Autocratic Russia• Romanov’s ruled for over 300 years in Russia• When Alexander II was assassinated in 1881, Alexander III takes over.• Alexander II, III, and Nicholas II all were autocrats who pushed conservatism and Russification & anti- semitism.• Did not accept liberal change and hated Marxism. Saw it as direct threat to their power. A2,A3,N2
Earlier 1905 Revolution in Russia• Many in Russia wanted at least a Constitutional monarchy-Czars said NO• 1903, Social democrats split into 2 groups- – Mensheviks-gradual change – Bolsheviks-communist takeover-Vladimir Lenin• 1905- Russian losses in Russo-Jap war showed weakness of Monarchy• “Bloody Sunday” Tsar’s soldiers fired upon strikers and massacred most.• Nicholas II reluctantly agrees to Duma, but refuses to work with them in govt.• This leaves Russia in a very unstable and pre- revolutionary mindset.
The Airplane“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Francesco Eddie “Mick”Rickenbacher, US Barraco, It. Mannoch, Br. Rene Pauk Manfred vonWilly Coppens de Fonck, Fr. Richtoffen, Ger. Holthust, Belg. [The “Red Baron”]
The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties10,000,000 9,000,000 Russia 8,000,000 Germany 7,000,000 Austria-Hungary 6,000,000 France 5,000,000 4,000,000 Great Britain 3,000,000 Italy 2,000,000 Turkey 1,000,000 US 0
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western 1914 1922 Armenia in Turkey Erzerum 215,000 1,500 Van 197,000 500 Kharbert 204,000 35,000 Diarbekir 124,000 3,000 Bitlis 220,000 56,000 Sivas 225,000 16,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia 371,800 27,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 309,000 70,000 European Turkey 194,000 163,000 Trapizond District 73,390 15,000 Total 2,133,190 387,800