energySM
  2. 2. Summary Executive Summary ..................................................................................... p 1 Introduction ................................................................................................. p 2 Putting a measurement system to work ....................................................... p 4 Value-added functions ................................................................................. p 4 Informative user interface ............................................................................. p 9 Supports corporate governance .................................................................. p 10 Benefits across the enterprise ...................................................................... p 10 Conclusion................................................................................................... p 13
  3. 3. Executive summary A comprehensive measurement data management system that collects data from multiple sources in natural gas pipeline and distribution operations, performs value-added functions, and then makes that data available across the enterprise in real time can significantly improve accounting and overall business efficiency. This automated information management solution centralizes the database of field measurements, standardizing all readings in one consistent set of units and base conditions. It recognizes data that does not meet expected operational values to identify when device adjustments are needed. It estimates missing values to allow continued processing for accounting close and system balance. A Gas Quality Manager interfaces with online gas chromatographs to provide correct gas quality values to the flow computer in real time, or as periodic reports, to capture gas composition variations. Flow editing with documentation makes correction of volume errors efficiently. True representation of both volume flows and energy content enables system balances of both parameters for accurate account processing. Robust validation identifies problem areas to make the most of analyst time and optimize subsequent processing. Finally, comprehensive data tracking allows full reporting and a complete, auditable log of all adjustments, data edits, production and fuel costs, and gas quality. An integral Human Machine Interface (HMI) and integrated geographic information system (GIS) allows clear visualization of network status indicators and values. With separation of powers between data adjustment and data validation, and all data available in the host system, the operator is prepared for internal and external governance audits. While this system significantly reduces errors and makes more adjustments possible during the open business period to improve accounting processes, this automated measurement system also supports decision making and nearly all processes and positions throughout the enterprise. Benefits realized include improved workflow and fewer maintenance costs; reduced penalties for over/ under nominating; reduced risks in making capital decisions; improved regulatory reputation; reliable and traceable emissions reporting; and value assurance that protects revenues. Reduce errors, improve workflow, save money White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 01 Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency
  4. 4. Introduction While electronic flow measurement (EFM) has become a best practice in pipeline and distribution processes, upstream production and gathering operations often have maintained batched or charted measurement data – paper reports that transfer to the accounting process a week or even a month after the data is collected. Yet, as gas producers look for solutions to improve efficiency and save costs, the business benefits of electronic measurement are prompting more implementation of EFM devices and the advanced applications that streamline the transfer of electronic data from the wellhead to production accounting. This paper examines how an automated measurement system managing data from the field and making it available in real time throughout the enterprise works to improve the accuracy, completeness, and timeliness of accounting processes and overall business efficiency in gas production operations. White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 02 Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency
  5. 5. Helping gas companies meet expanding and changing needs
  6. 6. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 04 Putting a measurement system to work Production operations using a comprehensive measurement data management application designed specifically for natural gas business processes can replace gas composition spreadsheets, charts and other paper files – and automatically: • Set user authentication and permission controls • Validate data with user-established limits, assuring the correct data are sent downstream • Correct data for pressure or temperature errors • Estimate missing data • Track all data editing and changes With these capabilities, the gas producer realizes: • Longer data storage capability • Accurate representation of gas composition variations • Timely closing • Fully documented and auditable editing • Direct integration with production accounting • More efficient and accurate accounting Value-added functions The fully functional gas measurement system is comprised of: • Measurement database • Reading manager • Real-time database • Protocol drivers • Polling Engine
  7. 7. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 05 Value-added functions (continued) As a system, the comprehensive gas measurement application automatically improves the reliability of measurement data: Standardization • Stores all readings in one consistent set of units and base conditions; for example, the application can convert readings from thousands of cubic feet to thousands of cubic meters (with 459.67 Rankine equalling 0 Fahrenheit): • All inputs, such as EFM data, chart data, manual entries, in metric or imperial units, are processed in the same way after capture • Data can be displayed in any units and changed as needed Figure 1. How a gas measurement application interfaces between the field data and the production accounting process. Not to be overlooked is the ability of the measurement system to provide feedback to EFMs and chart integrators for a more accurate information harvest. ConfiguringAdjustment NominatingBalancing AllocatingCalculation Measurement Database Reading Manager RealTime Database Protocol Drivers Polling Engine Prod Acct Databse BillingEstimation ReportingValidation GQ Manager
  8. 8. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 06 Value-added functions (continued) Adjustments While EFMs are very reliable, they are not infallible. A measurement system will check data against the expected operational values, other flow computers, and gas chromatographs to ensure they are measuring accurately. Estimation The measurement system will check for missing data that might result from failed field equipment and issue a warning about the data gap. It will insert usable estimates and predict future values when data values are late. This functionality improves continuous business processes such as accounting close and system balance. Gas Quality Manager A gas quality manager will assure adequate gas quality information by interacting with field devices such as gas chromatographs and providing correct gas quality values to the flow computers in real time (Figure 2). Figure 2
  9. 9. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 07 Even when provided with laboratory analysis data from discrete samples, the measurement system can improve gas quality information to flow computers in near real time (Figure 3). In both cases – with direct measurements from the field or from the laboratory – the measurement system should also be able to implement gas quality correction directly to flow computers or when values arrive at the host. The GQ Manager module also will provide reports of gas quality changes, at mid-period, the month before closing, or at closing, that will support accounting processes. Figure 3 Value-added functions (continued)
  10. 10. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 08 Calculation Flow editing is basically recalculating average flow rate over a period (i.e. volume) and energy content of those volumes. Typically volume is edited by fixing a primary datum, and recalculating volume using a flow rate calculation, e.g. one of the AGA or ISO standards. This capability of the measurement system makes correction of errors efficiently and documents all revisions; see Figure 4. Balancing A measurement system with a true representation of both volume flows and energy content enables system balances of both, preparing measurements for accurate account processing; see Figure 5. Consider the following scenario: • Gas supply #1 = 1000 BTU/CF, while gas supply #2 = 1010 BTU/CF. • This difference amounts to each cubic meter from supply #2 being one percent more valuable. • Natural gas is traded at $7 per MCF • Configuration is for one BCF per day throughout • Uncertainty of one percent in supply, or $70,000 per day Figure 4 The transparency and tracking of flow editing adjustments produces accurate custody transfer data suitable for billing. Value-added functions (continued)
  11. 11. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 09 Validation As the measurement data is collected, the validation system should automatically apply user-specified rules before it passes data on to other modules for further processing. Data that fails can be flagged as either suspect or invalid, so the analyst can promptly attend to actual problem areas. This approach makes efficient use of analyst time and assures attention to genuine measurement issues. Reporting An automated measurement application should record all measurements and data adjustments in its database, including time/date stamp, the personnel involved, and the reason for the information change. This comprehensive tracking allows full reporting and a complete, auditable log at the system host: • Adjustments – all adjustments and changes of any nature to the production configuration – such as a plate diameter change • Edits – all data edits such as flow editing • Production and fuel used – correlating these measurements and sending the most accurate information to the PA system for payment purposes •Gas quality – electronic integration with chart integrators, field, and host allows reporting during or after the month or other reporting period Informative user interface The Human Machine Interface (HMI) of the measurement system should provide a high-level indication of data quality, easily distinguishing missing or erroneous values – all to optimize measurement accuracy. Integration with an advanced geographic information system (GIS) allows viewing of wells with production characteristics. Validation identifies operational issues The validation tool of a measurement system identifies differential pressure data that is out- of-band, as defined by the user, and would be interpreted downstream as ‘no-flow’ or ‘limited- flow’ – when in fact the problem might be due to a transmitter problem. Validation can alert the field technician to check the transmitter; it also allows correction, with appropriate tracking that documents acceptance or change and recalculation. Value-added functions (continued)
  12. 12. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 10 Supports corporate governance With all data available in the host system, including reports of data adjustments, the producer is prepared to meet the standards of both internal and external corporate governance audits. While compliance issues vary from one governing body and location to another, the automated measurement system will collect all production-related information with a ‘separation of powers’ between data adjustment and data validation and enable the producer to demonstrate it has command of the ‘complete picture.’ Benefits across the enterprise Clearly, an electronic measurement system connected to the enterprise PA database significantly improves accounting efficiency: • Eliminates errors and questions that plague and undermine accurate transactional billing • Makes more adjustments possible during the open business period and decreases the prior period adjustments Even flat file transfer from the measurement system to PA will provide complete, corrected information that will benefit accounting accuracy. Yet, an automated measurement system also benefits nearly all processes and positions throughout the entire enterprise, by making production data available in real time to support the decisions that optimize business:
  13. 13. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 11 CEO, CFO Increased confidence in the quality and accuracy of the data. Protects revenues/reserves. Supports ERCB Directive 76 EPAP self audit requirements. COO, VP Operations, Field Managers Improved field workflow (see Figure 5) and decreased maintenance costs through exemption/risk management. Production Accountant Decreased amendments 13th month / Prior Period Adjustments. Corrections within allowable time. Increased royalty certainty. Ability to meet deadlines with volume certainty. Joint ventures (Customers/Partners) Increased confidence on COO. (Construction, Ownership, Operation) Decreased audit query costs. Divestitures/Acquisitions Asset value certainty. Marketing Decreased penalties for over/under nominating. Better volume certainty enables better decisions for firm service purchases. Engineering Certainty of information when trending and making capital decisions. Regulators – ERCB, OGC, SIR, etc. Reduces costs of regulatory deficiencies. Solid reputation with regulators lead to less inspections. Green House Emission Reporting, Carbon Tax Reporting Reliable, traceable and trackable data available once source. HSE Correct H2S determination, flare and vent volume assurance, device maintenance, tools to identify loss of volumes, EPZ determination through measurement assurance. Shareholders Value Assurance. Protects revenues. Benefits across the enterprise (continued)
  14. 14. Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 12 Benefits across the enterprise (continued) Figure 5 The measurement system provides automated work orders to field technicians for efficient, and documented, asset maintenance.
  15. 15. Conclusion Advanced Data Management for Operational Efficiency White paper on Gas Production Measurement | 13 Gas production measurement systems in a nutshell Accurate flow measurement is a cornerstone of any successful natural gas company. An advanced, centralized gas measurement data management system can verify flow data against redundant sensors and interface with composition data in real time for accurate energy data determinations needed for billing and transactional balancing. As a comprehensive system, it can automatically perform aggregation, validation, analysis, accounting close and measurement adjustment that comply with specific business rules and support full corporate auditing. Designed for flexibility and scalability, it can help the gas industry company meet expanding and changing needs. Scalable and flexible to meet the dynamic needs of the gas industry
  16. 16. ©2012SchneiderElectric.Allrightsreserved. August 2012 Schneider Electric USA, Inc. 10333 Southport Rd SW, Suite 200 Calgary, AB T2W3X6 Phone: 1-866-338-7586 Fax: 1-403-259-2926 www.schneider-electric.com/us

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