Wardak province demographic profile

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Wardak, Wardak Education, Wardak Population

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Wardak province demographic profile

  1. 1. Wardak A Socio-Economic and Demographic ProfileWith the financial and technical assistance of UNFPA
  2. 2. NotesSome of the information contained in this rep ort, in p articular that related to crop s andeconomic activities, as well as the build in g stock may not be as accurate as on e wouldwish. However, they are the best estimates available at the time of the Household listingexercise. The most logical exp lanation is that the sources of the information—localinformants—may not have been as knowled geab le as they were assumed to be.
  3. 3. Province of WardakA Socio-Economic and Demographic Profile Household Listing—2003
  4. 4. AcknowledgementsThe Socio-Economic and Demo grap hic Profiles were a collaborative effort of UNFPA,the Central Statistics Office, and nu merous stakeholders, who made su ggestions for theimp rovement of the final p roduct while it was still bein g written.UNFPA wishes to recognize the contributions of M r. David Saunders, its formerrep resentative in Afghanistan, who shared the various drafts of the model Profile with anumber of donors, embassies, and other stakeholders stationed in Kabul and collectedtheir suggestions as to how to imp rove on it.The p rofiles could not have been comp leted without the commitment, enthusiasm andenergetic efforts of many CSO staff members. Mr. M ohammad Haroon Aman, M r.Waheed Ibrah imi, and M rs Fazila Miri of the Database section produced all the tablesand graphics for all 34 p rovinces. M r. Tamim Ahmad Sh akeb, head of the GIS section,and his colleagues, M essrs Zabiullah Aseel and Abdul Ahmad Sherzai, together p roducedall the thematic map s included in the body of the text as well as in the annexes—a total ofmore than 1,300 maps. M essrs Nasratullah Ramzi, Saifrahman Azizi, Say ed YousufHashimi, and Zabiullah Omari of Database section were resp onsible for editing theprofiles and p utting the last touches before p rinting.UNFPA also wishes to extend its ap preciation to M r. Abdul Rashid Fakhri, head of CSO,and his colleagues in the CSO review team—M essrs Esmatuallah Ramzi, Mohamed SamiNabi, Azizullah Faqiri, and Ghulam M ustapha, who read the drafts and made v aluab lecomments and suggestions, in p articular with regards to the information on economicactivities. -iv-
  5. 5. Introduction by the Acting General President of the Central Statistics Office of AfghanistanDesigning p rograms aimed at increasin g socio-economic dev elopment and economicgrowth to ensure better livin g cond itions for pop ulation requires accurate, up -to-date, andcomp rehensive data. It has been 27 years since Afghan istan’s first attempt to conduct anational p op ulation census. For reasons known to all, such an attempt had to be aborted.In those 27 y ears, a number of ch an ges took place, that were related to natural populationgrowth, p op ulation movement, and redrawing of the boundaries of the country ’sadministrative units, amon g others. Such changes n eed to be ap p rised and documented, inorder to resp ond to the need for accurate information that is v ital for d evelop ment andreconstruction programs.Both the Bonn agreement and the emergency Loya Jirga called for the conduct of asecond national p op ulation and housing census. Jointly with UNFPA, CSO mobilized therequired funds from the international donor community , and took charge of the comp lextask of p lanning for the census and up grad ing the technical skills of the CSO staff thatwill be resp onsible for its conduct.In sp ite of difficulties of various sorts, and at an enormous cost in terms of staffmobilization, CSO, with the financial and technical assistance of UNFPA, undertook thefirst p hase of the p op ulation and housing census. The op eration, includin g doornumberin g, househo ld listin g, up dating the enumeration area map s, data entry , cleanin g,and p rocessing took less than four y ears. For the first time, digital map s were p roducedfor all provinces, districts, and village locations.CSO has the great p leasure of p roducin g this p ublication, which presents the results ofthe first p hase of the census. It p rovides such valuable information as p op ulation size andsp atial distribution, age and sex comp osition, as well availability of certain facilities tothe village populations. We hop e that such information will be useful for the widestaudience, in p articular p lanners, researchers, and any one with an interest in p opulationdata.Abdul Rashid Fakhri,Acting General PresidentCentral Statistics Office,Islamic Rep ublic of Afgh anistan. -v-
  6. 6. Introduction by the Representative of UNFPAUnder the Bonn Agreement, the United Nations agreed to assist the Government ofAfghanistan in conductin g a Pop ulation and Housing Census, the first Census inAfghanistan since 1979. As a leader in p opulation and develop ment issues, the UnitedNations Pop ulation Fund (UNFPA) has been entrusted with this task for its decades ofexp erience and exp ertise in providing technical and financial assistance in conductin gpop ulation and housing censuses.For the p ast few y ears, Afghanistan has been making serious attemp ts at rebuildin g andrehabilitating the nation and its institutions after more than two decades of war, conflict,and civil strife. Effective p lannin g for comp rehensive social and economic dev elop mentrequires ev idence based and reliable data. Data for economic and social develop ment cancome from v arious sources: samp le survey s, administrative records, and various othersources. However, no data source other than a Pop ulation and Housing Census willprovide p rimary information about the number and characteristics of Afghanistan’spop ulation. Likewise, the Census 2008 will allow for co mprehensive gender analy sis ofpop ulation based indicators and will provide the baseline for p op ulation and any relatedfunctional p rojections that are crucial for p lannin g.The p resent p ublication deals with Phase I of the Afghanistan census—the HouseholdListing, condu cted and the results analy zed between 2002 and 2005. The data collectedduring this exercise p rovides a wealth of information on b asic p op ulation variables in thecountry — size of the p op ulation, age structure and sex comp osition, and household size.The household listin g has also p roduced much socio-economic data on economicactivities, health and edu cation facilities, housing facilities and so on. All suchinformation will b e essential in the p rocess of socio-economic reconstruction inAfghanistan. However, it must be noted that the household listing p hase unfortunatelycould not be conducted in a small number of d istricts due to the security situation thatprevailed then. It is hop ed that the census prop er, scheduled for the summer 2008 andbein g a benchmark under the London Comp act, will encounter more favorablecircumstances and fill the gap s left by the Household Listing exercise. UNFPA willextend all p ossible assistance to the Government of Afghanistan in order to make thecensus op eration in 2008 a successful on e. There are a number of positive asp ects, whichare important to note in the context of conductin g the househo ld listing, p articularlynoteworthy is the cooperation, which the Central Statistical Office has receiv ed from theProvincial Administrations, and the assistance, which has been extended to the C SO staffin all of the p rovinces. The enthusiasm of all of the staff to undertake very difficu lt workin exceptionally difficult conditions is equally noteworthy and app reciated, as is thequality of the work. At this p oint, I would like to extend my gratitude and recognition toDr. Hamadi B etbout, UNFPA’s senior advisor who led the exercise of man agin g thehousehold listing d atabase and p ublication of the p rovincial profiles.Alain SibenalerRep resentative a.i.UNFPA Kabul -vi-
  7. 7. Wardak -vii-
  8. 8. ContentsAcknowledgments................................................................................................................. iiiIntroduction by the Acting General President of the Central Statistics Office .................................... ivIntroduction by the Representative of UNFPA............................................................................ vMap of Wardak ..................................................................................................................... viSettlement patterns................................................................................................................ 1Demographic ch aracteristics.................................................................................................... 8 Age distribution.............................................................................................................. 8 Household size and sex ratio............................................................................................. 11 Special age groups .......................................................................................................... 12 Main languages spoken.................................................................................................... 12Living conditions .................................................................................................................. 15 Educational services ........................................................................................................ 16 Health services ............................................................................................................... 19 Post offices and public phones........................................................................................... 19 Mills............................................................................................................................. 20 Radio & Television.......................................................................................................... 20Economic activities ............................................................................................................... 29 Agriculture .................................................................................................................... 29 Industrial crops, small industries, and handicrafts................................................................. 30Physical & social infrastructure............................................................................................... 33 Housing units................................................................................................................. 33 Schools and educational institutions ................................................................................... 34 Health infrastructure....................................................................................................... 34 Factories and workshops.................................................................................................. 35 Bakeries and mills........................................................................................................... 36 Hotels and restaurants..................................................................................................... 36 Shopping places.............................................................................................................. 37 Mosques ........................................................................................................................ 37 Other places................................................................................................................... 37Annexes ............................................................................................................................... 42Annex 1— Population Estimates as of 1 July 2004, by province..................................................... 43Annex 2—Total and urban populations (as of mid-July 2004) by province, ranked according to their percent with respect to their shares of the total urban population of Afghanistan......................... 44Annex 3— Total and urban populations (as of mid-July 2004) by province, ranked according to their percent with respect to their shares of the total urban population of Afghanistan......................... 45Annex 4— Procedure for adjusting the reported age distribution.................................................... 46Annex 5—Comparison of the reported and adjusted age distributions, Wardak, 2003......................... 47Annex 6—Compositional analysis—economic activities, Wardak, 2003 ........................................... 48Annex 7—Villages producing wheat, Wardak, 2003..................................................................... 59Annex 8—Villages producing corn, Wardak, 2003....................................................................... 60Annex 9—Villages producing rice, Wardak, 2003........................................................................ 61Annex 10—Villages producing potatoes, Wardak, 2003................................................................ 62Annex 11—Villages producing onion, Wardak, 2003.................................................................... 63Annex 12—Villages producing tomatoes, Wardak, 2003 ............................................................... 64Annex 13—Villages producing carrots, Wardak, 2003.................................................................. 65Annex 14—Villages producing grapes, Wardak, 2003 .................................................................. 66Annex 15—Villages producing melon & water melon, Wardak, 2003 .............................................. 67Annex 16—Villages producing walnuts, Wardak, 2003................................................................. 68Annex 17—Villages producing licorice, Wardak, 2003................................................................. 69 -viii-
  9. 9. Annex 18—Villages producing eggs, Wardak, 2003 ..................................................................... 70Annex 19—Villages producing dried yoghurt, Wardak, 2003......................................................... 71Annex 20—Villages producing cotton, Wardak, 2003................................................................... 72Annex 21—Villages producing sesame, Wardak, 2003.................................................................. 73Annex 22—Villages producing olives, Wardak, 2003.................................................................... 74Annex 23—Villages producing sharsham, Wardak, 2003 .............................................................. 75Annex 24—Villages producing honey, Wardak, 2003 ................................................................... 76Annex 25—Villages producing karakul skin, Wardak, 2003........................................................... 77Annex 26—Villages producing carpets, Wardak, 2003.................................................................. 78Annex 27—Villages producing rugs, Wardak, 2003 ..................................................................... 79Annex 28—Villages producing pottery, Wardak, 2003.................................................................. 80Annex 29—Villages producing wool, Wardak, 2003..................................................................... 81 -ix-
  10. 10. TablesTable 1—Population, sex, sex ratios, by district, province of Wardak, 2003...................................... 2Table 2—Reported population estimates by age in 5-year groups and sex, Wardak, 2003.................... 9Table 3—Adjusted population estimates by age in 5-year groups and sex, Wardak, 2003 .................... 10Table 4—Special age groups by sex, in absolute numbers and percents, Wardak, 2003....................... 12Table 5—Agricultural and industrial products, handicrafts and small industries, Wardak, 2003............ 29Table 6—Number of buildings, and population per building, by type, Wardak, 2003.......................... 39 -x-
  11. 11. FiguresFigure 1—Population Spatial Distribution, Wardak, 2003 ............................................................. 4Figure 2—Distribution of the population settlements by size-class, Wardak, 2003............................. 5Figure 3—Population pyramid, Wardak, 2003—reported, Wardak, 2003......................................... 9Figure 4—Population pyramid, Wardak, 2003—Adjusted, Wardak, 2003........................................ 10Figure 5—sex ratio, by district, Wardak, 2003, Wardak, 2003........................................................ 11Figure 6—Population by villages, by main languages spoken, Wardak, 2003.................................... 13Figure 7—Population and villages, by distance from the district center, Wardak, 2003 ....................... 16Figure 8—Population and villages, by topography of the village, Wardak, 2003................................ 17Figure 9—Population and villages, by type of road, Wardak, 2003 ................................................. 17Figure 10—Population and villages by distance from certain facilities, Wardak, 2003 ........................ 18Figure 11—Population living in villages where there radios or Tvs, Wardak, 2003............................ 20Figure 12—Population by source of irrigation water, Wardak, 2003................................................ 31Figure 13—Economic activities, Wardak, 2003, Wardak, 2003...................................................... 32Figure 14—Physical infrastructure, Wardak, 2003....................................................................... 40 -xi-
  12. 12. M apsMap 1—Rural settlements by Size –Class, Wardak, 2003 ............................................................. 7Map 2—Villages by Main language spoken, Wardak, 2003........................................................... 14Map 3—Topography of Wardak, 2003 ...................................................................................... 21Map 4—Villages accessibility by Road, Wardak, 2003................................................................. 22Map 5—Villages with primary schools, Wardak, 2003................................................................. 23Map 6—Villages with secondary schools, Wardak, 2003 .............................................................. 24Map 7—Villages with High schools, Wardak, 2003..................................................................... 25Map 8—Health infrastructure –Health cent ers, Dispensaries, and Drugstores, Wardak, 2003 ............... 26Map 9—Villages with post offices and public phones, Wardak, 2003.............................................. 27Map 10—Villages with mills, Wardak, 2003 .............................................................................. 28 -xii-
  13. 13. Settlement PatternsLocated in the Central region, Wardak is bordered by the p rovinces of Parwan in theNorth-East, Kabul and Logar in the East, Bamy an in the West, and Ghazni in the South.It covers a land area of 10,348 squared kilometers, rep resenting 1.59 p ercent of the totalAfghan territory. The p rovince is divided into nine districts—Provincial center, May danShahr, Jalrez, Hissa-I-Awali Bihsud, M arkazi Bihsud, Day mirdad, Jaghatu, ChakiWardak, Say y id Abad, and Nirkh.Wardak is home to 2.3 p ercent of the total pop ulation of Afghanistan. With its 529,343 thinhabitants, it is the 16 most p op ulous p rovince in the country (see Annex 1). 1The p opulation is distributed among the nine districts as shown in table 1 and figure 1 .The largest share of the p op ulation—more than one fifth—lives in the district of Sayy idAbad, while the p rovincial cap ital, May dan Shahr houses less than seven p ercent. It isworth noting that the latter ranks only seventh in the p rovince, before Daimirdad andHissa-i-Awali-Bihsud.1 Figure 1 is comprised of two panels; in addition to panel A which shows the distribution of the population by district, panel B shows the population density of each district. T he latter information was included for conventional purpos es only, as in the abs ence o f qu anti fied in form ation on proportion o f inhabitable land, density figures can b e very misleading. Panel B should therefo re b e interpreted with caution. -1 -
  14. 14. Provincial Profile—Wardak Settlement Pa tternsThe large majority of the p opulation—99.7%—lives in rural areas. M ay dan Shahr, the 2only urban center , houses a mere 1,593 p op ulation, which rep resents only about 0.67percent of the total urban p op ulation of Afghanistan. 3 Table 1—Population, sex, and sex ratio, by district, province of Wardak, 2003 Total District Number Percent Males Females Sex ratioMarkazi Wardak—Maydan Shahr 35,008 6.6 17,659 17,659 101. 8Jalrez 44,873 8.5 22,680 22,193 102. 2Hissa-I-Awali-Bihsud 25,079 4.7 12,537 12,542 100Daimirdad 28,865 5.5 14,593 14,272 102. 2Jaghatu 46,667 8.8 23,699 22,968 103. 2Chaki Wardak 83,376 15.8 42,733 40,643 105. 1Sayyid Abad 114,793 21.7 58,752 56,041 104. 8Markazi-Bihsud 94,328 17.8 47,387 46,941 101Nirkh 56,354 10.6 29,066 27,288 106. 5Total 529,343 100 269,106 260,237 103. 4Wardak’s rural p op ulation of 527,750 inh abitants is distributed over 1,989 settlements ofextremely vary ing sizes. The smallest settlement counts as few as four (4) peop le and the 4largest as many as 2,689 .Figure 2 shows the distribution of the village p op ulation by size-class in the totalprovince (p anel A) and in each individu al district (p anel B).At p rovince level, the distribution is heavily skewed towards villages of very small sizes.Out of the total 1989 villages, more than a third—35 percent—have less than 100inhabitants, and more than h alf less than 200. Together, they account for close to threevillages out of five.2 Urbanity in Afghanistan is not based on population size. According to the Ministry of the Interior, are considered u rban those pl aces whose administrative stru ctures includ e a municipality, regardless o f their population sizes. In the case of A fghanistan all provincial capitals are urban, with the exception of Panjsher and Nooristan, as well as the capitals of some districts.3 Enumeration started 26 September 2003 and ended on 19 October of the same year.4 T here are five villages with zero population. Apparently such villages exist all over the country. According to CSO, this is due to a variety of reasons: 1. During the household operation, some villages were unoccupied because o f the draught which caused the inhabitants to relocate in other places where more water was av ailable; 2. Some of the villages were comprised solely of shops, serving the neighboring villages; 3. In some areas, remoteness as well as economic and other types of problems forced the villagers to relocat e to other places; 4. In some cases, the villages are mere district centers with no other types of buildings than government o ffices and shops. 5. Some villages had been partially demolished, which drove the inhabitants away. - 2-
  15. 15. Provincial Profile—Wardak Settlement Pa tternsThe distribution by district also exhibits substantial variation (p anel B and M ap 1). Themost outstanding feature of such distribution is the large p rop ortion of small-size villages(less than 100 inhabitants) in Markazi Bihsud and Hissa-I-Awali Bihsud. Resp ectively 55percent and 68 p ercent of the villages in these two districts are small-sized. This isparticularly striking in the case of M arkazi Bihsud which numbers 777 villages,rep resenting close to two fifths of the total number of v illages in the province. It isperhaps worth noting in add ition that in both districts, none of the villages belon gs to the600 or higher size-classes. At the other extreme, Say y id Abad and, to a lesser extent,May dan Shahr count resp ectively more than a fifth and more than nine p ercent of villageswith more than 1,000 p op ulation, even though, in the case of M ay dan Shahr, the totalnumber of such villages is only 6, whereas in Say y id Abad, it is 35. - 3-
  16. 16. Provincial Profile—Wardak Settlement Pa tterns Figure 1—Population settlements, Wardak, 2003 A—Percent district population with respect to provincial total 2 B—Density: population per km - 4-
  17. 17. Provincial Profile—Wardak Settlement Pa tterns Figure 2—Distribution of the rural population settlements by size-class, Wardak, 2003 A—Province =>1000 75 Popu la tion size -class 900−999 31 800−899 36 700−799 41 600−699 54 500−599 79 400−499 112 300−399 134 200−299 252 100−199 467 <=100 708 0 10 0 20 0 30 0 4 00 5 00 6 00 700 800 900 100 0 Number of Villages B—Districts Maydan Jalrez =>1000 6 <1000 9 900-999 3 900-999 2 P opula tion size-class P opula tion size-class 800-899 3 800-899 2 700-799 7 700-799 7 600-699 6 600-699 5 500-599 4 500-599 6 400-499 11 400-499 10 300-399 6 300-399 12 5 200-299 8 200-299 18 100-199 5 100-199 37 <=100 5 <=100 16 0 4 8 12 16 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Num ber of Villages Number of Villages Hissa-I-Awali Bihsud Markazi-Bihsud =>1000 0 =>1000 0 900-999 0 900-999 1 P opu lati on si ze -cla ss P opu lati on si ze -cla ss 800-899 0 800-899 0 700-799 0 700-799 3 600-699 0 600-699 6 500-599 0 500-599 11 400-499 1 400-499 28 300-399 5 200-299 10 300-399 81 100-199 73 200-299 221 <=100 193 <=100 426 0 50 100 150 200 0 100 200 300 400 500 Number of Villages Number of V illages Daym ir Dad Jaghatu =>1000 0 =>1000 7 900-999 1 900-999 4 Po pulat ion size-class Po pulat ion size-class 800-899 4 800-899 6 700-799 2 700-799 6 600-699 2 600-699 7 500-599 4 500-599 7 400-499 6 400-499 7 300-399 9 300-399 16 200-299 26 200-299 20 100-199 38 100-199 17 <=100 23 <=100 9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Num ber of Villages Number of Villages - 5-
  18. 18. Provincial Profile—Wardak Settlement Pa tterns Figure 2 (Contd)—Distribution of the rural population settlements by size-class, Wardak, 2003 Chaki Wardak Sayyid Abad =>1000 12 =>1000 35 900-999 8 900-999 10 P opu lat ion si ze -cl ass P opu lat ion si ze -c l ass 800-899 8 800-899 11 700-799 4 700-799 12 600-699 10 600-699 13 500-599 16 500-599 18 400-499 26 400-499 22 300-399 26 300-399 13 200-299 38 200-299 14 100-199 34 100-199 17 <=100 18 <=100 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Num ber of Villages N umber of Villages Nirkh =>1000 6 900-999 3 Populat ion si ze-cl ass 800-899 1 700-799 3 600-699 8 500-599 18 400-499 18 300-399 19 200-299 37 100-199 25 <=100 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 N umber of Villages - 6-
  19. 19. Provincial Profile—Wardak Settlement Pa tterns Map 1 - 7-
  20. 20. Demographic CharacteristicsAge distributionThe distribution by age and sex of the p opulation of Wardak is shown in table 2 andfigure 3. As the latter clearly shows, the distribution is highly irregular. The ov erall shap eof the age-p y ramid is typ ical of a pre-transition society —characterized by stable highfertility , but certain age groups are noticeably below the expected size. For instance, it isnot readily understandable why the prop ortion of males of the 0-4 age group should bethat much lower than the p roportion of males of the 5-9 age group, or why it should be11.5% smaller than the corresp onding one for females. Whereas a deficit in theprop ortion of children below 5 could be a d irect result of war casualties—women marriedto soldiers having given birth to fewer children than in normal circu mstances, it isdifficult to account for the sex-selectiveness of such deficit. In the same way , why shouldthe p roportions of males in the 55-59 and 65-69 age group s be much lower than exp ected,while the 70-74 is substantially higher? The same anomalies hold true for females.Clearly , the age data need to be ad justed before they can be used for p lanning p urposes. “Errors in the tabulated data on age may arise from three different sources: • inadequate coverag e, • failure to record age, and • misreporting of age. Coverage errors are of two types. Individuals of a given age may ha ve been missed by the census or erroneously included in it (e.g. counted twice). The first type of coverage error represents gross under-enum eration at this age and the second gross-over-enumeration. The balance of the two 1 types of coverage errors represents net under-enum eration at this age .”1 Because under-enum eration commonly exceeds over-enumeration; the balance is typically designated as under-enumeration. - 8-
  21. 21. Provincial Profile—Wardak Demographic Characteristics Table 2—Population estimate, by age in 5-year groups and sex, Wardak, 20032 Male Female Both sexesAge Group Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent0-4 42,167 15.67 48, 963 18. 81 91,130 17.229-May 50,316 18.70 46, 314 17. 80 96,630 18.2510-14 42,004 15.61 36, 913 14. 18 78,917 14.9115-19 28,766 10.69 25, 692 9.87 54,458 10.2920-24 20,588 7.65 25, 207 9.69 45,795 8.6525-29 20,312 7.55 19, 224 7.39 39,536 7.4730-34 13,475 5.01 12, 826 4.93 26,301 4.9735-39 11,975 4.45 13, 325 5.12 25,300 4.7840-44 11,048 4.11 11, 006 4.23 22,054 4.1745-49 8,954 3.33 7, 431 2.86 16,385 3.1050-54 7,628 2.83 5, 388 2.07 13,016 2.4655-59 3,261 1.21 3, 086 1.19 6,347 1.2060-64 4,265 1.58 2, 786 1.07 7,051 1.3365-69 1,575 0.59 1, 138 0.44 2,713 0.5170-74 2,032 0.76 545 0.21 2,577 0.4975-79 311 0.12 150 0.06 461 0.0980+ 429 0.16 243 0.09 672 0.13Total 269,106 100. 00 260,237 100.00 529,343 100.00 Figure 3—Population pyramid, Wardak, 2003—Reported 80+ 0.16 0.09 75-79 0.12 0.06 70-74 0.76 0.21 65-69 0.59 0.44 60-64 1.58 1.07 55-59 1.21 1.19 50-54 2.83 2.07 Males 45-49 3.33 2.86 Females 40-44 4.11 4.23 35-39 4.45 5.12 30-34 5.01 4.93 25-29 7.55 7.39 20-24 7.65 9.69 15-19 10.69 9.87 10-14 15.61 14.18 5-9 18.70 17.80 0-4 15.67 18.81 In addition, the ages of so me individuals in cluded in th e census ma y not ha ve been reported, or may have b een erron eously reported by the respond ent, erroneously estimated by the enu merator, or erroneously allocated by the census office. Such errors are referred to as response bias.2 T he age distribution is based on 1/200 sample of the total households. - 9-
  22. 22. Provincial Profile—Wardak Demographic CharacteristicsCorrection of the age distribution of the 2003 household listing p oses certain challen ges.In addition to the difficulties described above, one must take into account two additionalfactors: 1. excess mortality among certain age group s due war, and 2. the waves of war refugees that left for neighborin g countries. Table 3—Adj usted population estimate, by age in 5-year groups and sex, Wardak, 2003 Male Female Both sexesAge Group Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent0-4 51,281 19.06 49, 495 19. 02 100,776 19.049-May 44,096 16.39 42, 579 16. 36 86,675 16.3710-14 37,079 13.78 35, 758 13. 74 72,838 13.7615-19 30,725 11.42 29, 595 11. 37 60,319 11.4020-24 23,182 8.61 24, 198 9.30 47,381 8.9525-29 18,074 6.72 19, 693 7.57 37,767 7.1330-34 13,943 5.18 14, 304 5.50 28,247 5.3435-39 11,729 4.36 11, 529 4.43 23,258 4.3940-44 11,083 4.12 10, 244 3.94 21,327 4.0345-49 9,093 3.38 7, 969 3.06 17,062 3.2250-54 6,299 2.34 4, 970 1.91 11,270 2.1355-59 4,685 1.74 3, 401 1.31 8,085 1.5360-64 3,452 1.28 2, 391 0.92 5,843 1.1065-69 2,316 0.86 2, 111 0.81 4,427 0.8470-74 2,069 0.77 1, 999 0.77 4,068 0.77Total 269,106 100. 00 260,237 100.00 529,343 100.00 Figure 4—Population pyramid, Wardak, 2003—Adj usted 70+ 0.77 0.77 65-69 0.86 0.81 60-64 1.28 0.92 55-59 1.74 1.31 50-54 2.34 1.91 45-49 3.38 3.06 40-44 M ales 4.12 3.94 Females 35-39 4.36 4.43 30-34 5.18 5.50 25-29 6.72 7.57 20-24 8.61 9.30 15-19 11.42 11.37 10-14 13.78 13.74 5-9 16.39 16.36 0-4 19.06 19.02It follows that, in any attempt to correct for the anomalies, care must be taken not toremove the true fluctuations that resulted from such factors. - 10 -
  23. 23. Provincial Profile—Wardak Demographic Characteristics 3To correct for these irregularities, we ap p lied a multi-stage p rocedure that y ielded the 4distribution shown in table 3 and figure 4 .Household size and sex ratioThe sex ratio (number of males p er 100 females) varies between 101.8 in May dan Shahr,the p rovincial cap ital, and 106.5 in Nirkh, the average for the province being 103.4(figure 5 below and the last column of table 1). No information is available which couldexp lain why the sex ratio is high in Nirkh, Chaki Wardak or Say y id Abad. Figure 5. Sex ratio, by district, Wardak, 2003A typ ical household in Wardak h as 6.3 p ersons, which is about the national average.Such a size is an indicator of a high fertility regime.3 T he complete account of the various stages is shown in Annex 2.4 For a comparison of the reported and adjusted age-distribution, see annex 3. - 11 -
  24. 24. Provincial Profile—Wardak Demographic CharacteristicsSpecial age groupsPlanners attach sp ecial interest to certain age groups. For fertility analy sis for instance,the total number of women 15 to 49 y ears of age—the childb earin g ages—is moresignificant than others. The pop ulation 6 to 12—p rimary school ages—is imp ortant ineducational research and p lannin g. Table 4 p resents data for the above age group s as well 5as for others, based on an interp olation of the adjusted five-year age distribution . Table 4—Special age groups by sex, in absolute numbers and percents, Wardak, 2003 Male Femal e Both sex Age Number Percent Number Percent Number PercentSchool age Popul ation Primary ― 6-12 55,933 21.2 56,254 22. 0 112,188 21. 6 Secondary ― 13-18 39,682 15.0 36,607 14. 3 76,289 14. 7 College ― 20-24 22,632 8.6 23,718 9. 3 46,350 8. 9Population in the labor force Children ― 8-14 45,564 39.2 42,938 39. 2 88,502 39. 2 Earlier working ages ― 15-44 107,770 40.8 106,512 41. 7 214,282 41. 3 Later working ages ― 45-59 19,992 7.6 16,063 6. 3 36,055 6. 9 Retirement ― 60+ 8,133 3.1 4,507 1. 8 12,640 2. 4Voters ― 18+ 116,102 44.0 109,423 42. 8 225,525 43. 4 Reproductive ages ― 15-49 — — 114,441 44. 8 — —* = Women in the childbearing agesMain languages spokenThe household listing exercise did not collect any information on the ethnic backgroundof the pop ulation. However, it included a question on the languages sp oken by themajority of the p op ulation. Of the eight languages listed (figure 6), two—Pashto andDari—are sp oken by 96 p ercent of the p op ulation and 93 p ercent of the villages.5 T he breakdown of the fiv e-year age distribution into single years of age w as obtained using the Karrup-King T hird-Difference formula. - 12 -
  25. 25. Provincial Profile—Wardak Demographic Characteristics Figure 6—Population and villages, by main language spoken, Wardak, 2003 365 Pop ulat io n in 0 0 0s 145 3 0 0 0 0 16 Dari Pas tu Uzbak i Turk mani Baloc hi Pas haie Noor is tani Ot her 0 1 0 0 0 134 779 1065 V il lag es - 13 -
  26. 26. Provincial Profile—Wardak Demographic Characteristics Map 2 - 14 -
  27. 27. Living ConditionsOther useful information collected durin g the Household Listin g exercise con cerned thelocations of the villages with resp ect to their resp ective district centers, the typ es of roads,and the top ograp hy .Even though no information was obtained on the social situation of the pop ulation, thedata collected at village-lev el mak e it p ossible to draw inferences on the av ailabilityand/or accessibility of such essential social services as literacy courses; rural schools;primary, secondary , and high schools; health centers and/or dispensaries; drugstores;public phones, mills, as well as radio and television.Figure 7 shows the numbers of villages by the distances sep arating them from theirresp ective district centers. Figures 8 and 9 show resp ectively the typ es of p redominanttop ography and the types of roads.The distribution by distances from the district centers clearly shows a high degree ofinaccessibility with resp ect to those services that can only be provided by a districtcenter. More than half of the pop ulation is located at between 15 and 19 kilo meters fromtheir resp ective district centers. At the other end of the distribution, a good 10 p ercent ofthe p op ulation lives more than 50 kilometers away , includin g 2.3 p ercent situated at morethan 100 kilometers. Even thou gh those villages that are situated at excessively lon gdistances from their district centers may be closer to one or more urban centers outsidethe jurisdiction of Wardak, there exists a real in accessibility p roblem for a significantnumber of the pop ulation. It goes without say ing that the nature of the terrain can only - 15 -
  28. 28. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditionscomp ound the p roblem, in particular for those who live in mountainous or semi-mountainous areas. As figure 8 shows, of the 1,989 villages, 1,262, rep resenting morethan three out of five settlements and close to 45 p ercent of the p opulation are located inmountainous areas; those located in flat or semi-flat areas rep resent less than one third ofthe settlements and less than half of the p opulation (see also map 1 at the end of thissection). Figure 7—Population and villages, by distance from the district center, Wardak, 2003 Po pulati on (0 00 ) 98 79 75 42 42 43 38 23 16 13 12 9 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 2 0 1- 4 5- 9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89 90-94 95- 99 100+ 4 16 13 22 17 32 35 34 37 29 65 81 87 96 93 111 156 155 171 191 2 72 245 V i ll ag esThis is further reflected in the typ es of roads available (figure 9). Of the 1,989 villages,only slightly more than a fourth have ro ads that are accessible by car at all seasons.Another 56 p ercent are accessible by car in some seasons, whereas 317 (nine p ercent ofthe p op ulation) don’t have any roads at all.Figure 10 p resents information on the distances sep arating villages from certain socialservices: schools, health centers, drugstores, post offices, p ublic p hones, and mills.Educational servicesWith regard to educational services, accessibility app ears to be most problematic forliteracy courses, high schools, and rural schools in that order (p anels A, E, and B). Allthree typ es of educational services are located more than 10 kilo meters away for large - 16 -
  29. 29. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditionsmajorities of the villages they are supp osed to serve—76 p ercent for literacy courses, 64for high schools, and 54 p ercent for rural schools. Very few p eop le don’t have to traveloutside their villages to go to a literacy course, a rural school, or a high school—resp ectively 1.8 p ercent, 10.5 percent, and 2.4 p ercent of the total p op ulation. Figure 8. Population and v illages, by topography of the v illage, Wardak, 2003 2 37 Po p u atio n (0 00 ) l 153 104 31 1 1 2 Fl at M o un a nous t i Semi-fl at Semi-mo untaino us Other No t Rep or ted M issing 24 5 156 171 2 72 4 191 96 V il lages Figure 9—Population and villages, by type of road, Wardak, 2003 C a --all r No R oad s sesons 9% 39 % ( 31 vil lag e 7 s) (53 0 vil lag es) C a --Some r sea ns so 51 % ( 1 25 ,1 vil lag es)The situation is substantially better as concerns p rimary and secondary schools, since themajority of the p op ulation doesn’t have to travel more than fiv e kilometers to reachthem—more than half the p opulation (52 p ercent) for p rimary schools and 41 p ercent forsecondary schools. However, even though the number of villages with p rimary andsecondary schools located within their boundaries is larger than for literacy courses, ruralschools, or high schools, the p rop ortions of the pop ulation that don’t have to travel - 17 -
  30. 30. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditionsoutside their villages to go school are still less than 10 p ercent for p rimary schools andfour p ercent for secondary schools. Figure 10―Population and villages by distances from certain facilities, Wardak, 2003 A. Literacy courses B. Rural School Population 374, 352 Population 269, 520 103,309 74, 196 55,696 59, 132 35,921 35,424 41,686 9,450 In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated 19 95 80 181 138 290 273 317 1, 506 Villa ges V illages 1,081 C. Primary school D. Secondary school P opulation 278,623 Population 217,233 154, 383 129, 300 131, 097 50, 720 64,487 21,616 6,213 5,014 In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated 28 26 173 66 244 501 1, 044 529 728 Villa ges Vil lages 641 E. High School F. Health Center P opulation 249, 774 Population 224, 952 152, 550 130,326 128, 504 132, 760 12, 875 5,430 16,690 4,825 In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated 31 -21 42 20 297 365 343 468 Vill ages Villag es 1,276 1,117 G . Dispensary H. Drugstore P opulation 225, 928 Population 199, 850 153, 898 140,980 149, 534 127, 248 30,876 17, 499 4,770 8,103 In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated 42 19 79 26 346 398 452 460 1,027 Villa ges 1,131 Vil lages - 18 -
  31. 31. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Figure 10 (Contd)―Population and villages by distances from certain facilities, Wardak, 2003 I. Post Of fice J. Public phone Population 199,850 Population 418, 178 140, 980 149, 534 30, 876 47, 957 47,797 8, 103 6, 598 8,813 In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated -26 11 39 79 102 108 398 460 1, 730 1,027 Vill ages V illages K. Mill Populati on 297, 396 121,927 67,079 9,163 33,778 In village <5km away 5-10 km away >10 km away Not stated 42 138 356 318 Vill ages 1, 136Health servicesThe sp atial distribution of the health infrastructure closely resembles that of high schools;and is substantially the same for both health centers and disp ensaries (panels F & G).More often than not, p eop le seeking medical attention have to travel more than 10kilometers to get it—more than two out of five cases. Those that live between five and 10kilometers from the closest health unit rep resent close to one third of the p op ulation. Insum, access to health care is v ery difficult for the majority of the p op ulation, inasmuch asseven persons out of every 10 have to travel more than five kilometers to get whateverhealth services are offered. Only 42 villages out of the 1,989 have either a health centeror disp ensary within their boundaries. The p icture is substantially the same for drugstores(p anel H).Post office & public phonesPost offices exist in 79 villages, and public phones in 11 (p anels I & J). On average, p ostoffices tend to exist in villages with close to 400 inhabitants, and public phones in those - 19 -
  32. 32. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditionswith about 600. Given the small sizes of the majority of the villages in the province, closeto four peop le out of five must travel more than 10 kilometers to have access to a p ublicphone. The situation is only slightly better for p ost offices, since the p rop ortion of p eop lethat must travel about the same distance is close to two out of five. Overall, however,post offices tend be relatively more available than p ublic p hones, judgin g by theprop ortions of the p opulations located within less than five kilometers and between fiveand 10 kilometers of that typ e of social service.MillsMills tend to be relatively more availab le to the pop ulation than any of the facilitiesmentioned above (p anel K). They exist in 356 villages and cater to the needs of 121,927peop le, rep resenting close to ¼ of the total p op ulation. Furthermore, more than oneperson out of two don’t have to travel more than five kilometers to reach one.Radio & televisionWhereas 98.5 of the p op ulation have access to radio, those that have access to TVrep resent a mere 4.5 percent. It go es without say ing that public information efforts andmedia camp aigns are seriously hamp ered by this state of affairs. Figure 11—Proportions of the populations living in villages where there are radios or TVs, Wardak, 2003 R adi o TV No Yes 1% 5% No Ye s 9 5% 99% - 20 -
  33. 33. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Map 3 - 21 -
  34. 34. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Map 4 - 22 -
  35. 35. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Map 5 - 23 -
  36. 36. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Map 6 - 24 -
  37. 37. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Map 7 - 25 -
  38. 38. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Map 8 - 26 -
  39. 39. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Map 9 - 27 -
  40. 40. Provincial Profile—Wardak Living Conditions Map 10 - 28 -
  41. 41. Economic ActivitiesIn addition to the major sources of irrigation water, the Household Listing data includeinformation on agricultural p roducts, industrial p roducts, handicrafts and smallindustries—a total of 64 items group ed into eight categories as shown in table 5 below.Data on economic activities can be analy zed in various way s. The analy sis p resented hereis based on a grap hical dep iction of the data, as well as p ercentages. A more comp lex oneis shown in annex four, b ased on a techniqu e called comp ositional analy sis. Table 5—Agricultural, industrial, and animal products, handicrafts and small industries, Wardak, 2003 Subsi stence Industri al Herbal Small Animal Crops Crops Fruits Vegetables Products Ha ndi crafts Industries ProductsWheat Cotton Grapes Potato Lico rice root Ca rpets Honey EggsCorn Sugar Extract Pomeg ranates On ion Caray Ru gs Silk MilkRice Sugar Cane Mellon/Water m. Tom atoes Asfit ida Embroidery Kara kul skin Yoghu rtMaize Sesam e Orange Carrots Zerk Pottery Dried sugar W heyBeans Tobacco Almonds Cauliflower Anisee d Pelisse Con-fection Dried yo ghurtVetch Olives Walnuts Spinach Hyssop Jewelry Sugar candy Butt erPeas Sharsham Mulberry Leek Chicory Shawl making Sugar swe et W oolOther Oth er Other Ot her Other Other Other OtherAgricultureFigure 12 p rovides information on the sources of irrigation water, and figure 13 (p anels Athrough F) 13 p rovides information on agricultural p roducts—crops; fruit; vegetables;herbal, and animal p roducts.Figure 12 shows that the p redominant source of irrigation water is that of conduits, whichsupp ly 56 p ercent of the villages with their irrigation water, followed by streams and - 29 -
  42. 42. Provincial Profile—Wardak Economic Activitiesrivers. Together, the latter two rep resent the major sources for resp ectively more than onethird of the villages and more than 44 p ercent of the pop ulation.A cursory look at figure 13 shows that M arkazi Bihsud is the one district that sp ecializesin most of the agricu ltural p roducts, in p articular subsistence crop s, vegetables, herbs, andanimal products. Out of the 1,888 villages p roducin g wheat, 755 (40 p ercent) are locatedin it, in addition to 657 villages of the 1,273 villages p roducing maize. The same is trueof vegetables (in p articular p otatoes, and carrots), and the majority of herbal p roducts,including licorice roots, caray , asafetida, zerk, aniseed, hy ssop and chicory . Animalproducts are also p redominant, even thou gh in the latter case, Hissa-i-Awali Bihsud ranksa close second, Ch aki Wardak third and Say y id Abad fourth. Together, these fourdistricts supp ly close to 80 p ercent of all animal p roducts.Fruit, on the other hand, app ear to be a sp ecialty of Chaki Wardak, in p articular grap es,almonds, walnuts, and mulberries. Say y id Abad comes second owing main ly tomulberries. Jalrez ranks third and fourth thanks to walnuts for the former and mulberriesfor the latter.Industrial crops, small industries, and handicraftsUnlike an imal p roducts or subsistence crop s, industrial commodities—cotton, sugar,sesame, tobacco, oliv es, and sharsham, etc.—do not ap p ear to occupy the pop ulation in asubstantial number of villages. They are p resent in 215 villages, which is a mere 11percent of the total 1,989. They are concentrated in a few districts, mainly MarkaziBihsud, Say y id Abad, Chaki Wardak and Hissa-i-Awali B ihsud. The two majorcommodities are tobacco and sugar extract; they are p roduced in resp ectively 94 and 32villages. About 90 percent of the villages p roducing tobacco are located in ChakiWardak, M arkazi Bihsud, Say y id Abad and Jaghatu; and 19 out of the 32 villagesproducing su gar extract are located in Say yid Abad. A variety of other, unspecified,commodities are p roduced in 50 villages belon gin g to M arkazi Bihsud and 32 villageslocated in Hissa-i-Awali B ihsud. - 30 -
  43. 43. Provincial Profile—Wardak Economic ActivitiesThe sector of small industries is dominated by one commodity , honey , which is p roducedin a total of 68 villages, 55 of which are located in the district of Chaki Wardak.On the other hand, a relatively large nu mber of villages produce various handicrafts—carp ets, rugs, jewelry and shawls. Together, carp ets and rugs rep resent seven out of everyten handicraft items p roduced in Ward ak. Of the nine districts in the p rovince, MarkaziBihsud and Hissa-i-Awali Bihsud are resp onsible for 92 p ercent of the total p roduction ofthese two handicraft items. Jewelry and shawls are the other two items. Again, they tendto be concentrated in the same two districts. In sum, the bulk of the handicraft p roductionis concentrated in M arkazi Bihsud and Hissa-i-Awali Bihsud. The seven remainin gdistricts share among themselves less than 17 p ercent of the total handicraft industries. Figure 12—Population by source of irrigation w at er, Wardak, 2003 20 2748 Populat ion 143 89 8 9 0131 70 39 1 109 41 7588 36 46 Ri ver St ream Cond ui t Sp ring Deep Well Arhad No t rep. 24 19 9 141 296 386 Vil lages 11 15 - 31 -

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