فقر او لوږه

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Poverty and hunger

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فقر او لوږه

  1. 1. ‫‪ Poverty and Hunger‬ﻟﻮږﻩه ﺍاﻭو ﻓﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﻤﺘﻮﮐﻮﻭوﻧﮑﯽ : ﺳﻴﯿﺪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻧﻌﻴﯿﻢ ﺧﺎﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩد ﭘﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﻩه ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉع ﮐﯽ ﮐﻮﻡم ﺳﻬﮭﮫﺎﻡم ﺩدﺍاﺭرﺍاﻥن )‪ (Stakeholders‬ﺩدﺍاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺩدﯼی؟‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ﺩد ﻭوږﻭو ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد‬ ‫ﺁآﯾﺎ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﭘﻪ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه ﺧﻮﺍاړﻩه ﺩد ‪R‬ﻮﻟﻮ ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ ﺩد ﺗﻐﺬﯾﯽ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪﻭوﯼی؟‬ ‫ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ‪W‬ﻪ ﺩدﯼی؟‬ ‫ﺁآﯾﺎ ﺩد ﻭوږﻭو ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ ﭘﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ﮐﯽ ﭘﻪ ﮐﻤﻮﻟﻮ ﮐﯽ ﭘﺮﻣﺨﺘ ‪Y‬ﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﻮﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﮐﻨﻪ؟‬ ‫ﺍاﺧﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮږﻩه ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩدﯼی ﭼﯽ ﺧﻠﮏ ﻧﺸﯽ ﮐﻮﻟﯽ ﭘﻪ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه ﻣﻐﺬﯼی ﺧﻮﺍاړﻩه‬ ‫)ﮐﺎﺭرﺑﻮﻫﮬﮪھﺎﯾﺪﺭرﯾﺖ ٬، ﺷﺤﻢ٬، ﭘﺮﻭو‪R‬ﻴﯿﻦ ٬، ﻭوﯾ‪d‬ﺎﻣﻴﯿﻨﻮﻧﻪ٬، ﻣﻴﯿﻨﺮﺍاﻟﻮ ﺍاﻭو ﺍاﻭوﺑﻪ( ﺩد ﯾﻮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﺍاﻭو ﺻﺤﺖ ﻣﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﮊژﻭوﻧﺪ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﺗﺮﻻﺳﻪ ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی. ﭘﺪﯼی ﺑﺮﺳﻴﯿﺮﻩه ﺩد ﺍاﻧ ‪Y‬ﺮﯾﺰﯼی ﮊژﺑﯽ ﺩد ﺁآﮐﺴﻔﻮﺭرډ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺱس ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﺩد‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻤﯽ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﺩدﺭرﯼی ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﻮﻧﻪ ﮐﻮﯼی:‬‫ﺍاﻟﻒ: ﻟﻮږﻩه ﯾﻮ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﺩدﺭرﺩدﻭوﻧ ﮑﯽ ﺍاﺣﺴﺎﺱس ﺩدﯼی ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﺧﻮړﻭو ﺩد ﻏﻮ‪o‬ﺘﻮ)‪ (want‬ﺍاﻭو ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ ﺩد ﺍاﺷﺘﻬﮭﮫﺎ ﺩد ﺩدﺭرﻟﻮﺩدﻟﻮ ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ.‬ ‫ﺏب: ﺩد ﺧﻮړﻭو ﻏﻮ‪o‬ﺘﻞ ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﮐﻤ‪s‬ﺖ ﭘﻪ ﯾﻮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩد ﮐﯽ.‬ ‫ﭖپ: ﻟﻮږﻩه ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩدﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه ﺧﻮﺍاړﻩه ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩد ﻧﻪ ﻭوﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﯾﺪﯼی ﻧﺎﺭرﻭوﻏﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﻣ‪L‬ﯾﻨﻪ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍاﺷﯽ.‬ ‫ﺝج: ﯾﻮ ﺷﯽ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ډﯾﺮ ﻣﻴﯿﻞ ﺩدﺭرﻟﻮﺩدﻝل.‬ ‫ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﺗﺮ ‪q‬ﻨګ ﺩد ﺩدﺍاﯾ ﮑﺎﻧﻮﻣﺴﺖ ﻭوﺭر‪q‬ﭙﺎ‪y‬ﯽ ﭘﻪ ۳٣۰٠۰٠۲٢ )3002 ,‪ .(Economist‬ﮐﯽ ﺩدﻟﻮږﯼی ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﮬﮪھ ﮑﻠﻪ ﻭوﺍاﯾﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺩدﺍا ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩدﯼی ﭼﯽ ﯾﻮ ﻓﺮﺩد ﻧﺸﯽ ﮐﻮﻟﯽ ﯾﻮ ﻗﻴﯿﻤﺘﯽ ﺧﻮﺍاړﯾﺰﻩه‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝل ﻭوﺍاﺧﻠﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﭘﺪﯼی ﻧﻪ ﭘﻮﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﭼﯽ ﺭرﺍاﺗﻠﻮﻧ ﮑﯽ ﺧﻮﺍاړﻩه ﺑﻪ ﺩد ﮐﻮﻣﻪ ‪q‬ﺎﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ.‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯼی )‪ - (Malnourished‬ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻪ ﻭوﺍاﯾﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﯼی ﻣﻐﺬﯼی‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍاړﯾﺰﻩه ﺗﻮﮐﻮ ﺩد ﻧﻪ ﺷﺘﻮﻥن ﯾﺎ ﺩد ﻧﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑف ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﺩد ﺑﯽ ﺣﺪﻩه ﺯزﯾﺎﺕت ﻣﺼﺮﻑف ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﻣﻨ‪p‬‬‫ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ. ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﮐﯽ ﭘﻪ ﮐﯽ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه ﺩد ﺧﻮړﻭو ﻣﺼﺮﻑف ﺻﻮﺭرﺕت ﻭوﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﯿﺴﯽ ﻧﻮ ‪ under-nutrition‬ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﮐﻪ ﭼﻴﯿﺮﯼی ﺯزﯾﺎﺕت ﻣﺼﺮﻑف ﺻﻮﺭرﺕت ﻭوﻧﻴﯿﺴﯽ ﻧﻮ‬ ‫‪ over-nutrition‬ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﺩدﺍا ﺩدﻭوﺍاړﻩه ﯾﺎﺩد ﺷﻮﯼی ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﺩد ﻓﺰﯾ ﮑﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺭرﻭوﺍاﻧﯽ ﺻﺤﺖ ﺩد‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺍاﺑﻴﯿﺪﻭو ﺍاﻭو ﺩد ﻧﻮﺭرﻭو ﻧﺎﺭرﻏﻴﯿﻮ ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿﺪﺍاﯼی ﺷﯽ. ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ ﺩدﻭوﻩه ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﻟﺮﯼی . ﻟﻤ‪L‬ﯼی ﺍاﻭو‬ ‫ﻣﻬﮭﮫﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﯾﯽ ﺩد ﭘﺮﻭو‪R‬ﻴﯿﻦ ﺩد ﺍاﻧﺮﮊژۍ ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ ﺩدﻩه ﭼﯽ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺧﻮړﻭو ﻟﻪ‬‫ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﭼﯽ ﭘﺮﻭو‪R‬ﻴﯿﻦ ﻟﺮﯼی ﺩد ﻧﻪ ﺍاﺧﺴﺘﻠﻮ ﻟﻪ ﮐﺒﻠﻪ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ ﺩد ﺑﻴﯿﻠ ‪Y‬ﯽ ﭘﻪ ﺗﻮ‚ﻪ ﻏﻮ‪o‬ﻪ ﺍاﻭو‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﻧﻮﺭرﯼی ﭘﺮﻭو‪R‬ﻴﯿﻨﯽ ﺯزﯾﺮﻣﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺍاﺧﺴﺘﻞ ﯾﯽ ‚ﺮﺍاﻥن ﺩدﯼی ﻧﻮ ﺩد ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﯽ ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻟﻪ ﮐﭽﻪ ﭘﺪﯼی ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻩه ﺑﺎﻧﺪﯼی ﺧﺒﺮﯼی ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﺗﺮ‪W‬ﻨګ ﺩدﻭوﻫﮬﮪھﻤﻪ ﻧﻮﻉع ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺩدﻩه ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﻭوﯾ‪d‬ﺎﻣﻴﯿﻨﻮﻧﻮ ﺍاﻭو ﻣﻨﺮﺍاﻟﻮﻧﻮ ﺩد ﻧﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑف ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ ﻣ‪Y‬ﺮ ﺩدﺍا ﻧﻮﻉع‬ ‫ﯾﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻟﻪ ﮐﭽﻪ ﺗﺮ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻻﻧﺪﯼی ﻧﻪ ﻧﻴﯿﻮﻝل ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﻧﻦ ﻭوﺭرځ ﭘﻪ ﭘﺮﻣﺦ ﺗﻠﻠﻮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩدﻭوﻧﻮ ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺩدﺭرﯾﻤﻪ ﻧﻮﻉع ﺩد ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﯽ ﺩد ﭼﺎﻏ‪s‬ﺖ )‪ (obesity‬ﺗﺮ ﻋﻨﻮﺍاﻥن ﻻﻧﺪﯼی ‪q‬ﺎﯼی ﭘﻪ ‪q‬ﺎﯼی ﺷﯽ.‬
  2. 2. ‫‪ over-nutrition‬ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﺩدﺍا ﺩدﻭوﺍاړﻩه ﯾﺎﺩد ﺷﻮﯼی ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﺩد ﻓﺰﯾ ﮑﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺭرﻭوﺍاﻧﯽ ﺻﺤﺖ ﺩد‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺍاﺑﻴﯿﺪﻭو ﺍاﻭو ﺩد ﻧﻮﺭرﻭو ﻧﺎﺭرﻏﻴﯿﻮ ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿﺪﺍاﯼی ﺷﯽ. ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ ﺩدﻭوﻩه ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﻟﺮﯼی . ﻟﻤ‪L‬ﯼی ﺍاﻭو‬ ‫ﻣﻬﮭﮫﻢ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﯾﯽ ﺩد ﭘﺮﻭو‪R‬ﻴﯿﻦ ﺩد ﺍاﻧﺮﮊژۍ ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ ﺩدﻩه ﭼﯽ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺧﻮړﻭو ﻟﻪ‬‫ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﭼﯽ ﭘﺮﻭو‪R‬ﻴﯿﻦ ﻟﺮﯼی ﺩد ﻧﻪ ﺍاﺧﺴﺘﻠﻮ ﻟﻪ ﮐﺒﻠﻪ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ ﺩد ﺑﻴﯿﻠ ‪Y‬ﯽ ﭘﻪ ﺗﻮ‚ﻪ ﻏﻮ‪o‬ﻪ ﺍاﻭو‬ ‫ﯾﺎ ﻧﻮﺭرﯼی ﭘﺮﻭو‪R‬ﻴﯿﻨﯽ ﺯزﯾﺮﻣﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺍاﺧﺴﺘﻞ ﯾﯽ ‚ﺮﺍاﻥن ﺩدﯼی ﻧﻮ ﺩد ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﯽ ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻟﻪ ﮐﭽﻪ ﭘﺪﯼی ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻩه ﺑﺎﻧﺪﯼی ﺧﺒﺮﯼی ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﺗﺮ‪W‬ﻨګ ﺩدﻭوﻫﮬﮪھﻤﻪ ﻧﻮﻉع ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺩدﻩه ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﻭوﯾ‪d‬ﺎﻣﻴﯿﻨﻮﻧﻮ ﺍاﻭو ﻣﻨﺮﺍاﻟﻮﻧﻮ ﺩد ﻧﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑف ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ ﻣ‪Y‬ﺮ ﺩدﺍا ﻧﻮﻉع‬ ‫ﯾﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻟﻪ ﮐﭽﻪ ﺗﺮ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻻﻧﺪﯼی ﻧﻪ ﻧﻴﯿﻮﻝل ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﻧﻦ ﻭوﺭرځ ﭘﻪ ﭘﺮﻣﺦ ﺗﻠﻠﻮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩدﻭوﻧﻮ ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﺩدﺭرﯾﻤﻪ ﻧﻮﻉع ﺩد ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯾﯽ ﺩد ﭼﺎﻏ‪s‬ﺖ )‪ (obesity‬ﺗﺮ ﻋﻨﻮﺍاﻥن ﻻﻧﺪﯼی ‪q‬ﺎﯼی ﭘﻪ ‪q‬ﺎﯼی ﺷﯽ.‬ ‫ﻏﺬﺍاﯾﯽ ﺍاﻣﻨﻴﯿﺖ )‪ – (Food Security‬ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻪ ﻭوﺍاﯾﯽ ﭼﯽ ‪R‬ﻮﻝل ﺧﻠﮏ٬، ﻫﮬﮪھﺮ ﻭوﺧﺖ ﺩد‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻪ ﺍاﻭو ﺻﺤﺖ ﻣﻨﺪ ﮊژﻭوﻧﺪ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﭘﻪ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه ﺻﺤﯽ٬، ﻣﻐﺬﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩد ﺍاﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩدﯼی‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍاړﯾﺰﻩه ﺗﻮﮐﻮ ﺗﻪ ﻻﺱس ﺭرﺳﯽ ﻭوﻟﺮﯼی.‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩد ﭘﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﭘﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉع ﮐﯽ ﮐﻮﻡم ﺳﻬﮭﮫﺎﻡم ﺩدﺍاﺭرﺍاﻥن‬ ‫)‪ (Stakeholders‬ﺩدﺍاﺧﻞ ﺩدﯼی؟‬ ‫‪R‬ﻮﻝل ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﮐﺴﺎﻥن ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩد ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻴﯿﺖ ﻟﺮﯼی‬ ‫‪R‬ﻮﻝل ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﮐﺴﺎﻥن )ﺑﻬﮭﮫﺮﻧﻴﯿﺎﻥن ﺍاﻭو ﮐﯽ ﺩدﺍاﺧﻠﯽ( ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﯾﻮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩد ﮐﯽ ﺍاﻭوﺳﻴﯿ~ﯼی‬ ‫ﺩدﻭوﻟﺘﯽ ﺍاﺩدﺍاﺭرﯼی‬ ‫ﻏﻴﯿﺮ ﺩدﻭوﻟﺘﯽ ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻧﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩدﺍاﻭوﻁطﻠﺒﺎﻧﻪ ﺍاﻭو ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺘﯽ ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻧﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﯿﺎﺳﺖ ﻣﺪﺍاﺭرﺍاﻥن ﺍاﻭو ﭘﺎﻟﻴﯿﺴﯽ ﺟﻮړﻭوﻧﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕت‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻫﮬﮪھﻨﺘﻮﻧﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭرﺗﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﮐﺎﺭرﯼی ﺑﻨﺴﻮ‪R‬ﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪A‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ﺩد ﻭوږﻭو ﺧﻠﮑﻮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد‬ ‫ﺗﺮ ﺍاﻭوﺳﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿ‪q p‬ﻮﮎک ﻧﻪ ﭘﻮﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻭوﺍاﻗﻌﯽ ﺗﻮ‚ﻪ ‪W‬ﻮﻣﺮﻩه ﺧﻠﮏ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯼی ﻭوﯼی .‬ ‫ﺧﻮ ﺩد ﺩد ﺧﻮړﻭو ﺩد ﻧﺎ ﺍاﻣﻨﻲ )‪ (Food Insecurity‬ﺩدﯼی ﻭو ﺭرﺍاﭘﻮﺭر ﭘﻪ ﺗﺮځ ﮐﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﺩدﺧﻮړﻭو‬ ‫ﺩدﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻥن )‪ (FAO‬ﻟﺨﻮﺍا ﭘﻪ ۰٠۱١۰٠۲٢ ﮐﯽ ﭘﻪ ﭼﺎﭖپ ﻭوﺭرﺳﻴﯿﺪ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ۵۲٢۹٩ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﮏ ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯼی ﺩدﯼی.‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ﻻﻧﺪﻧﯽ ‚ﺮﺍاﻑف ﮐﯽ ﺩد ﻭوږﻭو ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ﯼی ﮐﯽ ﺩد ﺩد ۵۹٩۹٩۱١ ﺍاﻭو ۰٠۱١۰٠۲٢ ﮐﻠﻨﻮ ﺗﺮﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺩد‬ ‫ﯾﻮ ﺯزﯾﺎﺗﻴﯿﺪﻭوﻧ ﮑﯽ ﺧﻂ ﭘﻪ ﺗﻮ‚ﻪ ‪o‬ﻮﺩدﻝل ﺷﻮﯼی ﺩدﯼی. ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﺯزﯾﺎﺗﻴﯿﺪﻧﯽ ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﭘﻪ ﻻﻧﺪﯼی ﺗﻮ‚ﻪ‬ ‫ﺩدﯼی:‬ ‫ﺩد ﺩدﻭوﻟﺖ ﺍاﻭو ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻟﻮ ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻧﻮﻧﻮ ﺯزﺭرﺍاﻋﺖ ﺗﻪ ﺩد ﻧﻪ ﭘﺎﻣﻠﺮﻧﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﺩد ﻏﺮﯾﺒﻮ ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﯿﺮﯼی ﮐﻴﯿﺪﻝل‬ ‫ﺍاﻭوﺳﻨﯽ ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﯼی ﺑﺤﺮﺍاﻧﻮﻧﻪ‬
  3. 3. ‫ﭘﻪ ﻻﻧﺪﻧﯽ ‚ﺮﺍاﻑف ﮐﯽ ﺩد ﻭوږﻭو ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ﯼی ﮐﯽ ﺩد ﺩد ۵۹٩۹٩۱١ ﺍاﻭو ۰٠۱١۰٠۲٢ ﮐﻠﻨﻮ ﺗﺮﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺩد‬ ‫ﯾﻮ ﺯزﯾﺎﺗﻴﯿﺪﻭوﻧ ﮑﯽ ﺧﻂ ﭘﻪ ﺗﻮ‚ﻪ ‪o‬ﻮﺩدﻝل ﺷﻮﯼی ﺩدﯼی. ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﺯزﯾﺎﺗﻴﯿﺪﻧﯽ ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﭘﻪ ﻻﻧﺪﯼی ﺗﻮ‚ﻪ‬ ‫ﺩدﯼی:‬ ‫ﺩد ﺩدﻭوﻟﺖ ﺍاﻭو ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻟﻮ ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻧﻮﻧﻮ ﺯزﺭرﺍاﻋﺖ ﺗﻪ ﺩد ﻧﻪ ﭘﺎﻣﻠﺮﻧﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﺩد ﻏﺮﯾﺒﻮ ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﯿﺮﯼی ﮐﻴﯿﺪﻝل‬ ‫ﺍاﻭوﺳﻨﯽ ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﯼی ﺑﺤﺮﺍاﻧﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ‪W‬ﻮ ﺗﻴﯿﺮﻭو ﮐﻠﻨﻮ ﮐﯽ ﺩد ﺧﻮړﻭو ﺩد ﻗﻴﯿﻤﺘﻮﻧﻮ ﻟﻮړﯾﺪﻝل‬ ‫ﻧﻦ ﻭوﺭرځ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ۷٧ ﺑﻴﯿﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﻠﮏ ﮊژﻭوﻧﺪ ﮐﻮﯼی ﻧﻮ ﺩد ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﺗﺨﻤﻴﯿﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺩدﺧﻮړﻭو‬ ‫ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻥن ﺩد ۵۲٢۹٩ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻮ ﻧﻔﺮ ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی ﻭوﻭو ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﺩد‪R‬ﻮﻝل ﯾﺎﺩد ﺷﻮﯼی ﻧﻔﻮﺱس ۱١.۳٣۱١ ٪ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی‬ ‫ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﻭوﯾﻠﯽ ﺷﻮ.‬‫ﺩد ﻏﺬﺍاﯾﯽ ﻧﺎﺍاﻣﻨ‘ ﺯزﯾﺎﺗﺮﻩه ﻣﺘﺎﺭرﻩه ﺷﻮﯼی ﺑﺮﺧﻪ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ﺍاﻁطﻔﺎﻝل ﺩدﯼی. ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺍاﻁطﻔﺎﻝل ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه ﺧﻮﺍاړﻩه ﻧﻪ ﻭوﺭرﺗﻪ ﺭرﺳﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﺮ ﮐﺎﻝل ﮐﯽ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ۰٠۶۱١ ﻭوﺭر‪q‬ﯽ ﺩد ﻧﺎﺭرﻭوﻏﻴﯿﻮ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﮐ‪L‬ﯾ~ﯼی. ﺧﺮﺍاﺑﻪ ﺗﻐﺬﯾﻪ ﺩد ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﺮﮐﻞ ﺩد ۵ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﺍاﻁطﻔﺎﻟﻮ ﮊژﻭوﻧﺪ ﺍاﺧﻠﯽ. ﭘﺪﯼی ﻧﮋﺩدﯼی‬ ‫ﻭوﺧﺘﻮﻧﻮ ﮐﯽ ﺩد )0002 ‪ .(de Onis‬ﺩد ‪q‬ﻴﯿ‪L‬ﻧﯽ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ﻭوﯾﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻣﺦ ﺗﻠﻮﻧ ﮑﻮ‬ ‫ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩدﻭوﻧﻮ ﮐﯽ ﺩدﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯼی ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﭼﯽ ﺩد ‪R‬ﻴﯿ‪d‬ﯽ ﻭوﻧﯽ ﯾﺎ ﻧﻪ ﻭوﺩدﯼی )‪ (stunting‬ﭘﻪ ﺍاﺳﺎﺱس‬ ‫ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ۵.۲٢۳٣٪ ﺍاﻁطﻔﺎﻝل ﻣﺘﺎﺛﺮﻩه ﺩدﯼی. ﭘﻪ ﺟﻐﺮﺍاﻓﻴﯿﺎﯼی ﻟﺤﺎﻅظ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ۰٠۷٧‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻨﻪ ﺧﻠﮏ ﭘﻪ ﺁآﺳﻴﯿﺎ٬، ۶۲٢ ﺳﻠﻨﻪ ﭘﻪ ﺍاﻓﺮﯾﻘﺎ ٬، ۴ ﺳﻠﻨﻪ ﭘﻪ ﻻﺗﻴﯿﻨﻪ ﺍاﻣﺮﯾ ﮑﻪ ﺍاﻭو ﮐﺎﺭرﺍاﺑﻴﯿﻦ ﮐﯽ‬ ‫ﮊژﻭوﻧﺪ ﮐﻮﯼی. ﭘﻪ ډﯾﺮﻭو ‪q‬ﺎﯾﻮﻧﻪ ﮐﯽ ﺩدﺍاﺳﯽ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﻟﻴﯿﺪﻝل ﺷﻮﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺩدﺍا ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻩه ﮐﻠﻪ ﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻪ ﺩد ﺳﻮﺗﻐﺬﯼی ﻣﻴﯿﻨﺪﻭو ‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ٬، ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ۶/۱١ ﻧﻮﯼی ﺯزﯾ~ﺩدﻭوﻧﮑﯽ ﺍاﻁطﻔﺎﻝل ﮐﻢ ﻭوﺯزﻥن‬ ‫ﻟﺮﯼی. ﺩدﺍا ﮐﻢ ﻭوﺯزﻧﯽ ﺩدﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻮﯼی ﺩد ﺯزﺩدﻩه ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی ﺩد ﻣﻌﻴﯿﻮﺑﻴﯿﺖ ٬، ﺭرﻭوﺣﯽ ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻭو٬، ﻏﻴﯿﺮ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﯽ‬‫ﻭوﺩدﯼی٬، ﺿﻌﻴﯿﻒ ﺭرﻭوﻏﺘﻴﯿﺎﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﻣﻌﺎﻓﻴﯿﺘﯽ ﺣﺎﻝل٬، ړﻧﺪﻭوﺍاﻟﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﻣﺨ ﮑﯽ ﻟﻪ ﻭوﺧﺖ ‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﻣﺮګ ﻻﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی.‬ ‫ﺁآﯾﺎ ﻧ‪A‬ۍ ﭘﻪ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه ﺧﻮﺍاړﻩه ﺩد ‪L‬ﻮﻟﻮ ﺧﻠﮑﻮ ﺩد ﺗﻐﺬﯾﯽ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪﻭوﯼی؟‬ ‫ﺩد ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﭘﻮ‪o‬ﺘﻨﯽ ‪q‬ﻮﺍاﺏب ﻫﮬﮪھﻮ ﺩدﯼی. ﻧﻦ ﻭوﺭرځ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﺩد ۰٠۷٧٪ ﻧﻔﻮﺱس ﺩد ﺯزﯾﺎﺗﻴﯿﺪﻭو ﭘﻪ ﺷﺘﻮﻥن ﺳﺮﻩه‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻩه ﺩد ۰٠۳٣ ﭘﺨﻮﺍاﻧﻴﯿﻮ ﮐﻠﻨﻮ ﭘﻪ ﭘﺮﺗﻠﻪ ۷٧۱١٪ ﺯزﯾﺎﺕت ﺧﻮﺍاړﻩه ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪﻭوﯼی. ﺩد )9.‪ .(FAO 2002, p‬ﺩد‬‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﯿﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ﺩدﺍا ﻣﻘﺪﺍاﺭر ﮐﻮﻟﯽ ﺷﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﺮ ﻓﺮﺩد ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﺣﺪ ﺍاﻗﻞ ۰٠۲٢۷٧۲٢ ﮐﻴﯿﻠﻮﮐﺎﻟﻮﺭرﯼی‬‫ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﺮﯼی ﻭوﺭر‪q‬ﯽ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪ ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی. ﻣ ‪Y‬ﺮ ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻩه ﺩدﺍاﺩدﻩه ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ډﯾﺮ ﺧﻠﮏ ‪W‬ﻤ ﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ ﻻﺱس ﺭرﺳﯽ ﻧﻠﺮﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﯼی ﮐﺮﮐﻴﯿﻠﻪ ﻭوﮐ‪L‬ﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﭘﻪ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه‬ ‫ﻋﺎﯾﺪﺍاﺕت ﻧﻠﺮﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﯼی ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪﯼی ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﻭوﺍاﺧﻠﯽ.‬ ‫ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ‪Q‬ﻪ ﺩدﯼی؟‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺮ ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﯾﻮ ﺑﻨﺴ‪d‬ﻴﯿﺰﻩه ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺩدﯼی. ﺩد ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل ﺑﺎﻧﮏ ﺩد ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ﻓﻘﺮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬
  4. 4. ‫ﺳﺮﻩه ﺩد ۰٠۳٣ ﭘﺨﻮﺍاﻧﻴﯿﻮ ﮐﻠﻨﻮ ﭘﻪ ﭘﺮﺗﻠﻪ ۷٧۱١٪ ﺯزﯾﺎﺕت ﺧﻮﺍاړﻩه ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪﻭوﯼی. ﺩد )9.‪ .(FAO 2002, p‬ﺩد‬‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﯿﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ﺩدﺍا ﻣﻘﺪﺍاﺭر ﮐﻮﻟﯽ ﺷﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﺮ ﻓﺮﺩد ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﺣﺪ ﺍاﻗﻞ ۰٠۲٢۷٧۲٢ ﮐﻴﯿﻠﻮﮐﺎﻟﻮﺭرﯼی‬‫ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﺮﯼی ﻭوﺭر‪q‬ﯽ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪ ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی. ﻣ ‪Y‬ﺮ ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﻩه ﺩدﺍاﺩدﻩه ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ډﯾﺮ ﺧﻠﮏ ‪W‬ﻤ ﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﻪ ﻻﺱس ﺭرﺳﯽ ﻧﻠﺮﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﯼی ﮐﺮﮐﻴﯿﻠﻪ ﻭوﮐ‪L‬ﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﭘﻪ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺍاﻧﺪﺍاﺯزﻩه‬ ‫ﻋﺎﯾﺪﺍاﺕت ﻧﻠﺮﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﯼی ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪﯼی ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ﻭوﺍاﺧﻠﯽ.‬ ‫ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﻋﻮﺍاﻣﻞ ‪Q‬ﻪ ﺩدﯼی؟‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺮ ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﯾﻮ ﺑﻨﺴ‪d‬ﻴﯿﺰﻩه ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺩدﯼی. ﺩد ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل ﺑﺎﻧﮏ ﺩد ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ﻓﻘﺮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬‫ﺩدﯼی ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﮐﯽ ﯾﻮ ﻓﺮﺩد ﯾﺎ ‪R‬ﻮﻟﻨﻪ ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺩد ﺧﻮ‪ ‘o‬ﺍاﻭو ﺳﻼﻣﺘ‘ ‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﻣﺤﺮﻭوﻡم ﻭوﯼی٬،‬‫ﭼﯽ ﺑﻴﯿﻼ ﺑﻴﯿﻞ ﺍاړﺧﻮﻧﻪ ﻟﺮﯼی. ﺩدﺍا ﺍاړﺧﻮﻧﻪ ﮐﻴﯿﺪﺍا ﺷﯽ ﭼﯽ ﮐﻢ ﻋﺎﯾﺪ ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﻋﺪﻡم ﺗﻮﺍاﻧﺎﯾﯽ ﺩد‬ ‫ﺩدﯼی ﻭوﯼی ﭼﯽ ﯾﻮ ﻓﺮﺩد ﻭوﻧﺸﯽ ﮐ‪L‬ﻟﯽ ﭼﯽ ﺧﭙﻞ ﺍاﺑﺘﺪﺍاﯾﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺍاﺳﺎﺳﯽ ﺿﺮﻭوﺭرﯾﺎﺕت ﺩد ﺧﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﮊژﻭوﻧﺪ ﺩد ﺍاﻣﺮﺍاﺭر ﺍاﻭو ﺍاﻧﺴﺎﻧﯽ ﻣﻘﺎﻡم ﺩدﺳﺎﺗﻠﻮ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﭘﻮﺭرﻩه ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی. ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﺗﺮ ‪W‬ﻨګ ﻧﻮﺭر ﺍاړﺧﻮﻧﻪ ﯾﯽ‬ ‫‪R‬ﻴﯿ™ ﺻﺤﯽ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ٬، ‪R‬ﻴﯿ‪d‬ﯽ ﺯزﺩدﻩه ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی٬، ﭘﺎﮐﻮ ﺍاﻭو ﺻﺤﯽ ﺍاﻭوﺑﻮ ﺍاﻭو ﺗﺸﻨﺎﺑﻮﻧﻮ ﺗﻪ ﻻﺱس ﺭرﺳﯽ ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩدﺭرﻟﻮﺩدﻝل٬، ﻏﻴﯿﺮ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﻓﺮﯾﮑﯽ ﺍاﻣﻨﻴﯿﺖ٬،ﺳﺮﭘﻨﺎﻩه ٬، ﺩد ﻏ~ ﻧﻪ ﺩدﺭرﻟﻮﺩدﻝل٬، ﺍاﻭو ﻏﻴﯿﺮ ﮐﺎﻓﯽ ﺗﻮﺍاﻧﺎﯼی ﺍاﻭو‬‫ﻓﺮﺻﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﭼﯽ ﺧﭙﻞ ﮊژﻭوﻧﺪ ﻭوﺭرﺑﺎﻧﺪﯼی ﺑﻬﮭﮫﺘﺮﻩه ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی. ﺩد ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل ﺑﺎﻧﮏ ﺩد ﯾﻮ ﺗﺨﻤﻴﯿﻦ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ﭼﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ۵۰٠۰٠۲٢ ﮐﺎﻝل ﺷﻮﯼی ﻭوﻭو ﺗﻘﺮﯾﻴﯿﺎ ۱١ږ۵۴۳٣ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﻠﮏ ﭘﻪ ﭘﺮﻣﺦ ﺗﻠﻠﻮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩدﻭوﻧﻮ ﻫﮬﮪھﺮﻩه ﻭوﺭرځ‬ ‫ﺧﭙﻞ ﮊژﻭوﻧﺪ ﺩد ۵۲٢.۱١ ﺍاﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎﯾﯽ ډﺍاﻟﺮﻭو ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ ﺗﺮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﮐﻢ ﻣﻘﺪﺍاﺭر ﺑﺎﻧﺪﯼی ﺗﻴﯿﺮﻭوﯼی. ﺍاﻭو ﺍاﻭوﺱس ﻣﻬﮭﮫﺎﻝل‬ ‫ﻭوﯾﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﺩدﺍا ﻣﻘﺪﺍاﺭر ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺎ ۷٧.۱١ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﻔﺮﻭو ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺳﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﻓﻘﺮ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﭘﻪ ﺩدﻭوﻩه ﺑﺮﺧﻮ ﻭوﯾﺸﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﯼی ﺩدﯼی ﯾﻮ ﯾﯽ ﻋﺎﯾﺪﺍاﺗﯽ ﻓﻘﺮ )‪ (Income poverty‬ﺍاﻭو ﺑﻞ ﯾﯽ ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﺍاﻧﺴﺎﻧﯽ ﻓﻘﺮ‬ ‫)‪ (Human poverty‬ﺩدﯼی. ﺩدﻓﻘﺮ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍاړﺧﻮﻧﻪ :‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺰﻟﺰﻟﻪ ﺑﺪﯾﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﯿﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺩد ‪q‬ﺎﯼی ﻧﻪ ﺷﺘﻮﻥن‬ ‫ﻓﺰﯾ ﮑﯽ ﻣﺤﺪﻭوﺩدﯾﺘﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩد ﺟﻨﺪﺭر ﺍاړﯾ ﮑﯽ‬ ‫ﺩد‪R‬ﻮﻟﻨﺰﻭو ﺍاړﯾ ﮑﻮ ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﯼی‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡم ﺍاﻣﻨﻴﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﺩد ﺯزﻭوﺭر ﻭوﺍاﮐﺎﻧﻮ ﻟﺨﻮﺍا ﺗﻬﮭﮫﺪﯾﺪﻭوﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩد‪R‬ﻮﻟﻨﺰﯼی ﺗﺎﺳﻴﯿﺴﺎﺗﻮ ﺑﯽ ﺍاﺭرﺯز‪o‬ﺘﻪ ﮐﻮﻝل‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭوﺩدﯼی ﺗﻮﺍاﻧﺎﯾﯽ‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ‪R‬ﻮﻟﻨﻪ ﮐﯽ ﺿﻌﻴﯿﻒ ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻧﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺩدﻭوﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﻣﻬﮭﮫﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﮐﻪ ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﺳﻴﯿﺎﺳﯽ ﺳﻴﯿﺴﺘﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺩدﯼی . ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ‬‫ﻟﻴﯿﺪﻝل ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﭼﯽ ﺍاﮐﺜﺮﻩه ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪﯼی ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍاﻭو ﻋﺎﯾﺪﺍاﺕت ﺩد ﻓﻮﺝج٬، ﺳﻴﯿﺎﺳﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﯼی ﻗﻮﺗﻮﻧﻮ ﺗﺮ‬‫ﻭوﻟ ﮑﯽ ﻻﻧﺪﯼی ﺩدﯼی ﭼﯽ ﺍاﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺩد ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﯽ ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ ﻻﺱس ﺭرﺳﯽ ﻧﻪ ﻭوﺭرﺗﻪ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﯾﻮ ﻣﻌﻴﯿﺎﺭرﯼی‬‫ﺍاﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩدﯼی ﺳﻴﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪ ﺍاﻭو ﺗﺒﺎﺩدﯾﻠﯽ ﭘﻪ ﺍاﺳﺎﺱس ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا‪q‬ﯽ ﺩد ﺧﺘﻤﻴﯿﺪﻭو ﭘﻪ ﺣﺎﻝل‬ ‫ﮐﯽ ﺩدﯼی. ﺍاﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺩدﻭوﻟﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﻭوﯼی ﭼﯽ ﺩدﺧﭙﻠﻮ ﺧﻠﮑﻮ ﻟﭙﺎﺭرﻩه ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﻣﻮﺍاﺩد ﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﮭﮫﻮﻟﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﭼﯽ ﭼﯽ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻮﯼی ﻧﺸﯽ ﮐﻮﻟﯽ ﻭوﺭرﺗﻪ ﺗﻬﮭﮫﻴﯿﻪ ﮐ‪L‬ﯼی ﺩد ﺑﻴﯿﻠ ‪Y‬ﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮ‚ﻪ‬ ‫ﺩدﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩدﻣﻠﯽ ﺍاﻣﻨﻴﯿﺖ ﺭرﺍاﻭوﺳﺘﻞ .‬ ‫ﺩدﺭرﯾﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﺳﻴﯿﺎﺳﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺍاﻣﻨﻴﯿﺘﯽ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭرﺩدﻭوﻧﻪ ﺩدﯼی. ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ﻧﻦ ﻭوﺭرځ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩد ﮐﯽ ﺳﺘﻮﻧﺰﯼی ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩدﯼی ﺩدﯼی ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﯾﻮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ﺧﻠﮏ ﮐﻮﺷﺶ ﮐﻮﯼی‬ ‫ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﮐﻠﻮ ﺍاﻭو ﺑﺎﻧ•ﻭو ‪W‬ﺨﻪ ‪o‬ﺎﺭرﻭوﻧﻮ ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍاﺷﯽ ﺍاﻭو ‪q‬ﻴﯿﻨﯽ ﻧﻮﺭر ﯾﯽ ﺑﻬﮭﮫﺮ ﺗﻪ ﻣﻬﮭﮫﺎﺟﺮﺗﻮﻧﻪ ﮐﻮﯼی.‬ ‫ﭘﻪ ۸٨۰٠۰٠۲٢ ﮐﺎﻝل ﺩد ﻣﻬﮭﮫﺎﺟﺮﯾﻨﻮ ﺩد ﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻥن ‪ UNHCR‬ﺩد ﯾﻮ ﺭرﺍاﭘﻮﺭر ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ‬ ‫۰٠۱١ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻬﮭﮫﺎﺟﺮ ﻭوﺟﻮﺩد ﻟﺮﯼی. ﺍاﻭو ﺩدﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﺧﻠ ﮑﻮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭرﺩدﻭوﻧﻮ ﻟﻪ ﺍاﻣﻠﻪ ﺑﯽ ‪q‬ﺎﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﯾﺎ ‪ (Conflict Induced Internally Displaced persons (IDPs‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ﯾﯽ ۶۲٢‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻮ ﻧﻔﺮﻭو ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺳﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﺩدﭘﻮﺭرﺗﻪ ﯾﺎﺩد ﺷﻮﯼی ﺭرﺍاﭘﻮﺭر ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ۲٢۰٠.۱١ ﺑﻴﯿﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﻠﮏ ﺩد ﻣﻀﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮږﯼی ‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﺍاﻭو ۶۳٣ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﯽ ‪q‬ﺎﯾﻪ ﺷﻮﯼی ﺧﻠﮏ ٬،ﺭرﻧﻴﯿ~ﯼی.‬ ‫‪W‬ﻠﻮﺭرﻡم ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﻟﻮږﻩه ﭘﺨﭙﻠﻪ ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﻓﻘﺮ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺩدﯼی. ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺩدﺍا ﭼﯽ ﻟﻮږﻩه ﺩد ﺍاﻧﺴﺎﻥن ﺩد‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭر ﮐﻮﻟﻮ ﻣﺨﻪ ﻧﻴﯿﺴﯽ٬، ﺩد ﻟﻴﯿﮏ ﻟﻮﺳﺖ ﻣﻌﻴﯿﻮﺑﻴﯿﺖ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍاﻭوړﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﺩد ﻧﻮﺭرﻭو ﻭوﺭرﺗﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﯿﺘﻮﻧﻮ‬‫‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﻣﺦ ﻧﻴﯿﻮﯼی ﮐﻮﯼی. ﻧﻮ ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﭘﻪ ﺍاﺳﺎﺱس ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩدﻩه ﻟﻮږﻩه ﺩد ﻧﻮﺭرﯼی ﻟﻮږﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﻓﻘﺮ ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی.‬‫ﭘﻨﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﺩد ﺩد ﺍاﻗﻠﻴﯿﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﯿﺮﺍاﺕت ﺩدﯼی. ﻧﻦ ﻭوﺭرځ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ‪q‬ﻴﯿﻨﯽ ‪q‬ﺎﯾﻮﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﯿﺪﻝل ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی‬ ‫ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﮐﯽ ډﯾﺮ ﺳﻴﯿﻼﺑﻮﻧﻪ ٬، ﻭوﭺچ ﮐﺎﻟﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺳﯽ ﻧﻮﺭر ﻁطﺒﻌﯽ ﻧﺎﻭوﺭرﯾﻨﻮﻧﻪ ﭘﻴﯿ~ﯾ~ﯼی. ﺩدﺍا‬
  5. 5. ‫ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﯾﺎ ‪ (Conflict Induced Internally Displaced persons (IDPs‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ﯾﯽ ۶۲٢‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻮ ﻧﻔﺮﻭو ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺳﻴﯿ~ﯼی. ﺩدﭘﻮﺭرﺗﻪ ﯾﺎﺩد ﺷﻮﯼی ﺭرﺍاﭘﻮﺭر ﻟﻪ ﻣﺨﯽ ۲٢۰٠.۱١ ﺑﻴﯿﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﻠﮏ ﺩد ﻣﻀﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮږﯼی ‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﺍاﻭو ۶۳٣ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﯽ ‪q‬ﺎﯾﻪ ﺷﻮﯼی ﺧﻠﮏ ٬،ﺭرﻧﻴﯿ~ﯼی.‬ ‫‪W‬ﻠﻮﺭرﻡم ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﻟﻮږﻩه ﭘﺨﭙﻠﻪ ﺩد ﻟﻮږﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﻓﻘﺮ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺩدﯼی. ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﺩدﺍا ﭼﯽ ﻟﻮږﻩه ﺩد ﺍاﻧﺴﺎﻥن ﺩد‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭر ﮐﻮﻟﻮ ﻣﺨﻪ ﻧﻴﯿﺴﯽ٬، ﺩد ﻟﻴﯿﮏ ﻟﻮﺳﺖ ﻣﻌﻴﯿﻮﺑﻴﯿﺖ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍاﻭوړﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﺩد ﻧﻮﺭرﻭو ﻭوﺭرﺗﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﯿﺘﻮﻧﻮ‬‫‪W‬ﺨﻪ ﻣﺦ ﻧﻴﯿﻮﯼی ﮐﻮﯼی. ﻧﻮ ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﭘﻪ ﺍاﺳﺎﺱس ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩدﻩه ﻟﻮږﻩه ﺩد ﻧﻮﺭرﯼی ﻟﻮږﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﻓﻘﺮ ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی.‬‫ﭘﻨﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﺩد ﺩد ﺍاﻗﻠﻴﯿﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﯿﺮﺍاﺕت ﺩدﯼی. ﻧﻦ ﻭوﺭرځ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ‪q‬ﻴﯿﻨﯽ ‪q‬ﺎﯾﻮﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﯿﺪﻝل ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی‬ ‫ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﮐﯽ ډﯾﺮ ﺳﻴﯿﻼﺑﻮﻧﻪ ٬، ﻭوﭺچ ﮐﺎﻟﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﺩدﺍاﺳﯽ ﻧﻮﺭر ﻁطﺒﻌﯽ ﻧﺎﻭوﺭرﯾﻨﻮﻧﻪ ﭘﻴﯿ~ﯾ~ﯼی. ﺩدﺍا‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻭوﺭرﯾﻨﻮﻧﻪ ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﻻﻣﻞ ﮐﻴﯿ~ﯼی ﭼﯽ ﺗﻮﻝل ﺗﻮﻟﻴﯿﺪﯼی ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﯿﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﺎﺛﺮ ﺷﯽ ﺍاﻭو ﻋﺎﯾﺪﺍاﺕت ﮐﻢ ﺍاﻭو ﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﮬﮪھﻢ ﺑﻴﯿﺨﯽ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻨ‪ p‬ﻭوﻻړ ﺷﯽ ٬، ﻧﻮ ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﭘﻪ ﺗﺮځ ﮐﯽ ﻟﻮږﻩه ﺍاﻭوﻓﻘﺮ ﺯزﯾﺎﺗﻴﯿ~ﯼی.‬ ‫ﺷﭙ~ﻡم ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﮐﯽ ﺩد ﺗﻴﯿﻠﻮ ﺩدﻗﻴﯿﻤﺘﻮﻧﻮ ﻟﻮړﯾﺪﻝل ﺩدﯼی.‬ ‫ﺍاﻭوﻡم ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﺩد ﺑﺎﯾﻮﻓﻴﯿﻮﻝل ﯾﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﯽ ﺗﻴﯿﻠﻮ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﺩدﻩه.‬ ‫ﺁآﺗﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﺩد ﺗﺠﺎﺭرﺍاﻧﻮ ﻟﺨﻮﺍا ﺩد ﺧﻮړﻭو ﺍاﺣﺘ ﮑﺎﺭر ﺩدﯼی.‬ ‫ﻧﻬﮭﮫﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﯾﯽ ﭘﻪ ﭘﺮﻣﺦ ﺗﻠﻮﻧ ﮑﻮ ﻫﮬﮪھﻴﯿﻮﺍاﺩدﻭوﻧﻮ ﮐﯽ ﻋﺎﯾﺪﺍاﺕت ﮐﻢ ﺩدﯼی.‬ ‫ﺁآﯾﺎ ﺩد ﻭوږﻭو ﺧﻠﮑﻮ ﭘﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ﮐﯽ ﭘﻪ ﮐﻤﻮﻟﻮ ﮐﯽ ﭘﺮﻣﺨﺘ‪U‬ﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﻮﯼی ﺍاﻭو ﮐﻨﻪ؟‬ ‫ﺩدﺩدﯼی ﭘﻮ‪o‬ﺘﻨﯽ ‪q‬ﻮﺍاﺏب ﭘﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ ﺷ ﮑﻞ ﺳﺮﻩه ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﺩدﯼی. ‪ W‬ﮑﻪ ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﺧﻮړﻭو ﺩدﻧ‪L‬ﯾﻮﺍاﻝل‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯزﻣﺎﻥن ﺩد ۶۹٩۹٩۱١ ﺩد ﻧﺎﺳﺘﯽ ﭘﻪ ﺗﺮځ ﮐﯽ ﭘﻼﻥن ﻭوﻧﻴﯿﻮﻝل ﺷﻮ ﭘﻪ ۵۱١۰٠۲٢ ﮐﯽ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺩد ﻧ‪L‬ۍ ﺩدﻭوږﻭو‬ ‫ﺧﻠﮑﻮ ﮐﭽﻪ ﻧﻴﯿﻤﺎﯾﯽ ﺗﻪ ﺭرﺍا ‪ o‬ﮑﺘﻪ ﮐ‪L‬ﻝل ﺷﯽ. ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﻫﮬﮪھﻐﻪ ﻭوﺧﺖ ﮐﯽ ﯾﻴﯿﯽ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ۴۲٢۸٨‬‫ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﻭوﻭو ﺍاﻭو ﺣﺎﻝل ﺩدﺍا ﭼﯽ ﺍاﻭوﺱس ﯾﯽ ﺗﻌﺪﺍاﺩد ۵۲٢۹٩ ﻣﻠﻴﯿﻮﻧﻪ ﺩدﯼی٬، ﭼﯽ ﺩد ﮐﻤﻴﯿﺪﻭو ﭘﻪ ‪q‬ﺎﯼی ﺯزﯾﺎﺕت‬ ‫ﺷﻮﯼی ﺩدﯼی. ﻣ ‪Y‬ﺮ ﺩد ﯾﺎﺩدﻩه ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﻧﻪ ﻭوﯼی ﻭوﺗﻠﯽ ﭼﯽ ﭘﻪ ﺁآﺳﺎﯾﺎ٬، ﻻﺗﻴﯿﻨﻪ ﺍاﻣﺮﯾ ﮑﺎ ﺍاﻭو ﮐﺎﺭرﺍاﺑﻴﯿﻦ ﮐﯽ‬ ‫‪q‬ﻴﯿﻨﯽ ﭘﺮﻣﺨﺘ‪Y‬ﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﻮﯼی ﺩدﯼی.‬ ‫ﺍاﺧ‪X‬ﻮﻧﻪ‬‫‪Black RE, Morris SS, Bryce J. "Where and why are 10 million children dying‬‬‫43-6222:)6739(163;82 ‪.every year?"Lancet. 2003 Jun‬‬‫‪Jennifer Bryce, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Kenji Shibuya, Robert E. Black, and‬‬‫‪the WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. 2005. "WHO‬‬‫25–7411 :563 ; ‪.estimates of the causes of death in children." Lancet‬‬‫‪Cafiero, Carlo and Pietro Gennari. 2011. The FAO indicator of the‬‬‫‪prevalence of undernourishment FAO‬‬‫‪Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Blössner M, Black RE. Undernutrition as an‬‬‫,‪underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia‬‬‫:08 ;4002 ‪malaria, and measles.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition‬‬‫89–391.‬‫‪Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. June 2004. "How have the world’s‬‬‫‪poorest fared since the early 1980s?" World Bank Policy Research Working‬‬‫‪.Paper 3341 Washington: World Bank‬‬‫‪de Onis, Mercedes, Edward A. Frongillo and Monika Blossner. 2000. "Is‬‬‫‪malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition‬‬‫3321–2221 : ,0002 ‪.since 1980." Bulletin of the World Health Organization‬‬‫‪Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural‬‬‫,‪Development, World Food Program. 2002 "Reducing Poverty and Hunger‬‬‫‪the Critical Role of Financing for Food, Agriculture, and Rural‬‬‫‪".Development‬‬‫‪Food and Agriculture Organization. 2006. State of World Food Insecurity‬‬‫6002‬‫‪Food and Agriculture Organization. 2010. The State of Food Insecurity in‬‬
  6. 6. de Onis, Mercedes, Edward A. Frongillo and Monika Blossner. 2000. "Ismalnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition.since 1980." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2000, : 1222–1233Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for AgriculturalDevelopment, World Food Program. 2002 "Reducing Poverty and Hunger,the Critical Role of Financing for Food, Agriculture, and Rural".DevelopmentFood and Agriculture Organization. 2006. State of World Food Insecurity2006Food and Agriculture Organization. 2010. The State of Food Insecurity inthe World 2010http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1683e/i1683e.pdfFood and Agriculture Organization. 2011. "The State of Food Insecurity inthe World 2011"http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1683e/i1683e.pdfHeadey, Derek. 2011. “Was the Global Food Crisis Really a Crisis? .Simulations versus Self-Reporting”, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01087International Food Policy Research Institute. 2010. 2010 Global HungerIndexMasset, Edoardo. 2011 In Press. A review of hunger indices and methods.to monitor country commitment to fighting hunger Food Policyhttp://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/hungerPelletier DL, Frongillo EA Jr, Schroeder D, Habicht JP. The effects ofmalnutrition on child mortality in developing countries. Bulletin of the.World Health Organization 1995;73: 443–48United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees. 2007. Statistical Yearbook"2006 "Main FindingsUNHCR 2008 Global Report 2008 "The Year in Review"http://www.unhcr.org/4a2d0b1d2.pdf World Bank. Understanding Poverty websiteWorld Health Organization Comparative Quantification of Health Risks:Childhood and Maternal Undernutition

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