East Georgia College American Government POLS 1101 Instructor: Mr. Mancill
Three Systems of Government <ul><li>Federal -a system of government in which both the national and state governments share...
Federal Unity and Diversity Dominant <ul><li>Unity and diversity . Individuals are citizens of the nation and of the state...
Unitary Unity Dominant <ul><li>Unity . Individuals are citizens of the nation, not separate states. </li></ul><ul><li>Only...
Confederacy Diversity Dominant <ul><li>Diversity . Individuals are citizens of the state only.  </li></ul><ul><li>The stat...
Unity and Diversity in the Federal System <ul><li>Each of our 50 states are different. </li></ul><ul><li>They differ in hi...
Unity and Diversity in the Federal System <ul><li>Each state has different policies and laws. When should the national gov...
Unity and Diversity in the Federal System <ul><li>After prohibition was repealed each state had its own minimum drinking a...
Unity and Diversity in the Federal System <ul><li>In response to growing pressure from these groups, Congress enacted a la...
States in the Constitutional System <ul><li>States play a major role in our political system. </li></ul><ul><li>States: </...
The Electoral College <ul><li>Electoral College - a political institution that determines the winner in presidential elect...
The Electoral College <ul><li>Delegates determined by number of House members plus two Senators. </li></ul><ul><li>States ...
The Electoral College <ul><li>The presidential candidate receiving the largest number of popular votes in a state receives...
The Electoral College <ul><li>You are voting for electors to the electoral college. </li></ul><ul><li>The electors are ple...
The Electoral College <ul><li>What happens in the event that the electoral vote is tied or no candidate receives 270 votes...
The Electoral College <ul><li>Why was this system created? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So a few chosen men could choose the pres...
Delegated Powers of the National Government <ul><li>Delegated Powers - powers that are found in Article I, Section 8 of th...
Expressed Powers <ul><li>Expressed powers - powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution as belonging to the nationa...
Implied Powers <ul><li>Implied Powers - powers of the national government not specifically cited in the Constitution. </li...
Implied Powers <ul><li>The N ecessary and Proper Clause  is open to interpretation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the clause is...
McCulloch v. Maryland <ul><li>McCulloch v. Maryland represents the first time the  Necessary and Proper Clause  was interp...
McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland's Argument <ul><li>Maryland's argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress had no authority to c...
McCulloch v. Maryland Issues <ul><li>1. Does the national government  have the power to create a  national bank under the ...
McCulloch v. Maryland Outcomes <ul><li>1. Chief Justice John Marshall held that the national government did have the power...
McCulloch v. Maryland Outcomes <ul><li>2. Chief Justice John Marshall held that Maryland cannot tax the bank because it wa...
Reserved Powers of the States <ul><li>Reserved powers -powers not specifically prohibited to the states and not delegated ...
Reserved Powers of the States <ul><li>10 th  Amendment- reserves to the states powers not prohibited to them and not deleg...
Models of Federalism <ul><li>1.  Dual Federalism -national and state governments are separate and independent from each ot...
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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. East Georgia College American Government POLS 1101 Instructor: Mr. Mancill
  2. 2. Three Systems of Government <ul><li>Federal -a system of government in which both the national and state governments share power. </li></ul><ul><li>Unitary -a system of government in which principal power lies at the national government. </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation - an association of states in which political power lies with the states. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Federal Unity and Diversity Dominant <ul><li>Unity and diversity . Individuals are citizens of the nation and of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the national and state governments have jurisdiction over individuals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Unitary Unity Dominant <ul><li>Unity . Individuals are citizens of the nation, not separate states. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the national government has jurisdiction over individuals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Confederacy Diversity Dominant <ul><li>Diversity . Individuals are citizens of the state only. </li></ul><ul><li>The state has jurisdiction over individuals. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Unity and Diversity in the Federal System <ul><li>Each of our 50 states are different. </li></ul><ul><li>They differ in historical traditions, unemployment rates, economic development, racial and ethnic composition, social welfare spending, federal funding, age distributions, religions, school systems, and income. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Unity and Diversity in the Federal System <ul><li>Each state has different policies and laws. When should the national government step in and dictate policy? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we strike a balance between unity and diversity ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Minimum drinking age, maximum speed limit. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Unity and Diversity in the Federal System <ul><li>After prohibition was repealed each state had its own minimum drinking age, from 18 to 21. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of underage drinking in 1980's </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People under 21 were responsible for a disproportionate number of alcohol related deaths and injuries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) and other groups brought the issue into public view. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Unity and Diversity in the Federal System <ul><li>In response to growing pressure from these groups, Congress enacted a law that withheld a portion of a states national highway funds unless the state raised their minimum drinking age to 21. </li></ul><ul><li>The national government imposed a policy on the state. </li></ul>
  10. 10. States in the Constitutional System <ul><li>States play a major role in our political system. </li></ul><ul><li>States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer social welfare policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle regional problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amend the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape electoral contests at the national level </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Electoral College <ul><li>Electoral College - a political institution that determines the winner in presidential elections. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We do not have direct election of our president. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents are not elected by a plurality (highest number). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of 270. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2000, Al Gore received a plurality of votes but George Bush won a majority of electoral votes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Electoral College <ul><li>Delegates determined by number of House members plus two Senators. </li></ul><ul><li>States with larger populations will have more electoral votes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia has 15 (13 in House, 2 in Senate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California has 55 (53 in House, 2 in Senate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delaware has 3 (1 in House, 2 in Senate) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Electoral College <ul><li>The presidential candidate receiving the largest number of popular votes in a state receives all that state's electoral votes. </li></ul><ul><li>Two exceptions are Maine and Nebraska. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide their electoral votes based on congressional districts. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Electoral College <ul><li>You are voting for electors to the electoral college. </li></ul><ul><li>The electors are pledged to a particular candidate. </li></ul><ul><li>The electors gather in each state capital in December to cast their votes for president and vice president. </li></ul><ul><li>The elector's ballots are counted and certified in a joint session of Congress in January. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Electoral College <ul><li>What happens in the event that the electoral vote is tied or no candidate receives 270 votes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The House of Representatives will decide the election, where each state has one vote and a majority is needed to win. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This situation has occurred twice. In 1801 and in 1825. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Electoral College <ul><li>Why was this system created? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So a few chosen men could choose the president among a wide range of candidates. Lack on information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the founders did not foresee the development of political parties, and today the electors are a part of the party process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, the electors just &quot;rubber stamp&quot; the choice of the American voters rather than exercise their own judgment. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Delegated Powers of the National Government <ul><li>Delegated Powers - powers that are found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegated powers are divided into two types: expressed and implied. </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent Powers -powers that are shared. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Expressed Powers <ul><li>Expressed powers - powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution as belonging to the national government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed powers include the power to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Levy and collect taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To borrow money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To regulate interstate commerce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To coin money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To declare war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To raise and support armies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Implied Powers <ul><li>Implied Powers - powers of the national government not specifically cited in the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of implied powers is found in the Necessary and Proper Clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article I, Section 8, Clause 18. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gives Congress the power to create laws that help in carrying out its delegated powers. Basically, it is a means to an end. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Implied Powers <ul><li>The N ecessary and Proper Clause is open to interpretation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the clause is interpreted narrowly this would constrict the powers of the national government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the clause in interpreted broadly this would enlarge the powers of the national government. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. McCulloch v. Maryland <ul><li>McCulloch v. Maryland represents the first time the Necessary and Proper Clause was interpreted by a court. </li></ul><ul><li>Facts of the case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress created a national bank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some states opposed the bank because it competed with state banks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maryland imposed a tax on the bank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William McCulloch, a cashier at the bank, refused to pay the tax and was sued by Maryland. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. McCulloch v. Maryland Maryland's Argument <ul><li>Maryland's argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress had no authority to create a bank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maryland argued that a state can tax the national bank if it chooses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking is a subject the Constitution reserved for the states. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. McCulloch v. Maryland Issues <ul><li>1. Does the national government have the power to create a national bank under the Necessary and Proper Clause ? </li></ul><ul><li>2. If the bank is Constitutional can a state tax it? </li></ul>
  24. 24. McCulloch v. Maryland Outcomes <ul><li>1. Chief Justice John Marshall held that the national government did have the power to create a national bank based on the Necessary and Proper Clause (the use of implied powers). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The creation of a national bank was a means to achieving the ends&quot;. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. McCulloch v. Maryland Outcomes <ul><li>2. Chief Justice John Marshall held that Maryland cannot tax the bank because it was an instrument of the national government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a conflict between an act of Congress and the state, the act of Congress will prevail. This is the Doctrine of National Supremacy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This U.S. Supreme Court case greatly expanded the powers of the national government. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Reserved Powers of the States <ul><li>Reserved powers -powers not specifically prohibited to the states and not delegated to the national government by the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States can do all things not specifically prohibited to them and not delegated exclusively to the national government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States are responsible for the health, safely, and welfare of its citizens. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Reserved Powers of the States <ul><li>10 th Amendment- reserves to the states powers not prohibited to them and not delegated to the national government by the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, if a power isn't exclusive to the national government and the state is not prohibited from exercising that power, then the state will have that power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State Police Power - States are responsible for the health, safely, and welfare of its citizens. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Models of Federalism <ul><li>1. Dual Federalism -national and state governments are separate and independent from each other, with each level exercising its own powers in its own jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Marble Cake Federalism (Cooperative Federalism )-The national and state governments cooperate to achieve an outcome. </li></ul>

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